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the late rebellion. The following dreadful oath has been generally administered among them :
"I. A. B. of my own voluntary will, do declare, and solemnly swear, that I will never reveal to any person or persons, in any place or places, under the canopy of heaven, the names of the persons who compose the secret committee, either by word, deed, or sign; their proceedings, meeting place, abode, dress, features, marks, complexion, connections, or any thing else that may lead to the discovery of the same; on the penalty of being put out of the world by the first brother that shall meet me, my name and character blotted out of existence, and never to be remembered but with contempt and abhor rence. I further swear, that I will use my best endeavours to punish by death, any traitor or traitors, should any rise up amongst us, he or them; and though he should fly to the verge of nature, I will pursue him with unceasing vengeance. So help me God to keep this oath inviolable *."
The committees dwell on the extreme difficulty of procuring evidence to convict of fenders, in consequence of the system of terror which has been enforced, not only by threats, but assassination ;—and on the eager ness and activity which have been displayed in procuring fire-arms, and in acquiring a knowledge of their use.
The legislative measure, founded on this report, is confined to the counties of Nottingham, Lancashire, and Cheshire, and the
The following passage of Scripture, which it appears, though not from the report of the committee, has been extensively used as a motto by the insurgents, too plainly indicates the designs of at least some among them:-" And thou, profane wicked prince of Israel, whose day is come, when iniquity shall have an end; thus saith the Lord God, Remove the diadem, and take off the crown: this shall not be the same: exalt him that is low, and abase him that is high. I will overturn, overturn, overturn it; and it shall be no more, until he come whose right it is; and 1 will give it to him." Ezek. xxi. 25-27. It is no more than justice, however, to add, that there is good reason to believe that not a single religionist of any description has been concerned in these disturbances. This is an important fact, which ought by no means to be overlooked. It is well known indeed, that among our revolutionary spirits, some years back, it used to be considered as a decided mark of incivism to have a Bible in the house.
West Riding of York. It gives to magis trates a power of searching for and seizing secreted arms; also a power of summarily dispersing tumultuary meetings, and ap prehending persons engaged in them, without waiting the time which is prescribed by the Riot Act; and of holding them to bail till the quarter sessions, where they may be tried as for a misdemeanor. It gives, moreover, to the magistrates of the adjacent counties a concurrent jurisdiction, so as to prevent the rioters from eluding justice by crossing the boundary line of their counties. This law is to continue in force only till the next meeting of Parliament; and though confined at present to four counties, it may be extended to others by proclamation. Ministers expressed a hope, that this mild measure would be found sufficient to suppress the present disturbance; but if not, Parliament would be again assembled, at whatever inconvenience, rather than resort to a harsher measure in the first instance than appeared to be absolutely necessary. It is impossible too highly to commend this spirit of moderation and forbearance on the part of Government.
2. A measure of still more importance, because not a measure of temporary but of permanent domestic policy, has been adopted by the legislature. We allude to the bill for repealing the Conventicle and Fivemile Acts, and for amending the Act of Toleration. This bill has passed through both Houses, with an unanimity that strongly marks the growing liberality of the age. We shall take an opportunity of detailing its provisions, when it shall have finally passed into a law.
3. The bill for the abolition of sinecures, which had passed the House of Commons, has been thrown out in the House of Lords.
4. The sum of 100,000l. has again been voted for the increase of small livings. A sum of 30,000l. has also been voted for the erection of pentientiary houses.
5. A bill has been brought into Parliament, by Sir William Scott, for the reform of our ecclesiastical courts, and particularly in respect to the power of excommunication; certainly an anomalous power, as it is now exercised, and one which is liable to very great abuse.
6. We intimated, in our last number, that Government had shewn a disposition to conciliate the Catholics of Ireland, by giving the subject of their claims a full consideration during the approaching recess. A motion, brought forward by Mr. Canning, in the
House of Cominons, pledging that house to enter on the consideration of those claims in the next session of Parliament, was carried by a considerable majority; in the House of Lords, a similar motion, brought forward by the Marquis Wellesley, was lost by one vote.
7. In a discussion which took place in the House of Commons, on the subject of the general state of the finances of the country, the Chancellor of the Exchequer admitted, that some new and vigorous plan of finance was called for by the circumstances of the country; and that if it should be his arduous duty to propose financial measures to the house in the next session, he should feef it necessary to propose such a plan for its consideration.
8. It appears, by papers laid before Parliament, that the number of French officers who have broken their parole, chiefly during the last two years, amount to 468, while not one British officer has been found to have been guilty of a similar perfidy. A bill is in its progress through Parliament, for making it felony to assist prisoners of war in effecting their escape.
exploits on a small scale, in the Mediterra. nean, in the Bay of Biscay, and in the North Sea. Several convoys have fallen into our hands, which were destined for the supply of the French armies in Spain; and some small fortresses, garrisoned by French troops, have been taken & demolished, on different points of the Spanish coast.~A Danish squadron, consisting of a 44 gun frigate, three sloops of war, and 25 gun-boats, which had run, for shelter, into the small creek of Lyngoe, has been entirely destroyed by some of our cruisers.
Dr. Law has been appointed the Bishop of Chester, in the room of Dr. Sparkes, removed thence to Ely.
The Right Hon. C. B. Bathurst has been appointed Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster; Sir Thomas Plomer, Attorney-General, in the room of Sir V. Gibbs, raised to a Puisne Judgeship in the Court of Common Pleas; and Mr. Garrow, Solicitor-General.
We are happy to observe, that a plan has been adopted by Government, for giving liberal pensions, not only to all officers of the army who are disabled by wounds, but to all < non-commissioned officers and privates under
The Gazettes are filled with details of naval similar circumstances.
ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.
W.; JOHN; THEOGNIS; C. P.; PHILOPOETICUS; H. B.; DUEITANS; and A SUNDAYSCHOOL TEACHER; have been received.
We should have been glad to return the paper of No GRADUATE, but we apprehend it has been destroyed. We do not, at this distance of time, recollect the particular ground on which its insertion was declined-whether it was "too strong," as the writer supposes, or too weak, to suit our meridian.
We are always happy to receive communications from AMEN. In commenting on our remarks on an Electic Reviewer (No. for May, p. 327), he appears to have wholly mistaken our drift. Our object was simply to repel what we conceived to be an unjust charge, and we had not the most remote intention to reflect blame either on the Baptist Society, or on the Baptist Mission Society. AMEN is anxious it should be understood that the reviewer has never had any thing to do with the concerns of the Baptist MISSION Society. We have said nothing which would imply that he had any share in its management, but we willingly give currency to this direct disclaimer. We deny that the object of our defence owes any thing to forbearance. If it be true that another Clergyman has prompted per secution, we can see no reason why his unchristian conduct should not be exposed. We are sorry to have overlooked J. C.'s communications. We intend to use them at a convenient opportunity.
We have no objection to Mr. WHYTE's republication of the paper he mentions.
In the last Number, p. 363, col. 2, 1. 6, for matter read manner.
p. 375, col. 1, last line but one, for expresses read represses.
For the Christian Observer.
MEMOIRS OF THE LATE REV. C. BAY
well as on Sundays, and her son, from a child, was her companion in these holy exercises. Of him, in
LEY, D. D., FOUNDER AND MINISTER deed, it may be almost said, as of
OF ST. JAMES'S CHURCH, MANCHESTER.
HE exploits of
querors have been much celebrated in their own age, and their histories recorded for the admiration of posterity. I allow them the praise they deserve; but when I consider the lives they destroyed, and the miseries they brought upon mankind, in consequence of the various calamities of war, I am pained at the relation, and my pleasure in contemplating their conduct is much diminished. Different, however, are my sensations when I read the lives and conduct of pious ministers of the Gospel. Through their endeavours, under the Divine blessing, the miseries of men are alleviated, and the poor and needy brought to possess durable riches. By their ministrations, souls ruined by sin are saved from destruction, and are made the happy partakers of grace and glory.
An eminent instance, calculated to illustrate this observation, will be found in the subject of the following memoir, the late Rev. C. Bayley, D. D., founder and minister of St. James's church, Manchester. He was born near Whitchurch, in Shropshire, about the year 1752, of respectable parents, though his father was deprived of an estate to which he was the lawful heir. His mother was remarkable for her piety. She was constant in her attendance on the excellent services of our church, on the week days as CHRIST. OBSERY. No. 128.
Jeremiah and John the Baptist, that he was sanctified from the
marks of a religious mind, and a desire to be instructed in things far above the general capacities of children. Even when about six years of age, he was in the daily habit of using fervent prayer. He was accustomed to pray in a room adjoining one which was occupied by a very careless and wicked man; who, hearing the child pray so earnestly, was heard to say, "That child's prayers will make my hell sevenfold the hotter."
He was sent to the grammarschool, where by his assiduity he made great progress in learning, staying there until he became the master. To his advancement in literature, his excellent grammar in the Hebrew language bears sufficient testimony. For that publication he was honoured, gratuitously, and without any application on his part, with a doctor's degree from a foreign university, and he afterwards took the same degree at Cambridge. His Latin sermon on that occasion was much applauded. He entered the ministry as curate of the Rev. John Fletcher, vicar of Madeley, Salop; and how closely he trod in the steps of that great and good man, the sequel of his life will abundantly shew. He was also with the Rev. Dr. Conyers, at Deptford; and there he received, more than once, offers of preferment, which he declined.
Having occasion, about this time, to go to Manchester, to visit some friends, he became acquainted with Miss Rachel Norton, whom he afterwards married. This lady appeared to be in every respect so well suited to promote his ardent desires to be useful in the church, that she might well be said to be "a gift from the Lord;" and without any exaggeration it may be affirmed, that he owed much of his success to her counsel and assistance. This happy union turned his thoughts towards settling in that neighbourhood; and perceiving that there was a great want of churches in Manchester, he determined to attempt to build one in that part of this town where it was most needed. The difficulties he had to contend with on this occasion were very great, as must be well known to all who have had the courage and selfdenial to embark in a similar undertaking; difficulties which arise not merely from the expense attending it, but from the necessity of conciliating incumbents, patrons, and bishops, as well as removing many other obstacles. However, after much labour and perseverance, he accomplished his purpose, and obtained of the Warden and Fellows of the collegiate church of Manchester, the presentation for sixty years; a favour which they had never granted before to any one: and he was, in consequence of this concession, presented to it himself in the year 1788, and the church was consecrated by the Reverend Dr. Cleaver, Bishop of Chester.
We have now to view him in a situation where his conduct was well fitted to excite our admiration; and here his ministry was blessed in a most remarkable manner. Of him, indeed, it might be justly said, as St. Paul has expressed it, "to me to live is Christ, and to die is gain." The propriety of this application was fully demonstrated in his doctrine and in his life. It was his delight to set forth our Lord Jesus Christ in all the matchless glory of his person, and
in all the greatness and extent of his salvation. He exhibited him as the only begotten of the Father, the very and eternal God, the Creator, Preserver,and Upholder of all things. Like St. Paul, he made him the foundation of all our hopes; and in order to shew our need of this Saviour, he faithfully declared our fallen state, not crying up the dignity of human nature, but laying man low as a sinner before God, indebted to God for every blessing, and relying for salvation upon Christ alone, who is made of God, unto the believer, "wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption." He steered clear of Antinomianism on the one hand, and Pharisaism on the other; constantly insisting upon the fruits of righteousness as an indispensable evidence of faith in Christ. And in bringing these subjects home to the consciences of his hearers, he never failed earnestly to urge the necessity of the Divine influences of the Holy Spirit, to enlighten their minds and to cleanse their hearts, and also to witness with their spirits that they were the children of God. This scriptural method of instruction rendered his ministrations peculiarly successful in the conversion of sinners, and in the edification of believers. The effects of these doctrines were seen in the largeness of his congregations, especially in the number of the communicants, which generally amounted to between five and six hundred persons.
But it was not only to Dr. Bayley's doctrine and manner of preaching, but also to his life, that the words "to me to live is Christ" might with truth be applied. He was humble, notwithstanding his great attainments as a scholar; in company never claiming any superiority over others, but in all his deportment appearing to esteem others better than himself. His meekness was also remarkable: he had learned to be gentle towards all, and not to render evil for evil to any. His charity to the poor and distressed of every description was constant and liberal,
often beyond his power. His fidelity in " declaring the whole counsel of God," and in discharging the various duties of his sacred office, was conspicuous to all. He laboured continually, as a good steward, to prepare for that solemn account which he should one day give to God. His diligence in visiting the sick has, perhaps, never been exceeded. His unceasing attention to this part of a minister's duty, in all kinds of weather, and at all hours of the day and night, is supposed to have injured his health and to have contributed to shorten his valuable life. His zeal was active, unwearied, pure, and affectionate. In the service of his Divine Master, whatever his hand found to do, he did it with all his might. He trod in the steps of the great Apostle of the Gentiles, boldly and discreetly labouring to win souls and to edify the church. His piety towards God was fervent: he may be said, like Enoch, to walk with God as a dutiful child, and as a faithful servant, in the exercise of devotion, praise, and all holy affections. His love towards men was warm and active. It would be difficult to give a just delineation of his character, as an affectionate husband, a tender father, a kind master, a faithful friend, a good neighbour, and a loyal subject: suffice it to say, that in all the relative duties of life he set an example worthy of the closest imitation. From the love of God which was "shed abroad in his heart," proceeded the love of his fellow-creatures; and this love was manifested in his whole deportment. His patience in suffering, and his resignation to the will of God, were remarkable during the whole of his pious and useful life, especially in his last illness, which continued nearly two years, and was very severe. He bore it without murmur or complaint, and often prayed to God, that, if more of suffering was necessary for him, he might experience more. His last words were, "O my Saviour!-The Lord is with
me!" And while his friend, the Rev. John Crosse, vicar of Bradford, who had assisted him a long time in serving his church during his illness, was praying with him, he literally fell asleep, and rested from his labours, on Thursday, April 2, 1812, in the 58th year of his age.
His funeral exhibited a spectacle seldom seen more than forty clergymen, with great numbers of his beloved people, habited in the deepest mourning, attended; and the concourse was so great, that more than a thousand could not obtain admittance into the church. The fune ral service in the church was read by the Rev. Thomas Whitaker; and in his own vault, under St. James's Church, by the Rev. William Winter. An impressive sermon was preached on the solemn occasion by the Rev. John Crosse. By his people, their beloved pastor was deeply lamented; and there is reason to hope, that many present were influenced, by what they saw and heard, to follow his doctrines and example, in the hope of meeting him in a better world. May all who read this short and imperfect sketch, earnestly seek the Divine grace, to enable them to follow him as he followed Christ! May they learn, like him, to be zealous in the service of God, useful to the church, ornaments to society, friends to the poor, and patterns to all of true piety! And may the Lord raise up in his room faithful pastors, who shall, by their life and doctrine, glorify his name, and promote the eternal salvation of the souls committed to their charge! Amen.
ACCOUNT OF THE LIFE OF THE REV. HENRY SCOUGAL.
(Continued from p. 410.)
Ar the first establishment of the Reformation in Scotland, an order of men was appointed in the church who were called Readers. They were not allowed to preach, nor to ad minister the sacraments, but merely