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DEC 17 1

Encyclopædia Britannica.

VOL. I.-(A-ANA).

Total number of Articles, 966.

PRINCIPAL CONTENTS

ABBEY AND ABBOT.

Rev. EDMUND VENABLES, Precentor and Canon of Lincoln

ABELARD. G. CROOM ROBERTSON, M.A., Professor of Logic, University College, London.

ABERDEEN. ALEX CRUICKSHANK, M.A

ABRAHAM. Rev SAMUEL DAVIDSON, D.D., Author of "Introduction to the Old and New Testaments," &c.
ABYSSINIA. DAVID KAF, Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society

ACADEMY. FRANCIS STORR, M.A., Author of "Tables of Irregular Greek Verbs.".

ACCENT. JOHN M. Ross, LL.D., late Editor of the "Globe Encyclopædia.
WALLACE, Author of "Theory of Natural Selection "
British Museum, London.

ACCLIMATISATION. ALFRED R.
ACHILLES. A. STUART MURRAY,
ACHIN. Col. HENRY YULE, C. B., F.R.G.S., Author of "The Book of Marco Polo."
ACOUSTICS. DAVID THOMSON, M.A., late Professor of Natural Philosophy, University of Aberdeen.

ACTS OF THE APOSTLES Principal DONALDSON, LL.D., Author of "Early Christian Literature and Doctrine."
ACTINOZOA. T. H. HUXLEY, LL.D., F.R.S., Professor in the Royal School of Mines, London.

ADAM. Rev. SAMUEL DAVIDSON, D.D

ADDISON. WILLIAM SPALDING, LL. D. late Professor of Rhetoric and Belles Lettres, University of Edinburgh.
ADMIRAL AND ADMIRALTY. F. W. ROWSELL, C. B., Superintendent of Naval Contracts, H. M. Admiralty.
ADULTERATION. Dr HENRY LETHEBY, Ph.D., formerly Medical Officer of Health to the City of London.
AERONAUTICS. JAMES GLAISHER, F.R.S., Superintendent of the Meteorological Section, Greenwich Observatory
ÆSCHYLUS. J. STUART BLACKIE, late Professor of Greek, University of Edinburgh.
ÆSIR. Miss E. C. OTTE, Translator of Humboldt's "Cosmos. *

ESTHETICS. JAMES SULLY, LL.D., Author of "Sensation and Intuition.

AFGHANISTAN. Col. YULE, C. B.

AFRICA. KEITH JOHNSTON, Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society.

AGASSIZ. W. C. WILLIAMSON, LL.D., F. R.S., Professor of Natural History, Owens College, Manchester. AGRARIAN LAWS. GEORGE FERGUSON, LL.D., formerly Professor of Humanity, University of Aberdeen. AGRICULTURE. JOHN WILSON, Member of Council, Highland and Agricultural Society, and W. T. THORNTON,

Author of "A Plea for Peasant Proprietors."

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ALCHEMY. JULES ANDRIEU.

ALEXANDER THE GREAT. Rev. Sir GEORGE W. Cox, Baronet, Author of "A History of Greece," &c.

ALEXANDER VI. RICHARD GARNETT, British Museum, Author of "Idylls and Epigrams from Greek Anthology." ALFORD, DEAN. CHARLES KENT, Author of "Charles Dickens as a Reader."

'ALGE. Dr J. HUTTON BALFOUR, F.R.S., late Professor of Botany in the University of Edinburgh. ALGEBRA. PHilip Kelland, F.R.S., late Professor of Mathematics, University of Edinburgh.

ALGERIA. David Kay, F.R.G.S.

ALPHABET. JOHN PEILE, M. A., Fellow and Tutor of Christ's College, Cambridge.

ALPS. JOHN BALL, F.R.S., late President of the Alpine Club.

ALTAR. Rev. G. H. FORBES.

ALUM. JAMES DEWAR, F.R.S., Jacksonian Professor of Natural Experimental Philosophy, Cambridge.

AMAZON. A. STUART MURRAY, British Museum.

AMBASSADOR. HENRY REEVE, C. B., D.C.L., Registrar of H. M. Privy Council.

AMBULANCE. THOMAS LONGMORE, C. B., Professor of Army Surgery, Netley.

AMERICA (NORTH AND SOUTH). CHARLES MACLAREN, late Fel. of the Geolog. Soc., and of the Royal Society, Edin. AMERICAN LITERATURE. JOHN NICHOL, LL.D., Professor of English Language, University of Glasgow. AMMON. SAMUEL BIRCH, LL.D., D.C.L., Keeper of Department of Oriental Antiquities, British Museum. AMMUNITION. Capt. C. ORDE BROWNE, R.A., Royal Laboratory, Woolwich.

AMOS. Rev. Canon T. K. CHEYNE, Oriel Professor of Exegesis, University of Oxford.

AMPHIBIA. Prof. T. H. HUXLEY.

AMPHITHEATRE. Rev. G. H. FORBES.

ANALOGY AND ANALYSIS. Prof. CROOM ROBERTSON.

ANÆSTHESIA. Dr. JAMES O. AFFLECK, Examiner, Royal College of Physicians, Edinburgh.
ANATOMY. Sir WM. TURNER, M.B., F.R.S., Professor of Anatomy in the University of Edinburgh.

A General INDEX to the ENCYCLOPEDIA is now in preparation, and will refer in detail to the
various subjects embodied in the articles throughout the Work.

PREFATORY NOTICE.

THI

THE ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA úas long deserveaiy held a foremost place amongst

English Encyclopædias. It secured this position by its plan and method of treatment the plan being more comprehensive, and the treatment a happies blending of popular and scientific exposition than had previously been attempted in any undertaking of the kind The distinctive feature of the work was that it gave a connected view of the more important subjects under a single heading, instead of breaking them up into a number of shorter articles. This method of arrangement bad a twofold advantage. The space afforded for extended exposition helped to secure the services of the more independent and productive minds who were engaged in advancing their own departments of scientific inquiry.

As a natural result, the work, while surveying in outline the existing field of knowledge, was able at the same time to enlarge its boundaries by embodying, in special articles, the fruits of original observation and research. The Encyclopædia Britannica thus became, to some extent at least, an instrument as well as a register of scientific

progress. This characteristic feature of the work will be retained and made even more prominent in the New Edition, as the list of contributors already published sufficiently indicates. In some other respects, however, the plan will be modified, to meet the multiplied requitements of advancing knowledge. In the first place, the rapid progress of science during the last quarter of a century necessitates many changes, as well as a considerable increase in the number of headings devoted to its exposition. In dealing with vast wholes, such as Physics and Biology, it is always a difficult problem how best to distribute the parts under an alphabetical arrangement, and perhaps impossible to make such a distribution perfectly consistent and complete. The difficulty of distribution is increased by the complexity of divisions and multiplication of details, which the progress of science involves, and which constitute indeed the most authentic note of advancing knowledge. This sign of

progress is reflected in extensive changes of terminology and nomenclature, vague general headings once appropriate and sufficient, such as Animalcule, being of necessity abandoned for more precise and significant equivalents.

But, sinee the publication of the last edition, science, in each of its main divisions, may

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