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terially, if not wholly, at variance with truth.

I do not mean, and I trust that I shall not be suspected of meaning, that there is in the present instance any designed misrepresentation: far from it. I have already expressed my respect for Colonel Malcolm; and I might have added, esteem and regard. I know him too well, not to know, that he is incapable of making any statement which he does not believe to be true.

The great body of the native Christians of India are to be found in the southern portion of the Peninsula, on both coasts: namely, in the provinces extending from the river Coleroon to Cape Comorin, on the eastern side; and within the territories of the Rajahs of Travancore and Cochin, on the western side.

Now, as Colonel Malcolm never, at any period, resided in these districts; nor, as I am inclined to think, even visited any part of this interesting tract of country; his remarks cannot be presumed to have any application, on the ground of personal knowledge, to the Christian communities in those regions. But he might have supplied his own want of the opportunity of observation, by reference to the authentic and incontrovertible evidence of the late Mr. Swartz, with respect to the numerous converts of Tanjore, &c.; and also to the authentic testimony borne by Drs. Kerr and Buchanan to the state of Christianity on the coast of Malabar.

Colonel Malcolm, it may be said, must have seen Christian converts in other parts of India. Every one who may have visited the great towns of Calcutta and Madras knows, that, like other great towns, they abound in dissolute and profligate characters; amongst whom may be found Christians, as well as Hindoos and Mahomedans. But there would appear nearly as much fairness in a man's forming an estimate of the morality of the inhabitants of Great Britain from the sensual and depraved practices of the prostitutes and

pickpockets of the metropolis, as in his judging of the mass of the Christians of Tanjore and Tinnevelly, by the conduct of the miserable victims of vice, who call themselves Christians, in the streets and alleys of Madras or Calcutta.

After what has been observed, it may perhaps be deemed superfluous to make any comment upon such stale phrases as, "dregs of the community!" or upon the singular charge brought against the Christians," of their agreeing to separate themselves from the other natives of India, in order that they might be freed from a number of restraints, with regard to diet and morality, by which the different tribes of both Hindoos and Mahomedans are bound." What the moral restraints are that tie up the Hindoo or Mahomedan from the practical indulgence and commission of the grossest and most depraved sensuality and vice, provided certain stated ablutions and prostrations be observed, I am yet to learn. morality of Hindoos and Mahomedans!--But I need not, Mr. Editor, occupy your time, or that of your readers, upon this subject, further than by refering them and you to the letter published in your last number, which is well calculated to settle this point for ever beyond dispute.


It would be equally superfluous, as it appears to me, to say any thing on the objections advanced by Colonel Malcolm against the policy of the French in India *, under which they promoted native Christians to situations of trust; as he has not shewn that any injurious consequences flowed from it. So far indeed is it from being true, that this policy was injurious or unwise, that, on the contrary, the history of that nation in India affords a strong experimental testimony to its wisdom.

It is, however, the present situation of the Portuguese in India that seems to this author, and to others who have written on the same side, • Page 471.

to furnish a triumphant corroboration of all their arguments." The Portuguese hastened, if they did not cause, their downfal, by that bigoted spirit with which they endeavoured to introduce their religion *."

I am no advocate for bigotry in any case or in any shape; far less for the bigotry with which the Portuguese acted in India towards the Syrian Christians, and many other natives with whom they came in contact. But I deny that their downfal was occasioned, or even hastened, by those proceedings, however impolitic. I may, with your permission, hereafter examine this question more in detail; in the mean time, I am desirous of adding some high authorities to those produced in the important letter in your last number, in confirmation of the remarkable fact that the natives of India are, in the judgment of well-informed and unprejudiced men, unworthy of all confidence. The first to which I shall allude is that of the present President of the Board of Controul, the Earl of Buckinghamshire; for during the whole period of his residence in India, as Governor of Fort St. George, he (in like manner as Lord Cornwallis) "never reposed any trust in any one of them, nor placed a single individual, either Hindǝo or Mabomedan, about his person, above the rank of a menial servant."

Lord Clive also (now Earl Powis) the successor of the Earl of Buckinghamshire in the government of Madras, for four years, trod firmly and conscientiously in the steps of his predecessor.

The author of the letter in your last number might have farther fortified his position by reference to the conduct pursued by that illustrious statesman, the Marquis Wellesley; for this noble man not only discouraged by his example and influence any confidential employment of natives, but he made it a fundamental principle of his administration, in the selection of Company's servants for office, to give the preference to Page 470.

those who were understood to be the least likely to admit natives to their confidence.

To this shall only be added a quotation of one paragraph from a dispatch, addressed, a few years back, by a public officer of the government of Madras to the governor.

"The duplicity and corruption so prevalent in native Durbars, and among certain classes of the natives of India, in every part of the Peninsula, have not escaped the indignant notice and reprobation of moralists and statesmen. But in no part of the world, perhaps, can there be found men to whose habits and affections the practice of vice, through all its debasing, loathsome, and hideous gradations, seems so familiar and dear as to the natives of this country. This may in some degree be ascribed to the perverted system of their domestic relations, under which the whole circle of the social charities, and of the parental ties and affections, that in other (Christian) countries, connect and unite neighbour with neighbour, parent with child, and children with their parents, have here no existence; neither an habitation nor a name." I am, Yours, &c.


To the Editor of the Christian Observer. I AM an old man, living upon the borders of Lincolnshire; and hearing that you sometimes give your advice upon religious subjects, I'am emboldened to write to you. Ever since Easter, I have had mymind much perplexed. Happening to walk through a corn field about that time with an old acquaintance of mine who lives in Wales, and pays me an annual visit, I observed that a little sun might be of much benefit to the corn. The sun! replied my friend; of what advantage will the sun be to the corn? Have you lived so long in the world, and have not discarded those childish notions concerning

remember my brother-in-law, that good old clergyman, now no more, who found it conducive to his health to keep a couple of greyhounds, and who displayed such virtuous and unshaken resolution in subduing hoards of poachers. The Editors of the Christian Observer have held up the memory of that good man, as well as that of many other excellent persons, to ridicule. Let me advise you to have nothing to say to thembut what are your difficulties?” “I am desirous of knowing, "I said, "whether the sun's influence is necessary to make the earth bring forth fruit." "Why," said he, "there is that very strong text (Mark iv. 28)., The earth bringeth forth fruit of itself: first the blade, then the ear, then the full corn in the ear.' That, sir, it must be confessed, is a very strong text: but precious fruits are said to be brought forth by the sun in another place of Scripture; and there is reason to believe, from experience, that there is some truth in this declaration. Now how shall we reconcile this? There can be but one way the earth does her part first, and the sun does his part afterwards. The earth brings forth, first the blade, and then the ear; and afterwards the sun does his part, ripening the full corn in the ear."

the sun's ripening the corn? Are we not told in the Scripture, that the earth brings forth fruit of itself: first the blade, then the ear, then the full corn in the ear?'"-Sir, I knew not what to answer. I had always thought that the sun had a very great influence in the growth of corn, but this strong text staggered me. However, it would have given me very little uneasiness, if my old Welch friend had not proceeded thus:-"It is precisely the same in the soul of man. There are some foolish and enthusiastic people, who maintain that a man cannot of himself bring forth fruit unto holiness; that grace must give him good desires, and work with him when he has those good desires. But this notion is highly absurd. Is not man commanded to keep the whole law perfectly; and would he be commanded to perform what he had not power of himself to perform? He must have the whole power or none, and he clearly has the whole power. Hence he is not enjoined to obey a part of the Divine law, but to submit to the whole, and to continue to keep it to his life's end. It is with man as it is with the earththe earth brings forth fruit of itself, and so does man-and this very text is quoted by the fathers, to prove that man has power to do Pray, Mr.Observer, inform me (for good of himself."-I confess, sir, that cannot help writing to you, in dethis opinion of my old Welch ac- fiance of your turn for uncharitable quaintance, supported by that of the censures) whether this interpretafathers, gave me much uneasiness. tion be true or not. I really am Under these doubts, I repaired to still disposed to think, that the the house of a near neighbour, cele-earth is in itself, and would ever rebrated for his respectability, learn- main, an inert and sluggish mass, ing, and conviviality. I informed but for the solar influence. him, that my mind was distracted let me have your opinion speedily, with some painful doubts, and added, and inform me whether it is really that if he could not relieve my scru- true, that the fathers quote Mark iv. ples, it was my intention to write to 28, to prove that man has power of the Christian Observer upon the himself, independently of preventing subject. "The Christian Observer," grace. said he," is a review full of heterodoxy and defamation. They have defamed part of my own family. You




I am, Sir, your obedient and bewildered servant,


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We know not whether the Right Reverend Author of the "Refutation of Calvinism," really persuaded himself that he had at length so completely subverted the system he had opposed, as for ever to silence its advocates, and to render every idea of its restoration hopeless. We know how far the vanity of authors in geperal is apt to lead them in similar expectations; and the title of the Bishop's work certainly tends to favour the probability of such a supposition respecting the effect of his controversial labours. We should pot, therefore, be surprised to find, that, with the assistance of the numerous admirers, who both in public and in private can never fail to predict the success of episcopal polemics, some complacent thoughts of a final triumph over Calvinism bad actually entered his Lordship's mind. However this may be, it was undoubtedly foreseen, by all who are acquainted with the numbers and the respectability of those who in various ways are included amongst the objects of this formidable attack, that more than one reply would be made to some, at least, of its numerous points. Nor was it at all more difficult to foretel, that all that was solid and beautiful in that spiritual temple, which the author of the Refutation, mistaking it, we doubt not, for the fortress of an enemy, had with such an unsparing hand laboured to deface and overturn, would be speedily reinstated in its pristine form and grandeur, and shine forth with renovated lustre. Let us not, however, be understood as in

tending to assert, that Calvinism, properly and peculiarly so called, is a necessary and constituent part of this spiritual edifice. this spiritual edifice. It may, perhaps, beso esteemed by some; though we have certainly never so represented it. But we need scarcely remind our readers, that under this proscribed and odious name, the Bishop of Lincoln has, we are entirely willing to believe undesignedly, attacked some of the fundamental points of that faith "which was once delivered to the saints." It is for these only, as we have often declared, that we feel ourselves bound


earnestly to contend;" and although the author of the work now before us, has extended his defence of the doctrines assailed in the Refutation, to those which are more justly styled Calvinistic; even be declares, that had that publication attacked those tenets exclusively, his "Remarks" would probably not have been obtruded on the public notice. Had no other similar intimations, of that undistinguishing opposition to what the Bishop of Lincoln is pleased to term "Calvinism,” been given to the world, than that which is contained in this declaration of Mr. Scott, it would be sufficient, we think, to convey to his Lordship's mind some suspicion of the soundness of his statements. But more direct and intelligible proofs of this kind are already before the public *; and, in addition to our former observations, when reviewing the Bishop's work †, we trust that in the course of the present article we shall make it still more clearly appear that he has greatly mistaken and misrepresented the sentiments and the persons he under

See an article in the last number of the British Review, on the "Refutation of Cal


*See our volume for 1811, pp. 579 & 632.

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Much as it is to be regretted, that errors and misrepresentations of this serious nature should have proceeded from such high authority as that of the Bishop of Lincoln, we cannot, however, but agree with the sentiment expressed by Mr. Scott in his preface, that "nothing is so unfavourable to the progress of genuine Christianity, among mankind in general, nay, among the bulk of nominal Christians, as a dead calm." Discussions, like those to which the "Refutation of Calvinism," and we may add, the "Inquiry" of Dr. Marsh, have given rise, though attended with many evils, cannot but be eventually productive of more extensive good. Truth, of whatever kind, will ultimately prevail; and the severity of the trials which it may have to encounter will only render it more pure, and more prevalent.

In stating the general objects of his work, Mr. Scott candidly admits it to be his own opinion, that the several doctrines brought under consideration in the Refutation, have, in reality, a very intimate connection, or concatenation; while he at the same time declares, that numbers do not allow or perceive this, who yet hold the grand outline of the doctrine, there called Calvinistic, very decidedly and practically; either silently excluding personal election and final perseverance from their creed, or directly disavowing them. But, besides the attempt to refute several doctrines which are not generally considered as Calvinistic, but rather as parts of the apostolic and primitive faith, Mr. Scott asserts that the Refutation contains many statements, even of the Calvinistic doctrine, which are erroneous and disavowed by Calvinists; and some that are so incongruous with others, as to be altogether incompatible. A reply, therefore, to such charges, was

absolutely required; and as the author of the "Remarks" had for more than thirty-two years been diligently employed in preparing and publishing works on religious subjects, grounded upon those very principles which the Bishop of Lincoln has undertaken to refute, he felt himself compelled to come forward in their defence. Mr. Scott thought, also, and justly, that his advanced years might tend to qualify him for conducting such discussions, in a more moderate and Christian spirit than is commonly found in younger writers. In noticing the objection which might be made, as to any indecorum in answering a superior in the church, and his own diocesan, he observes, that the substance of the Refutation was first delivered in Charges to the clergy of the diocese of Lincoln, whom the Bishop must be supposed to have had particularly in view; but trusts, that, in his Remarks, he has not forgotten his Lordship's ecclesiastical dignity; that he has, therefore, frequently spoken as an apologist, where, under other circumstances, he would have taken a higher ground; and that he has uniformly paid as much respectful deference to the author of the Refutation, as he could, consistently with faithfulness to Divine truth.

It is so customary with controver sial writers to make professions of candour and moderation, and then, unhappily, to forget them, that we feel peculiar pleasure in being able to bear a decided testimony to their fulfilment in this case. Mr. Scott has certainly, throughout his work, manifested a truly Christian spirit. He has written, indeed, with firmness and force; but he has given "a reason of the hope that is in him with meekness and fear;" and we are persuaded, that the piety and charity which he has displayed will produce a no less favourable impression on his readers in general, than the arguments with which he has supported his views of evangelical truth.

The plan of Mr. Scott's publica..

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