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Crease of the quantity of our stock of subsistence, and increased frugality in the use of it, are the best expedients for relieving the public necessities. Under this persuasion, they will endeavour to augment the amount of national provisions, by the importation of rice, and other attainable articles of subsistence, more especially fish. Measures, indeed, have been taken for securing to the metropolis a considerable quantity of excellent fish, which, from the fear of not tinding a sale, would not otherwise be brought to any market".

Economy in using the means of subsistence we at present possess, is an object of supreme importance: the Committee strongly recommend to all persons of authority and influence to adopt the most effectual methods for promoting it, more particularly to lessen the consumption of any articles which form the subsistence of the poor. In some of the distressed districts, barley, and still more generally oats, are their ordinary food. By limiting the consumption of the latter article by horses, an immense amount of provisions might be preserved for the use of man. A voluntary agreement of this kind among the affluent is no new idea. An association of a similar nature was entered into, during the last scarcity; and while it shewed that the higher classes sympathised with the distresses of the lower, it produced no small augmentation of the general stock of subsistence. The Committee confine their proposal to the opulent only, but they are satisfied that its effects would be eventually extended to every branch of the community.

As to the best methods of assisting the distressed; much, of course, must be left to the intelligence and prudence of the local associations. In some districts it has been stated, that the poor are in want of potatoes for seed. In others, that having pawned their wearing apparel for much less than its real value, they would be greatly benefited, at a moderate expense, by being enabled to redeem it. In some cases, it may be most advisable to purchase necessary articles by wholesale, and to retail them at reduced rates. But the Committee, in throwing out this last suggestion, feel it their duty to add,

The most complete success has attended the efforts of the Committee in this respect, and vast quantities of mackarel have been brought to London, and sold to the poor at a penny for each. Such, indeed, has been the extraordinary supply of this article, in consequence of the means adopted by the Committee, that the coarser parts of butcher's meat, being those chiefly purchased by the poor, have fallen in Spitalhelds about 24 per lb.

that it should scarcely ever be adopted, unless in the case of articles which are not of primary necessity, or of which there is an ample, or rather a superabundant, supply. Nor can the Committee here forbear from warning the benevolent against all modes of administering relief that will occasion an unrestrained consumption of any articles which constitute the staple of the national subsistence. This is a warning, which considerations of humanity, no less than of policy, powerfully enforce, as, by acting on the opposite principle, the most fatal consequences might ensue. At the same time, the Committee express great satisfaction in hearing from all parts of the kingdom, that the present appearance of the crops affords the most encouraging prospect of an abundant harvest; and they, therefore, entertain strong hopes that the distress which it is the object of the association to relieve, as far as it proceeds from the high price of provisions, will be of short duration.

Au admirable plan for the establishment of local institutions for the relief of the poor has been printed, and circulated by the Committee.

It is formed on the model of a soup society, established in the poor and populous district of Spitalfields, which has afforded substantial relief to the distressed manufacturers, and has given rise to many important plans for the alleviation of human misery. The history of the origin of this society is instructive and encouraging, as it shews how much good may be ultimately effected by the labours of a few persons in the first instance: and the plan itself, as it has been remarkably successful, may serve as a model for similar institutions.

In the year 1797, an individual, affected with the sufferings of the poor in Spitalfields, many of whom were starving, resolved to procure, if possible, the co-operation of some of his friends in a plan for affording relief to a few of the worst cases, and to ascertain which were really such, by visiting them in their houses. He communicated his idea to a friend. These two persons called a meeting of a few of their friends at a private house, wherein the subject was discussed. At a second meeting, about twenty were present, and this company resolved to form themselves into a society for the purpose of supplying the poor with meat soup at a penny per quart. A subscription was commenced, the society rapidly increased, and in the course of a few days a committee was formed. Sub-committees were appointed to draw up rules and regulations, and by a division of labour in this way, the society was quickly organized. The sub-committee appointed for

that purpose soon met with eligible premises at No. 53, Brick Lane, Spitalfields, and no time was lost in adapting them to the purposes of the institution. Tickets were printed, and issued to the subscribers. On the first day of delivery the visitors attended, under no small degree of anxiety as to the result of their experiment. It succeeded, however, to their utmost wish: the applicants paid the penny per quart with cheerfulness, and carried home a supply of food which they could not have prepared of equal quality themselves, for four or five times that sum. The committee purchase at the first hand, at wholesale prices, meat, barley, &c. of prime quality; and as every thing is done by sub-committees and individuals, from the purest and most disinterested motives, there are no salaries for clerks, no commission to agents: the only expense beyond that of the ingredients of the soup is the rent of the premises, the hire of servants to prepare the soup under the inspection of the visitors, and a moderate allowance to the superintendant, In the choice of the latter, the committee was most fortunate; they found a married woman possessing every requisite qualification for the office, which she has continued to discharge, with great credit to herself and benefit to the institution, down to the present day.

The committee consists of above fifty gentlemen, some of them churchmen, and the rest dissenters of different denominations, who regularly meet once a fortnight, and transact their business with great harmony and regularity. Deeply sensible that the success of every charity mainly consists in personal inspection, and in a scrupulous and minute attention to all the details connected with it, the committee has framed its regulations accordingly.

A constant oversight is kept up by the members of the committee in rotation, and the whole so contrived as not to press heavily upon any individual.

It comes only to the turn of the same individual to attend at the making and distribution of the soup once in three weeks; and the days being fixed, every one knows his time.

It has been found of great advantage to appoint sub-committees for particular purposes; one to provide the meat, another for barley and peas, a third for pepper and salt, and a fourth for onions: there is also a committee for inspecting the visitors' book, and bringing forward any remarks recorded in that book which may appear of sufficient consequence to engage the attention of the

committee. There are other sub-committees for different purposes.

The poor person takes the recommendation to the visitors at the soup house. It is bere numbered, put upon a file, and the applicant receives a ticket in its stead, bearing the same number as that put upon the recommendation. It is usual to allow one quart of soup to every two persons in a family.

In the boiling-house are five cast-iron boilers of different capacities, capable of making from 3000 to about 3300 quarts of soup.

The following are the ingredients for one of the large boilers, which furnishes from 700 to 800 quarts of soup. Beef, 200 lb.; Scotch barley, 100 lb.; split peas, 76 lb.; onions, 10 lb.; salt, 15 lb.; pepper, 15 oz.

The original practice for some time was, to make the soup principally from the coarser pieces of beef; but the society has latterly adopted the plan of buying quarters of beef only, lest the demand on the market for coarser pieces should, by raising the price, be of prejudice to individuals, who may be in the habit of providing themselves with these only. Every article in the soup is of the best quality that can be procured. Every quart of this soup contains the essence of about five ounces of beef, and nearly three ounces of solid barley and peas. It possesses the advantage of being ready cooked. Two or three quarts of it, if mixed with boiled potatoes, would furnish a savoury meal for a large family.

The whole of the meat is cut up, and put into the boilers in the evening, and is left to simmer all night. During this time it becomes thoroughly stewed down, and the fleshy fibres equally distributed through the whole mass. The men come at six o'clock in the morning rouse up the fires, add the barley and pease, and at eight o'clock the onions, pepper, and salt; and the whole is kept constantly stirred until it is served out.

In order to prevent loss of time in disputing whether the money be good or not, the committee has ordered that only penny pieces, new ballpence, or silver be taken. The committee, indeed, has been very anxious to economize the time of the poor, and improvements suggested by experience have shortened the time of delivering the soup to limits scarcely credible; for some perhaps will not without difficulty be brought to be lieve, that upwards of three thousand quarts are daily distributed to above one thousand persons applying for their families, their money taken, and their tickets marked, in less than two hours and a quarter on an ave

rage: it has been done frequently within the two hours. The average of the detention of each person during the delivery, from the time of entering the house at one door and quitting it at the other, is about thirty-eight minutes; and as a great number of those who come for the soup, are either children, or aged persons past any very beneficial labour, it is evident that not much valuable time is lost in fetching it.

In order to shelter the poor from the inconveniences and danger of being exposed to the weather, the committee has found means to receive about three hundred persons at once under cover; and to prevent that violence and confusion which at first were subjects of just complaint, a kind of railing has been constructed, which insures order by obliging each person to follow in regular succession to the place of serving.

The average daily quantity of soup delivered is above 3100 quarts, and the daily cousumption of beet is 856 lb.; of Scotch barley, 426 lb.; of split peas, 317 lb.; of onions, 40 lb.; of pepper, 3 lb. 14 oz.; of salt, 62 lb.

It is calculated, that a meal is thus furnished for 7000 persons every day. The beef alone which enters into the composition of every quart, costs the institution twopence at the wholesale price: if this portion of meat were distributed to the poor, raw, it must be cooked; if roasted or fried, besides the expense of fire, there would be waste: if boiled, some of the gelatine, one of the most nutritious parts of the meat, would be disdissolved out by the water; but in this mode of cooking the whole of the nourishment is preserved. For the detailed regulations for the proper management of such an institution, we must refer to the account published by this association, which may be had on application to the secretary, W. G. Carter, Esq., John Street, America Square.

ed at the market, or supplied as above'; and that a ladies' committee be formed to attend to the cases of distressed lying in women, and to clothing for the female poor, to which committee all cases within its province should be referred by the gentlemen's committee.

All local establishments are requested to appoint one of their body to correspond with the Secretary of the London society; and if an account of the state of a place where distress prevails has not been already forwarded, it would be desirable to receive it under the following heads, viz. extent of the distress; cause of the distress; employment of the poor and their average earnings; price of provisions; nature and extent of attempts at relief; general remarks, The principal object of this society is to administer such assistance to local establishments as the case may require, and their funds permit. And as the pressure on the labouring poor is pretty much confined to certain districts, while others are comparatively free, it is earnestly recommended to benevolent persons in the latter, to form auxiliary societies in aid of the parent institution; and as on the above plan of personal inspection there will be ample security against a waste of the fund's, the sums subscribed will be made to produce the greatest possible quantity of good, and the extent of the relief will only be limited by the extent of the means which this society may be enabled to employ.

PRAYER-BOOK AND HOMILY SOCIETY.

Since our last number was published, this infant society has become the subject of ve hement attack, by persons calling themselves Churchinen. One man has assiduously circulated " a Consideration of the Reasons for establishing this Society," and even Dr. Marsh, the Margaret Professor of Divinity in the University of Cambridge, has condescended to devote eleven pages of a new pamphlet to the purpose of discrediting this attempt to give additional circulation to the authorised compositions of the Church of England.

The Committee suggest to local associations, that as all attempts to relieve the poor in a time of scarcity, by enabling them to purchase bread, flour, or meal, at reduced prices, has a direct tendency to increase the scarcity, it is strongly recommended that their atten- It certainly is somewhat singular, not tion be principally directed to such nourishing only that such an institution should be opsubstitutes as rice and pease, also dried and posed by persons calling themselves Churchfresh fish, where the latter can be procured, men, but that the man who heads the oppoand to shops for the sale of these articles, sition should be the very man who has soundat reduced prices, to persons who bring ticked the alarm of the Church being in danger ets; that a small tract or paper be circulat- from the inadequate distribution of the ed among the families of the industrious poor, Liturgy. pointing out the method by which they may form wholesonie and palatable dishes at a cheap rate, from articles either to be purchas

Dr.Marsh has written a book to convince the world that the Bible Society will overturn the Church, because it does not distribute

the Liturgy. The world, however, will not believe that the circulation of the Bible can overturn the Church, seeing the Church is built upon that as its foundation. Some persons think, however, that although no danger of this kind exists, too large a circulation cannot be given to that Liturgy which "has been justly and eloquently styled the daughter of the Bible," and that if any deficiency, in this respect, exists, it ought forthwith to be supplied. Hence the Prayer-book and Homily Society.

Now let us suppose that the Bible Society, convinced by the reasoning of Dr. Marsh (the supposition, we confess, is somewhat extravagant), had adopted the resolution of adding the Liturgy to every copy of the Bible which might be circulated among members of the Church of England: would Dr. Marsh have censured them? If so, he would have blamed them for acting conformably to his own suggestions.

The Bible Society itself, indeed, does not thus act; but a number of persons, many of them friends to that society, do. They say, if the statement of Dr. Marsh be true; if the evil exist which he so energetically denounces, it becomes all good churchmen to remedy that evil. Nor is it necessary, in such a case, to inquire very particularly into the accuracy of the statement. If it be correct, then good is done: the vacant space is supplied with Prayer-books. If it is incorrect, and Prayerbooks are not wanted, still no harm is done: the only consequence will be, that PrayerLooks will not be called for, and that the minds of such alarmists as Dr. Marsh will be relieved from their apprehensions. Such an institution, it were vain to deny, is a sort of practical refutation of Dr. Marsh's argument of the neglect of the Liturgy. And the most solid objection that was made to it from the first, perhaps was, that it was too epigrammatic. This, however, was a mere accident, which could not be avoided, and did not enter into the essence of the plan.

Dr. Marsh assumes, that the formation of this society is at complete variance with the arguments used in defence of the Bible So. ciety. We do not think so. We have been, and still are, among the warmest advocates of this society. In the very same breath, how ever, we can commend and support an institution for circulating the Prayer-book. Is there any inconsistency in this? If there be, we are too dull to perceive it.

Take a parallel case: There exists a Soup Society, in the parish of Spitalfields, which has done, and is doing, immense good, by the distribution of soup in that poor and

populous district. Suppose some man were not only to refuse his aid to this society, but were so wrong-headed as to attack it publicly, because it neglected to connect a Vaccine Institution with that for distributing soup. Suppose him to produce instances of persons in Spitalfields dying of the smallpox in consequence of this neglect; and to urge, with great vehemence, against the Soup Society, that its constitution was most dan gerous to the health of his Majesty's subjects, because, while they were distributing soup alone to thousands, scores were perishing through their neglect of vaccination. The Soup Society might very fairly answer: "We cannot, as a society, interfere in this matter. We have our own proper and exclusive object: we give soup alone; and we cannot engage in the distribution of vaccine matter without prejudice to our institution. Nobody doubts the benefit, arising from distributing good soup to a set of starving manufacturers. Unfortunately, there are individuals who dispute the utility of vaccination; and some of these belong to our society. We should materially injure, therefore, our institution, which, as it now stands, is most excellent and unexceptionable, both in respect to its object and its means of attaining that object, if we were to attempt to embrace another object about which there unhappily exist differences of opinion."

Would there be any thing unreasonable in all this? Or would it be inconsistent with this reply, were a considerable number of the individuals forming the Soup Society to say," Although we cannot possibly recommend that our society should become also a Vaccine Society, yet we highly admire vaccination, and are anxious to promote it. We will therefore assist in forming a Vaccine Institution in Spitalfields, which may obviate all the evils complained of, and we will be among its most active supporters."

Let Dr. Marsh exert his ingenuity in pointing out any real difference between the two cases.

Dr. Marsh triumphs in the institution of this society, as an admission not only of the existence of neglect as to the Liturgy, but of the cause he has assigned for it, and the consequences he has deduced from it. His inference is certainly not very logical. For our own parts, we deny it in toto. But we should be willing to concede this point to Dr. Marsh, to allow him the triumph of having originated this society, if he would only support his own offspring. His conduct, however, is not a little unnatural. He claipis to be the father of the child, and yet re

fuses it his parental protection, pay, exerts himself to deprive it even of parish aid. This is hard.

But one great ground of offence with Dr. Marsh, and probably with many others, is, that it seems to them to interfere with the Bartlett's Buildings' Society; and he argues, that there can be no reason why churchmen should forsake the old society for the sake of the new. In this proposition we are glad to be able to concur with Dr. Marsh.

It is one of the unhappy distinctions of those who have called themselves the friends, and have been the avowed advocates, of the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge, (a distinction in which we trust they will long stand unrivalled and unenvied), that they cannot tolerate any scheme of benevolence, embracing any one of the objects of that society, which does not immediately emanate from it. In most other cases it would be deemed indecorous for the members of one charitable institution to object to the formation of others. We do not hear the contributors to the Lock Hospital and Asylum anathematizing the subscribers to the Female Penitentiary, nor the members of the Magdalen proscribing both these. Even if any of them should apprehend that some diversion of their means might be caused by the rival institutions, yet they would perceive that it would be both unfeeling and indecorous to circulate handbills, and publish painphlets, in order either to dam up the current of benevolence, or to prevent its flowing freely in any direction to which it might point.

The advocates of the Bartlett's Buildings' Society are not restrained by such common-place notions of decorum. No good must be done in their line but after their fashion, and by their hands.

Still it may be proper, in some cases, not to be swayed by motives of delicacy. The public safety may require a violation of ordinary rules. Here, however, no such thing can be alleged. The utmost that can be said is, that the new society is useless, as it respects the distribution of Prayer-books, the Bartlett's Buildings' Society being fully equal to satisfying all the necessities of the church. But if this be so, whence have arisen all the alarm and clamour which we have lately witnessed on the part of Dr. Marsh and his associates? No new institution, according to them, is needed for distributing Prayer-books; and yet the church is in the most imminent danger from the neglect of the Prayer-book!

But the object which Dr. Marsh has at heart is, that all who are friendly to the distribution of the Prayer-book should join the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge. But will he receive them? Has he proposed Mr. Simeon to that society, and has Mr. Simeon been accepted? Does he mean to say, that every person who may wish to distribute Prayer-books, will be received into the pale of that society without the risk of a black ball? Does he mean to say, that there are not many persons who object, on vari ous grounds, to joining that society, who yet would be most glad to contribute to the object of circulating the Liturgy? There must be many such. Why should Dr. Marsh insist, that none shall distribute the Liturgy but those who have nerves to stand a ballot at Bartlett's Buildings ; or against whom no prejudice exists there; or who approve all that society's tracts; or who are able to pay at least two pounds at admission, and a guinea annually? Many good churchmen, he will admit, may be unable, with convenience, to make this payment, who may yet spare an annual guinea or half-guinea. But he will be ready to say, that those must be bad churchmen who fear the ballot, or dislike the society's tracts. Be it so. Then, is it not politic to engage such men in a society which shall tend to uphold the church? He can surely apprehend no injury from distributing the Liturgy. He cannot suppose that the Liturgy will acquire a taint by passing through such hands. For our own parts, we should have thought it wise in Dr. Marsh, on the supposition that his fears were real, to have encouraged a society which should embark bad Churchmen, Methodists, and even Dissenters, if that might be, in the beneficial work of circulating the Liturgy.

We shall probably have much more to say on this head hereafter. In the mean time, we wish to advert to a necessity of a different description, which exists for a new society like the present, even as it respects the Liturgy. The Bartlett's Buildings' Society furnishes its books only to those who are its members, and it exercises a right of excluding whom it pleases from its pale. This circumstance would be attended with less inconvenience, if members were allowed to transfer their privilege (certain limits being put to its exercise) to others, whether members or not. This is done in the Bible Society, without any apparent effect except that of an increased circulation of Bibles. But this, it may be alleged, the funds of the Society for promoting Christian

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