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TABLE 13.- MEASUREMENTS OF THE PALATE OF ABNORMAL FEMALE

INDIVIDUALS.

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TABLE 14.-MEASUREMENTS OF THE HEAD OF ABNORMAL FEMALE

INDIVIDUALS.

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Average.

20.13

20.55 17.0

17.9 13.4

14.2

On the basis of the preceding tables (7-14) the following coefficients of correlation have been worked out to show the relation between the various measurements of the palate and the length, breadth and circumference of the head:

TABLE 15.-COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION BETWEEN MEASUREMENTS OF THE

PALATE AND MEASUREMENTS OF THE HEAD.

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It may be seen from these tables that, of the normal coefficients, 21 of the 24 (or 88%) reach a coefficient of correlation of 70% or more, 70% being accepted as a coefficient sufficiently high to represent a true correlation. Of the coefficients for the abnormal cases, 14 of the 24 (or 58%) reach a coefficient of 70% or more. Though this percentage is considerably lower than that of the normal, yet it is evident that a correlation exists even in the abnormal cases. Though a correlation is not found in all abnormal cases, neither is it always found in normal cases. In fact, not a few of the coefficients of the abnormal are actually higher than those of the normal.

a

On the basis of these facts it appears that the greater average height of the abnormal palate may be due to variations in the size of the head.

In general, two types of palate were noted:

(1) The high and narrow, associated in general with the narrow head (dolichocephalic); (2) the low and broad, associated with a broad head (brachycephalic). By referring to the general tables, this statement is verified when one notes that in practically all cases in which the height of the palate is greater than that of the average height, the length, breadth and circumference of the head are found to be smaller than the corresponding norms.

The high and narrow palate, then, may occur in the normal individual as well as in the abnormal, so that we cannot agree with Church and Peterson (2) that “a large, wide, moderately high vault is what may be called a normal standard.” Rather, the shape and size of the head will determine the dimensions of the palate in both normal and abnormal individuals, and the palate will tend to be high when the head is shorter, narrower and of lesser circumference than the norm for the corresponding age. Either of the two types may be normal, depending upon the head measurements, the shape of the palate taking the general contour of the head.

Therefore, because the palate is imperfect, it does not necessarily follow that mentality is imperfect, i. e., there is no necessary connection between the degree of mental capacity and a high palate.

The male and female palate may be compared by means of the following table of averages:

TABLE 16.—COMPARISON OF THE MALE AND FEMALE PALATE.

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It is seen from this table that the male palate tends to be larger than the female, excepting in the case of the height of the palate

(and in the normal, measurement D, where the difference is small), where the female exceeds that of the male.

This fact corroborates our previous conclusion, that the height of the palate depends upon the size of the head, the female head being smaller than the male and therefore producing a higher palate. By referring to Tables 7-14 it is evident that in both

TABLE 17.–VOLUME OF Casts (IN MM.). MEASURED WITH MERCURY.

Abnormal Male.

Normal Male.

Abnormal Female.

Normal Female.

5.0

4.5

P. É....

Age. Volume. Age. Volume.

Age. Volume. Age. Volume. L. C.... 7 2.5

R. S.. 5

4.5 H. G....8 6.5 E. R...5 4.5 F. S.... 7 6.0 J. V... 5 5.0 I. V.

9

6.2 R. R...8 7.0 A. S.... 7 4.5 F. F..6 7.0

J. T....
9 6.5 M. S...9

6.0 F. O.... 8 B. P..12 8.5

E. L....10 5.5
H. J.... 8 5.5
A. S..14

Average 5.8
7.2
C. V....11

P.E....
9 4.7
R. C..21 10.5
B. B....II

.400

6.0 J. V....10

P. D.... .514 5.2

M. V...12 3.5 T. W...10

9.2

Average 7.1 T. B....12 9.0 M. Z...11

P. E.....560|| S. S....12 10.0

9.0 J. P....

P. D... .615 M. L...15
8.0
II

6.0
J. L....12
7.5

E. B....17

7.5 H. A...12 6.0 G. L....12 6.0

Average 6.3
S. R....12 8.0

P. E.... .3241
J. H....12 8.0
L. H...13 11.0
L. R....14 6.0
M. K...14

7.0 M. B...14 9.0

11.0 F. S....16 8.0 F. R....16 10.0 J. L....16 7.0 J. B....17

8.0 A. E...17

7.0 F. B....17 6.0 O. K...18 6.5

Average 7.1
P. E....

.255

L. R...

...15

abnormal and normal individuals, the averages of the length, breadth and circumference of the female head are in all cases less than those of the male for the corresponding measurements. The palate then tends to be high in either normal or abnormal individuals when the head is narrower, shorter and of lesser circumference than the norm for the corresponding age.

As for asymmetry, indicated by plus signs in Tables 7, 9, 11, and 13, the casts of the normal individuals tend to show asymmetry as generally as do the abnormal. In many cases the asymmetry is as great in the normal as in the abnormal palate: Asymmetry, then, is not a distinguishing characteristic of the palate in abnormal individuals.

The volume of the casts, as measured with mercury, is shown in the following table (17). It is evident that the volume of the abnormal cast differs, on the average, practically not at all from the normal. The volume of the female cast is smaller in both the averages for the normal and for the abnormal individuals.

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 1. Channing, Walter, and Wissler, Clark: Comparative Measurements of

the Hard Palate in Normal and Feeble-Minded Individuals. A Pre

liminary Report. Am. Jr. Insanity, Vol. 61, pp. 687-697. 2. Church and Peterson: Mental and Nervous Diseases, pp. 692-697. 3. Down, Langdon: On the Relation of the Teeth and Mouth to Mental

Development. Trans. Odontological Soc. Great Britain, Vol. 4, N. S. 4. Ireland: Mental. Affections of Children. Chap. on Genetous Idiocy. 5. Peterson, Frederick: Deformities of the Hard Palate in Degenerates.

International Dental Jr., 1895, p. 719. 6. Shaw, T. Claye: Measurement of the Palate in Idiots and Imbeciles.

Jr. Mental Science, July, 1876. 7. Talbot, E.: History of Deformed Vaults. Dental Cosmos, 1893, p. 1210. 8. Talbot, E.: Developmental Pathology, 1911. 9. Tredgold, A. R.: Mental Deficiency.

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