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and vain-glorious Pharisee. He calls himself a Physician, not for those that are whole, but for those that are sick. He teaches us in our prayers to acknowledge ourselves sinners, and to ask righteousness, and deliverance from all evils, at our heavenly Father's hand. He declares that the sins of our own hearts do defile ourselves. He teaches that an evil word or thought deserves condemnation, affirming that we shall give accoun: for overy idle word." He says, " He came to seek and to save them that were lost." Therefore few of the Pharisees were saved by him, because they justified themselves by their counterfeit holiness before men. Let us, then, beware of such hypocrisy, vain-glory, and justifying of
Thus have we heard how humbly all good men have always thought of themselves; and how they are taught so to think and judge of themselves by God in his holy word. For of ourselves we are as crab-trees, that can bring forth no apples. We are of ourselves of such earth, as can but bring forth weeds. Our fruits are declared in the fifth chapter to the Galatians. We have neither faith, charity, hope, patience, chastity, nor any thing else that is good, but of God; and therefore these virtues be called there the fruits of the Holy Ghost, and not the fruits of man. Let us therefore acknowledge ourselves before God, to be, what we are indeed, miserable and wretched sinners. And let us earnestly repent, and humble ourselves heartily, and cry to God for mercy. Let us all confess with mouth and heart that we are full of imperfections: let us know our own works, how imperfect they are, and then we shall not stand foolishly and arrogantly in our own conceit, nor challenge any part of justification by our merits or works. For truly there are impers fections in our best works: we do not love God so much as we are bound to do, with all our heart, CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 121.
mind, and power: we do not fear God so much as we ought to do: we do not pray to God, but with great and many imperfections: we give, forgive, believe, live, and hope imperfectly: we speak, think, and act imperfectly: we fight against the devil, the world, and the flesh imperfectly: let us therefore not be ashamed to confess plainly our state of imperfection: yea, let us not be ashamed to confess imperfection even in our best works. Let none of us be ashamed to say with the holy St. Peter, "I am a sinful man." Let us say with the holy prophet David, "We have sinned with our fathers; we have done amiss, and dealt wickedly." Let us all make open confession with the Prodigal Son, to our Father, and say with him, "We have sinned against Heaven, and before thee, O Father: we are no more worthy to be called thy sons." Let us say with holy Baruch, "To the Lord our God is worthily ascribed righteousness; to us and to our fathers, open shame: we have sinned, we have done ungodly, we have dealt unrighteously in all thine ordinances." Let us all say with the holy prophet Daniel, O Lord, righteousness belongeth to thee; but unto us confusion of face." We have sinned, we have offended, we have fled from thee, we have gone back from all thy precepts and judgments.-Thus do we learn of all good men in the Scriptures, to humble ourselves, and to extol and glorify God.
Thus we have heard how evil we are of ourselves; how of ourselves, and by ourselves, we have no goodness, help, or salvation, but, on the contrary, sin, damnation, and death everlasting: which if we deeply weigh and consider, we shall the better understand the great mercy of God, and how our salvation comes only by Christ. For in ourselves (as of curselves) we find no means of deliverance from this miserable captivity, into which we are cast, through the envy of the devil, by breaking of God's commandment in
our first parent, Adam. We are all become unclean: but we all are not able to cleanse ourselves, nor to make one another clean. We are by nature the children of God's wrath: but we are not able to make ourselves the children and inheritors of God's glory. We are sheep that run astray but we cannot of our own power come again to the sheepfold, so great is our imperfection and weakness. In ourselves, therefore, may we not glory, since of our selves we are only sinful neither may we rejoice in any works that we do, all of them being so imperfect and impure, that they are not able to stand before the righteous judgment-seat of God, as the holy prophet David saith: "Enter not into judgment with thy servant, O. Lord: for in thy sight shall no man living be justified.", To God, therefore, must we flee, or else shall we never find peace and quietness of conscience. For he is the Father of mercies, and God of all con solation." He is the Lord, with whom is "plenteous redemption:" he is the God who of his own mercy hath saved us," and shewn his exceeding love towards us, in that of his own voluntary goodness, when, we were perishing, he saved us, and provided an everlasting kingdom for us. And all these heavenly trea-, sures are given us, not for our own deserts, merits, or good deeds (of which in ourselves we have none), but of his mere mercy freely. And for whose sake? Truly for Jesus Christ's sake, that pure and undefiled Lamb of God. He is that dearly beloved Son, for whose sake God is fully satisfied, and reconciled to man. He is the Lamb of God which taketh away the sins of the world;" of whom only it may be truly said that he did "all things well, and in his mouth was found no guile." None but he alone may say, "The prince of this world came, and in me hath nothing." And he alone may also say, Which of you shall reprove me of any fault?" He is the high and everlasting Priest, which hath "offered
himself once for all" upon the altar of the cross, and " with that one oblation hath made perfect for evermore them that are sanctified.", He is the "alone Mediator between God and man," which paid our ransom to God, "with his own blood,” and with that hath he "cleansed us all from sin." He is the Physician, which healeth all our diseases. He is the Saviour, who saves his people" from all their sins;" He is that flowing and most plenteous fountain,
of whose fulness all we have received," "For in him alone are hid all the treasures of the wisdom and knowledge of God." And in him, and by him, have we, from God the Father, all good things pertaining either to the body or to the soul." O how much are we bound to this our heavenly Father for his great mercies, which he hath so plenteously declared unto us in Christ Jesus our Lord and Saviour! What thanks worthy and sufficient can we give to Him? Let us all with one accord burst out with joyful voice, ever praising and magnifying this Lord of mercy, for his loving kindness shewn unto us in his dearly beloved Son, Jesus Christ our Lord.
To conclude: we have heard what we are of ourselves; very sinful, wretched, and damnable. We have also heard how that of ourselves, and by ourselves, we are not able either to think a good thought, or work a good deed; so that we can find in ourselves no hope of salvation, but rather whatsoever makes for our destruction. We have further heard the tender kindness and great mercy of God the Father towards us, and how ready he is to bestow blessings upon us for Christ's sake, without our merits or deserts, even of his own mere mercy and tender goodness. Let us then learn to know ourselves, our frailty and weakness, without any boasting of our own good deeds and merits. Let us also acknowledge the exceeding mercy of God towards us, and confess, that as of ourselves come all evil, and damnation; so likewise of him come all
goodness and salvation; as God himself hath said by the prophet Hosea: "O Israel, thy destruction cometh of thyself: but in me is thy help and comfort." If we thus humbly submit ourselves in the sight of God, we may be sure that in the time of his visitation he will raise us up unto the kingdom of his dearly beloved Son, Christ Jesus our Lord; to whom, with the Father, and the Holy Ghost, be all honour and glory
members of our established church. It is unquestionably a duty of great importance and utility in the Chris tian life, and a conscientious regard to it is incumbent on all who love our Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity. But there is a very interesting branch of personal religion connected with it, and referred to in general terms by G. B., which I should be glad if he, or any other of your correspondents, would more fully consider-I mean the duty of selfexamination. I do not remember to have seen this subject distinctly discussed in any of the pages of your useful work. I should therefore think that a concise statement of what is essential to this branch of personal piety, with some short directions for the most profitable method of conducting it, would be very acceptable to your readers in gene. as well as to, Yours, &c.
To the Editor of the Christian Observer.
The intelligent reader will perceive that the above sermon is taken, with only a few omissions and some slight verbal alterations, from the Homily, "On the Misery of Mankind, and of his Condemnation to Death everJasting by his own Sin." It contains the doctrine of the church respecting the natu ral corruption of man; and we should be glad if the Bishop of Lincoln, or any of his followers, would point out wherein it varies from the view given of the same subject by such writers as are the objects of his Lordship's attack in his late Refutation of Calvinism."
A CONSTANT READER.
We join in the wish expressed by our correspondent, our correspondent. In the mean time, however, we would refer him work, among many others, for some to the following passages of our hints on the important subject of self-examination, viz. vol. for 1802, Pp.156, 219, 632, 693; vol. for 1803, pp. 205, 401; vol. for 1805, pp. 463, 716; vol. for 1808, p. 286; and vol. for 1809, p. 559.
To the Editor of the Christian Observer. THE Soundness of the rival theories of population must ultimately be determined by fact. In the mean time, the speculations of Mr. Malthus are partly opposed on the ground of their assumed inconsistency with the arrangements of Providence. The scheme, it is agreed, virtually
because he suffers beings to come. charges the Creator with cruelty; into a world, where, in a certain period, their redundance will occasion a general famine.
But let it be asked, first, Is it true, that this world, including animate and inanimate nature, is in a state of moral and physical derangemeat? For if this be the case, why
are we to be startled by a theory, which, instead of offering violence to a pre-conceived opinion, actually confirms that opinion; and, as such, positively demands our acceptance? Are we not formally bound, not merely to examine it with impartiality, but to enter upon its investigation with the direct hope of ascertaining its truth? If we value any opinion, we are justified, and we certainly justify ourselves, in looking out for its collateral supports.
Secondly, Be the theory true or false, does it tend to prove the existence of an evil greater than any which has hitherto disturbed the happiness of mankind? If it do not, then you are complaining of the discovery of a species of misery inferior in malignant efficacy to one already operating upon the affairs of mankind; and concerning which confessedly existing evil you offer no objection in regard to its inconsistency with the arrange ments of Providence. On the other hand, if the recently discovered eyil be really greater than all former sources of calamity, then the objector seems to have ascertained the precise measure of evil which the Creator may permit, consistently with the exercise of his moral attri butes.
Let the moral part of the theory be examined by the rules of analogy; which, I presume, teach us to investigate doubtful propositions by comparing them with acknowledged truths. The inquiries above are analogical. The doctrine of original sin is asserted to derive most powerful confirmation from the notorious sufferings of mankind. The Scripture declares, "Man is born to trouble, as the sparks fly upward the creature was made subject to vanity-the whole creation groaneth and travaileth in pain together until now." These solemn affirmations are judged to account satisfactorily for the tremendous aggregate of calamity already apparent in the constitution and course of nature. Why is the inductive pro
cess to be interrupted here? In discussing subjects of this kind, I trust we all are conscious of standing upon holy ground. This premised, I venture to suggest, that a man who uses his understanding, may as reasonably be sceptical about the eter nity and intenseness of future punishments-(for can he discern the proportion between the demerit of sin and the severity of the penalty?) -as about the most calamitous results of this disputed theory. Yet the arrangements of the Divine procedure, if examined at all, must be equally examined in their connection with a future state, where Divine justice and mercy are to be fully vindicated. If Providence,
From seeming evil still educes good, In infinite progressionthe seeming evil of a redundant population is surely less mysterious than the everlasting pains of millions of creatures. A practical Christian, instead of losing himself in the perplexities combined with a revealed truth, makes it a question of fact, whether an alleged doctrine be, or be not, to be found in the Scriptures; and if it be found there, he rests himself on the credit and authority of inspiration. He receives the kingdom of God as a little child, and therefore enters into it.
Let it farther be inquired, whether, in circumstances of political embarrassment, it be not the duty of a government to attempt the removal of moral causes by moral measures, but the remedy of civil inconveniences by the usual means of worldly policy.-Now, on the supposition that a given European province (Swisserland for instance) is at this moment so inundated by its population, as that no agricultural and commercial exertion can save it from a partial famine within the succeeding twelve months, the question is, whether the state of this province is to be quiescently regarded as an extraordinary example of the judicial severity of Providence; so extraordinary as to stand distinct from
all preceding manifestations of such severity? I must hesitate before I venture to reply affirmatively. I would rather suggest, that, if the government of this province had duly watched the stream of population, they might have calculated, with all the accuracy necessary for practical purposes, when the waters would rise to the level immediately below that of an inundation. The measure demanded by this calculation would be, to divert the superfluous tide into new channels, as the only mean of saving the surrounding country. Let not the Anti-Malthusians smile at this illustration, till they have, in the first place, given in a rough estimate of the physical capacities, not merely of the uninhabited regions of the earth, but of the most populous and most civilised dominions of Europe and Asia; not forgetting even poor China, where, as veracious travellers assert, one cannot find any space more extensive than the surface of a spangle, but what is cultivated and cropped, till the soil is ready to scream with irritability. Great portions even of the British islands, immense tracts of European and Asiatic Russia, of the peninsula west of the Pyrenees, and of Turkey (I mention only such divisions of wilderness as immediately occur to me), are yet in a state of nature. Add to these, the boundless regions of central Africa; central America on both sides of the isthmus of Panama; and the whole of Australasia and Polynesia; all of which may be regarded as uninhabited. The party opposed to Mr. Malthus, I suppose, will begin to suspect me of a wish to decoy the human superflux of Swisserland into flat
• In 1806, the cultivated land of South Britain was computed at 39,000,000; the waste at 7,888,777 acres. Of the latter, indeed, about a million and a half were sup posed to be wholly unimprovable, or fit only for plantations.-The extent of the Russian empire is 9,200 by 2,400 English miles, with the scanty population of 36,500,000 souls,
bottomed boats, in order to float down the Rhone into the Gulf of Lyons, and thence to be shipped off for the coasts of California. Be the suspicion just or otherwise, I do formally, in the second place, require these gentlemen to tell both myself and the public at large, whether the repletion of one district be not a hint sufficiently intelligible, in this age of economists, that it is high time to transport the redundance into regions, where the whole population of civilised Europe might breathe freely, and increase, even on the scheme of doubling in twentyfive years, without any present need to calculate consequences. This very principle of transfer is, by all parties, allowed to be actually in operation in our own island; where the redundant births of the agricultural districts flow into the towns; which, without such supply, would not maintain their proper level. In towns of a moderate size (and much more in such immense masses of population as Liverpool, Glasgow, &c. &c.), the deaths are as 1 in 28 or 29; in agricultural villages, they are frequently, only 1 in 50 or 60. Colonies have been founded by the lust of gold, by religious intolerance, and by the expatriation of felons, no longer to be trusted at home; but has modern Europe, in one single instance, established even a factory or a fishery on the surplus of its own human produce? It will be alleged, there has been no surplus. But, as Hamlet says, 66 That is the question."
A powerful critic (in the British Review, No. IV. pp, 475, 476) has fallen out with Mr. Malthus on the subject of the population of Otaheite. Captain Cook, in the year 1773, island to be 204,000. Turnbull, supposed the inhabitants of this about ten years ago, reduced the the 5000 are the totals contrasted number to 5000. The 204,000 and
* Lord Selkirk's experiments in Prince Edward's Island may, perhaps, be mentioned as an exception to the rule bere supposed.