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says Mr. Scott, if, like Augustine, disbelieve will be punished, nor those he had afterwards published his re- who beliere praised : for such is the tractions. Many of his assertions, nature of graces given, that they which now appear rash and un- have no crowns, no rewards," &c. scriptural, might in that case have &c. Upon which Mr. Scott remarks, been accounted for, however they " That Chrysostom should write might not have altogether admitted such a passage in the fourth century of a sound explanation.
is wonderful; but far more so, that it In Chrysostom, as in the other should be thus quoted in our days; fathers, we meet at every turg with for quotation must imply a degree the grand point respecting prevent- of approbation, unless the contrary ing grace, and the question whether be avowed. In point of doctrine, the will to that which is good be Pelagius never wrote any thing from nature or from grace. This is more obnoxious. . So far from God's a point, however, about which there not rewarding his own gifts and is now no question between Calvin- graces, he rewards nothing else." ists on the one hand, and Fvange. Again : " Faith,” says Chrysostom, lical Anti-calvinists on the other. It'" is the merit of the virtue of him is as much the tenet of the pious who believeth.” Surely this is as Arminian as it is of the Calvinist, contrary to the doctrine of the that all good is from God, and that Church of England, and to the Bisalvation from first to last is wholly shop of Lincoln's own sentiments,
Wben, however, Chrysó- as it can be to Calvinism. * One stom talks of "willing and running thing, therefore," says Mr. Scott, that we may obtain the assistance “ | suggest to our opponents as and favour of God, so that he may caution; that if they wish to bave v co-operate with us, and stretch out Calvinism and Christianity considera, his hand, and conduct us to the end;" ed as so inseparably connected that though he joins with our church in you cannot refute the one without excluding co-operation till there is a greatly endangering the subversion willing mind, he evidently ascribes of the other, they have nothing to ahat willing mind entirely to man., do, but to oppose us with such arHence the learned Basnage, though guments as are found in these quohe commends this eloquent father on tations from Chrysostom." p. 502. other accounts, censures him for al- In the same strain of reasoning, Jowing too much to human power this learned father speaks of Abreand human liberty in the perform ham as living before the time of grace; ance of religious actions. There and asserts, that "unless he had first cannot be a stronger proof of the shewn things from himself, he would justice of this censure, than the not have enjoyed things from God, strange assertion which is to be met Having first given proof of his own with in these quotations from Ciry- inherent virtue in all things, he was sostom, that the Apostle Paul, in ex- on that account thought worthy of the pressing, as he 60 frequently does, assistance of God!"_" Whither," his entire dependence on the grace exclaims Mr. Scott, with just surof God, did not intend to be under- prise, “ are these quotations meant stood simply and literally, but as to conduct us? When Dr. Buchanan speaking with a humility, which, came within fifty or sixty miles of though decent and becoming, was Juggernaut, he was aware of his by no means strictly felt, or abso- approach to that centre of idolatrous lutely required!
cruelty and abomination, by the Let us take another specimen of multitude of human bones, which this celebrated father's divinity. “If lay unburied by the road-side. And faith,” says he, “be a grace, and be really, though we may seem at a given by the Spirit only, and be no great distance from the more scanmerit of your own, neither those who dalous abominations of Popery, yet
these passages remind me, and I “ Consensus Patrum," subjoined to think will remind many of my the “Corpus et Syntagma” of the readers, that we are in the vicinity Protestant Confessions, which will of Popery, and in the direct road to be bereafter noticed; and Mr. Scott it.” p. 5:7.
hints, that although for the present, Theodoret brings up the rear of disclaiming human authority, be had this embattled host of fathers; but declined attempting any evidence the points introduced in the quotde from the Fathers, he should not tions from that learned writer are so hereafter, if a proper call were made similar to those which have been for it, shriok from adducing proofis frequently noticed, and are treated from then on the more essential with so little strength of argument, part of the system which he defends. or precision and perspicuity of lan- The truth is, and it is no less bongurguage, that we do not think it at all able to the character of the Fathers, necessary to advert to them particu- than to the early ages of ChristianiJarly.
ty, that, until the time of Augustine, The view given of the ancient the doctrines of predestination and fathers of the Christian church in grace had never been the subjects the preceding sketch of the quola- of formal controversy, except as the tions from their writings, which have Christian writers had been somebeen introduced into the Calvinistic times compelled to
the errors controversy by the Bishop of Lin- and abominations of heathen fatal colo, has, however, been so unfa- ism, and philosophical pride, or the vourable to their character as theo- impielies and absurdities of gross logians, that we cannot but add a heretics and enthusiasts: and we few explanatory remarks in closing doubt not, that, if we had leisure and this account of their opinions. These inclination, neither of which, we venerable men have, as we before must fairly confess, falls at present observed, been most unfairly and to our lot, we could, by an examinadisadvantageously compelled to enter tion of the passages quoted by the the lists as opponents of what the Bishop of Lincoln, account for
many Bishop has thought proper to term of them in this view, in a satisfacCalvinism, but which comprises, as tory manner; and abate much of we have already shewn, the very
the apparent contrariety of their essence of Christianity. In the first opinions to the general tenets of all place, whatever may be their senti- the Protestant churches, as far, at ments, it is perfectly.clear that the least, as they respect the doctrines of Church of England has declared no- original sin, and salvation by grace thing, in any of ber authorised do- through faith. Those, however, who cuments, which implies her consi- are best acquainted with the writ. dering the writings of the Fathers ings of the Fathers, know that it is as an authoritative criterion of reli- not to them, that we must apply for gious truth. In fact, the Reforma- profound or accurate reasonings on Lion from Popery was founded on controverted points of divinity. "Les an appeal from uninspired and falli- premiers Chrétiens," says the Abbé ble Fathers, to inspired and infallible du Fresnoy, “n'étoient rien moins que Prophets, Evangelists, and Apostles. philosophes; c'étoient des gens du
We would not, however, be under- monde que rda grace touchoit, et qui stood to mean, that the aggregate s'abbandonoient aux seules maximes testimony of the fathers of the de l'Evangile." In a similar, but Christian church is against most of more distinct strain, Bishop Burthe tenets which it is now too much net*, when speaking of a learned the custom to stigmatise by the clergyman of the Church of Scottame of Calvinism. We have al- land, who had materially assisted ready referred, in our Review of the
History of His Own Tines, vol. i. p. Bishop of Lincola's work, to the 802. 8vo.
bim in his theological studies, has withstanding the recent example of the following pertinent observations; the Bishop of Lincoln, be for ever “ He had read the Fathers much; abandoned. and gave me this notion of them, But, though we had almost for that in speculative points, for which gotten it, we have not yet done with writers of controversy searched quotations from the Fathers. The into their works, they were, but sixth chapter of the “ Refutation » ordinary men : but their excellency contains another series, “ for the lay in that which was least sought purpose of proving that the earliest for, their sense of spiritual things, and heretics maintained opinions greatly of the pastoral cure. In these he resembling the peculiar tenets of thought their strength lay." This Calvinism."
This Calvinism.” We have already ex. is indeed their character and their pressed our decided disapprobation praise. We do not pretend to any of this most disingenuous and futile very extensive acquaintance with attempt to fix an odious stigma on the writings of those venerable and a theological opponent. And yet, excellent men; but we well remem- we doubt not, that it is considered ber the delight with which in earlier by some, if not by the Right Re years, and amidst academic bowers, verend author himself, as the coup we imbibed from the pages of Am: de grace, which, if the repeated brose, of Chrysostom, of Augustine, blows inflicted on them in the preto enumerate no others, the sub- ceding chapter, should happen to limest lessons of wisdom and piety; prove ineffectual, might kindly reand with what emotions of interest lease the poor Calvinists from furand pleasure we have ever met with ther torment. If the subject were not occasional quotations from all the too serious to admit of it, we could l'athers, in the works of our great afford our readers po little amuseEnglish divines, more especially in ment in the examination of this very those of Hooker and Hall, of Usher curious and novel chapter. We and Stillingfleet, of Leighton and must confess, however, that a se Pearson ; and yet more recently verer feeling is predominant in out and copiously in the ecclesiastical minds; and that a fairer occasion bistory of Mr. Milner. It is thus, for the unsparing exercise of the after all
, that these ancient authors critical knife has seldom presented should be consulted and read; not itself. Yet even here, Mr. Scott for the purpose of defending the has shewn so much Christian mode tenets, either of Calvin or Arminius, ration and forbearance, that it will, but to confirm our faith, to elevate perhaps, be better to impose on our our aninds above the allurements of pen the restraint of which he has the world, to animate our zeal in the set so honourable, anch amongst service of Christ; to regulate our controversialists, so rare an exame practice ; and to increase our love of ple. The passages wbich the Bishop Hini, whom they boldly confessed of Lincoln has selected from the amidst dangers and persecutions, Fathers respecting the early beretics, from which many a modern Chris- " with a view to exhibit a striking tian, who is proud of the superior likeness of Calvinism, are, in truth, correctness of his creed, would, it utterly below criticism : yet, as is to be feared, shrink with appre- Mr. Scott has taken the trouble to bension and dismay. For purposes make some remarks on them, we like these, the Fathers may be pe- shall present our readers with the rused, not only with safety, but with result of bis examinatiou. He obprofit; but we deprecate the resort serves, in the first place, that, acwhich has been too frequently made cording to the Bishop's own conces 10 them for the weapons of contro. sion, Christianity began to be “cora versial warfare, and earnestly hope, "rupted even in the apostolic age :" that so fruitless a pursuit will, not- consequently, that subsequent ter
timonies are of no authority, but the presuming, it may be fairly con
of ed the essence of their doctrine. It Calvinism. But Calvinists, in geis the chief object, therefore, of Mr. neral, abhor Antinomianism as Scott to shew, that the odious tenets much, at least, as Anti-calvinists do; of these ancient heretics are so far and we scruple not to fix the stigma distant from resemblance to those of hypocrisy on any man, who calls of Calvinists, that contrariety may himself a Calyinist, and babitually be far more justly "predicated con- lives in known violation of the Di. cerning them
vine' law, or neglect of known The principal points in which this duty."_" I insert below the Latin veryoriginal resemblance is supposed note” (with which we will dot polto consist, relate to the impious ab- lute our page), “.concerning the surdities of Simon Magus and the abominable licentiousness of these Valentinians. But what, we would Valentinians, in which it must be seriously ask, has the blasphemous supposed the Calvinists resemble doctrine of the hypocrite first named, them; else why is it quoted? To that “ those who trust in him and which it sulfices to say, Thou shalt bis Helena, should have no further not bear false witness against thy care ; and that they are free to do neighbour.” what they like; for that men are, . There is a great deal more of the saved according to his grace *, but impious and unintelligible jargon, not according to just works," to do which we have briefly noticed in with the tenets of Calvinism? Can other quotations, respecting these such a quotation as this be deemed and other wretched heretics of the argumentative? Does it prove any early ages; whose works, happily thing, except the extreme boldness for ihe Christian church, were de.
and prejudice of the author ; who, stroyed by ihe zeal of the orthodox *
Query: The grace of God, or of Simop fathers. But we are convinced that Magus?
our readers are already wearied and
disgusted by this worse than solemn which, though somewhat strangely trifling. Not a quotation is made introduced in point of order, cero by the Bishop from any Calvinistic tainly have more the appearance of Writer, in order to shew how far the á direct reference to the professed tenets of Calvinism coincide with subject of the Bishop of Lincoln's the heretical nonsense which his work, than any others that have Jordship has brought forward; for been noticed. These are from the which omission a very obvious and writings of Calvin; and undoubtedly, substantial reason might be assign- bad his lordship simply intended io ed. But enough is done by these refute such of the doctrines of Calodious quotations, as Mr. Scott ob- vin as he deemed erroneous, nothing serves, to assure a prejudiced or un- could be more to the purpose than a learned reader, on high authority, selection of this kind. But, as Mr. that modern Calvinists resenible the Scoti jastly observes, since this was most obnoxious of ancieni heretics, by no means the exclusive object of though he cannot well perceive in the Right Reverend author, which what respects.
evidently appears to have bren that "Nothing," says this calm and temperate of refuting modern Calvinists, and writer, " that so much as appears to resem- more particularly those who are inble our sentiments, as avowed in our publica discriminately termed the Evangelitions, has been alleged. Whatever simi- cal Clergy, it may be doubted how Jarity may at first glance be supposed, will, far it is fair to bring forward the on careful consideration, be found to arise
most objectionable passages from the from the supposition (which is most wi- works of Calvin, 'as if uniformly grounded), that we ceny man's free agency maintained by those who are now and responsibility: or that we are avowed stigmatised as his disciples. NotinAntinomians, and claim to ourselves, as the favourites of Heaven, the privilege (if it be sisting, however, on this objection, one) of living in wickedness, without rear of or on the singular method of reserva damnation. I shall only add, that the ing the tenets which were underwhole accusation of this chapter is entirely taken to be refuled, till the refutaansubstantialed, and every impartial person tion of them was nearly closed, Mr. (nay, many who are in some respects not Scott proceeds, in his usual manner, wholly impartial), will bring in the verdict to comment on the quotations thus • Not guilty.” Vol. ii. pp. 590, 591. adduced.
We will only add, that if the in- In doing this, Mr. Scott professes formation coniained in the sixth to feel no sort of difficulty arising chapter of the “ Refutarion," was in. from the circumstance of his holding tended to be presented to the world the doctrines of personal election as a discovery, it has unhappily are and final perseverance, in common rived a few hundred years too late. with Calvin; because, as he affirms, Discoveries of this kind cannot now he neither derived them from the be attended to. What the early re- writings of that eminent reformer, foriners and standard divines of the nor holds them precisely as he did; English church, 10 say nothing of but rather, as he conceives, in strict ochers, were not able to detect, we accordance with the tenets of the are perfectly satisfied will not be Church of England. In his obserbrought to light by any prelate of vations, therefore, on the passages the nineteenth century. Nor do we selected by the Bishop of Lincoln believe, that even Calvin himself from the works of Calvin, Mr. Scott will be suspected, by any sound is so far from vindicating all the senTheologian, of having relailed the timents of that writer, that he very ancient errors and absurdities of frequently gives them up to the cenSimon Magus, Valentinus, Marcion, sure of his Right Reverend opponent, and Basilides.
and unequivocally declares his own We come, at last, in the seventh decided dissent from them. With. chapter, to set of quotations, out entering into detail, as we have