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With this apparatus, there were made choice reaction experiments of five different kinds. No specific names were assigned to these, but they are known by the numbers 20, 10, 50, 110, 100, cited in the order in which they were uniformly presented to the subject. Each of these experimental series represents 25 stimuli for choice reactions of its particular type. The copy contained in the experimental series 20, 10 and 50 is reproduced on preceding page.

The strip containing the experimental material was properly adjusted in the frame, and the stimuli successively exposed by tripping a hand-operated release. From 2-3 seconds after the subject had reacted to one stimulus, the next was given. This interval was controlled from the rhythmically winking lamp. The time intervening between the experimental series was that required to remove the strip and insert the next one, which is about 70-90 seconds. Between series 50 and 110 there was regularly a longer intermission, as at this point a new roll of paper had to be inserted in the recorder and the mechanism rewound.

The instructions to the subject for the individual series were presented to him in written form, and to reproduce these is probably also the best way of describing them to the reader. Oral explanations were given to questions if the subject asked any, and the character of these noted. The written instructions of the different series are as follows:

Series 20.-In the opening before you, where you see the white paper now, there will appear, one by one, sets of five figures, one of which is underscored, like this: 54312, or 13542, or 25413. As soon as the set of figures is seen, strike the telegraph key corresponding to the figure that

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a

? For the material in series 100 and 11o, cf. sections 10 and 14. The numerals set in black-faced type are in the copy underscored. Black-faced type was here used because of difficulties incurred in setting the separate figures with a line under them.

• The figures underscored in the tests here and subsequently referred to as underscored are set in black-faced type as explained in foregoing footnote.

*This movement momentarily closes the circuit through the recording pen. Previous reaction experiments with pathological subjects indicated the advisability of a reaction movement of this kind. The recording of the process by breaks instead of makes, while capable of greater accuracy, would have complicated the apparatus out of proportion to the degree of precision required.

is underscored. When the figure 1 is underscored, strike the first key with the thumb; when 2 is underscored, strike the second key with the forefinger; when 3 is underscored, strike the third key with the middle finger; when 4 is underscored, strike the fourth key with the fourth finger; when 5 is underscored, strike the last key with the little finger. Each new set will appear about 3 seconds after you have struck the key for the last one. Thus the first set above, 54312, would mean striking the third key (with the middle finger).

Do this as quickly as you can do it correctly. Strike each key with a quick, sharp motion so as to make sure of a good contact, but letting it up again as soon as a good contact has been made. (As a typewriter would be struck.)

Series 10.—In the opening before you, where you see the white paper now, there will appear, one by one, sets of five figures, like this: 24315, or 52413, or 35421. As soon as the set of figures is seen, strike the telegraph keys corresponding to the figures presented in the order in which they come in the set. For the figure 1, strike the first key with the thumb; for 2, strike the second key with the forefinger; for 3, strike the third key with the middle finger; for 4, strike the fourth key with the fourth finger; for 5, strike the last key with the little finger. Thus the first set of figures above, 24315, would mean striking the second key, then the fourth, then the third, then the first and then the fifth, with the corresponding fingers. Each new set will appear about 3 seconds after you have struck the keys for the last one.

Do this as quickly as you can do it correctly, etc.

Series 50.—In the opening before you, where you see the white paper now, there will appear, one by one, sets of the five vowel letters, aeiou, like this: ouiea, or euoia, or aouie. Strike the telegraph keys for them exactly as for the sets of five plain figures, a representing I, e 2, i 3, o 4, u 5. Thus for a, strike the first key with the thumb, for e strike the second key with the forefinger, for i strike the third key with the middle finger, for o strike the fourth key with the fourth finger, and for u strike the last key with the little finger. For example, the first set of letters above, ouiea, would mean striking the fourth key, then the fifth, then the third, then the second, and then the first, with the corresponding fingers. Each new set will appear about 3 seconds after you have struck the keys for the last one.

Do this as quickly as you can do it correctly, etc.

Series 110.—In the opening before you, where you see the white paper now, there will appear, one by one, little sums, like this: 4+5=9, or 6+8= 14. Sometimes these sums are correct, as above, but sometimes they are incorrect, as 4+3=8, or 6+9=13. As soon as you see the little sum, notice if it is right or wrong, and if it is right, strike with the right hand the telegraph key on that side of the stand; but if it is wrong, strike with the left hand the key on the other side. Thus in the examples given above, 4+5=9 would mean striking the right hand key, and 6+9=13 would mean striking the left hand key. Each new sum will appear about 3 seconds after you have struck the key for the last one.

Do this as quickly as you can do it correctly, etc.

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Series 100.-In the opening before you, where you see the white paper now, there will appear, one by one, short sentences, like this: "horses have four feet," or "people live in houses.” Sometimes what the sentence says is correct, as above, but sometimes it is incorrect, as, “eight inches make a foot,” or “violets have thorns.” As soon as you see the sentence, notice if it is right or wrong, and if it is right strike with the right hand the telegraph key on that side of the stand; but if it is wrong, strike with the left hand the key on the other side. Thus in the examples given above," horses have four feet" would mean striking the right hand key, and "eight inches make a foot” would mean striking the left hand key. Each new sentence would appear about 3 seconds after you have struck the key for the last one.

Do this as quickly as you can do it correctly, etc.

The experimental procedure was refined as experience with the method was gained. It was endeavored to keep rather detailed notes of the subject's attitude and behavior, which was facilitated by a working knowledge of shorthand, and out of this there developed a more systematic method of noting the behavior differences observed in the subjects.

The physical features of the method were adapted for introspective reports, since series could be indefinitely interrupted at any point, and ample facilities for note-taking were at hand. At least one psychologist trained in introspection, who took part in the experiments, drew attention to the possibilities of the method in this direction. The actually negligible place of introspection in the study is conditioned by several factors, regarding which some comments may be made. The school in which the experimenter was reared tends, recognizedly, to consider an increased number of observations more important than elaborate introspective records. This writer has taken part in one experimental investigation where introspection was a prime factor, the relation of the psychogalvanic reflex to emotional reactions. Conditions in that study were more generally favorable to introspection, approaching, indeed, those of psychoanalysis. The impression was gained from this work that earlier introspections were relatively untrustworthy, to become more reliable with practise. With practise, resistances are broken down. Some of the normal persons considered here are fairly well practised in at least the laboratory type of introspection; but the pathological subjects have scarcely any such practise, to which must in some cases be added disinclination to the mental effort of introspection, and the direct influence of the psychosis in distorting it. The most fundamental consideration, however, is that ordinary introspection, whoever performs it, reaches only that part of the mental process of which the person is aware. If anything stands out in the progress of psychological thought during the past ten years, it is recognizing the inadequacy of this part of mental process in the motivation of behavior. Given a false reaction with its attendant introspection of failed attention in terms of imaged or imageless thought, this is a rationalization which describes the false paths the mind followed rather than the force which impelled it along those paths. One gets no further with introspection under the attendant laboratory conditions, having at present no way to combine such complicated experimental routine with an exploration of the unconscious.

Interpretation of results is naturally governed by the character of the subjects from whom they are derived. The 14 individuals here included in the normal group are persons from 20-50 years old, who have up to the present adjusted themselves variously well at various levels, but all well enough for an existence of normally continuous independence. Three had special training in experimental psychology, and are men of recognized standing in it. Four others are as well known in the field of psychiatry. The remainder are at least in mental balance equal to these seven, and it is of course this characteristic that we are concerned with, rather than special abilities that make for distinction.

The II pathological subjects are all men, one being, however, a head-injury case. Of the others, six are of manic-depressive and four of dementia præcox type, all upon more or less psychopathic basis. It is doubtful if more than one of them had so much as ever reached an average adjustment to life. Detailed histories, while accessible, are dispensed with as not sufficiently relevant to the present study.

The normal subjects are designated by the letters B, C, E, H, J, K, L, M, R, S, T, W, X, Y. The pathological subjects are designated by the numbers 16, 17, 24, 31, 36, 71, 74, 75, 79, 84, 86.

There follows a bird's-eye view of the material to be presented, enumerating the several sections under which it is brought forward.

II. Correct reactions of normal subjects: 1. Series 20. Individual differences in reaction speed. 2. Series 20. Comparative work-curves.

3. Series 10. Individual differences in reaction speed (designated by

the symbol r). 4. Series 10. Individual differences in speed of the total process (desig

nated by the symbol t). 5. Series 10. Properties of time elapsing between the first reaction and

the last reaction of a pattern (i. e., t-r, designated

by the symbol s). 6. Series 50. Individual differences in reaction speed. 7. Series 50. Individual differences in speed of the total process. 8. Series 50. Properties of the time elapsing between the first reaction

and the last reaction of a pattern. 9. Series 110. Individual differences in general speed of reaction. 10. Series 110. Comparative speed of reaction to correct and incorrect

propositions. 11. Series 110. Effect of degree of incorrectness on reaction speed. 12. Series 100. Individual differences in general speed of reaction. 13. Series 100. Comparative speed of reaction to correct and incorrect

propositions. 14. Series 100. Topical data.

III. Correct reactions of pathological subjects compared with those of normal subjects: 15. Series 20. Comparison of normal and pathological groups in reac

tion speed. 16. Series 20. Comparison of normal and pathological groups in the

work-curve. 17. Series 10. Comparison of normal and pathological groups in r speed. 18. Series 10. Comparison of normal and pathological groups in t speed. 19. Series 10. Comparison of normal and pathological groups in respect

to the time s. 20. Series 50. Comparison of normal and pathological groups in r speed. 21. Series 50. Comparison of normal and pathological groups in t speed. 22. Series 50. Comparison of normal and pathological groups in respect

to the time s. 23. Series 110. Comparison of normal and pathological groups in reaction

speed. 24. Series 110. Comparison of normal and pathological groups in speed of

reaction to correct and incorrect propositions. 25. Series 100. Comparison of normal and pathological groups in reaction

speed. 26. Series 100. Comparison of normal and pathological groups in speed

of reaction to correct and incorrect propositions.

IV. False reactions of normal subjects: 27. Account of Henmon's work: false reactions from misperception. 28. His data on the relation of false reactions to differences in stimulus. 29. His findings on individual differences in liability to false reactions.

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