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There are not a few who, over three years ago, were almost wishing that they had never lived to see such a dire day as was then dawning, but who have come to see through the years that the dark day of tragedy was also a day glorious with opportunity and destiny. It is even now said that had the war been won two years ago, it would have been the worst thing for our nation, as its lessons had not been learned.

A new and better day is coming for this war-wrecked world. The sea before us is uncharted, and there may be much that differs radically from the past, but we can only do as Columbus did

sail on.

A new spirit is moving in the masses of society. Men's ways of thinking are changing more rapidly than at any other time in history. Before the war it was said that to spend 25 millions yearly on social reforms in Great Britain would mean national bankruptcy. Now it is found that more than that can be spent in a day to ensure the national safety. It will be found after the war that great expenditures to improve social conditions will come as a matter of course.

The soldiers will return with enlarged views of democracy and social justice. The rich and the poor, the learned and the ignorant, have together looked death in the face. The sense of brotherhood and comradeship has been immensely strengthened. Those who were less favored under the old social system will be inclined to demand justice and equality. Those who were more favored will be inclined to concede the demand. Artificial distinctions of rank and even distinctions founded on superior capacity and learning, fade away before the proof of the common virtues of manhood. The equality that is sought is the equality of brotherhood and of

rights.

Just as in war time, so it must be in time of peace—the good of the country, the well-being of the many, must prevail against the privileges and over the rights of few. This is good politics. It is true patriotism. The world is going to be a better place for the great masses of men. It we can but keep up the habit that we are to-day learning of being world citizens, interested in great enterprises outside of ourselves, then we would be helping to build the democracy of the future, which must more and more become a society in which duties are greater than rights, and to serve a finer

thing than to get.

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If in these introductory remarks I have not been able to detach myself from the world's most serious business at the present time, perhaps on reflection they may not have gone very far afield from the subject which binds us together in an association. If there is to be a change in the conditions under which we live this must have its effect on the minds of men ; whether for good or ill, I will not stop to speculate. We are intensely concerned with environment. This war itself is entangled with it.

England's greatness, her devotion to honor, truth, and fidelity, is due to the environment in which her children are trained and grow to manhood.

The ivy-grown wall, the vine-clad hills and the rose-covered bowers constitute the birth-place of English character.

Gerard tells us the cause of the war is the uncongenial environment in which the German youth is cradled and reared. The leaden skies for which Prussia is noted, its bleak Baltic winds, the continuous cold, dreary rains, the low-lying land and the absence of flowers have tended to harden the spirit and rob it of its virtue, produce a sullen and morose character, curdling the milk of human kindness.

It is a greater pleasure than usual for Canadians to meet with their American cousins in this year when our two countries are joined in the grim but glorious comradeship of war in defence of the heritage and aspirations that belong to us both. Our fathers came from common soil, their veins flow common blood. For over a century we have lived as good neighbors in the friendly rivalries of peace. Through proximity we have adopted more and more your ways without becoming a whit less true to the British flag.

After this war we will be still better friends. We will have been in a fight together and on the same side. We will carry flowers across the seas to lay on mounds in the same clime. The boys who come back will have the same stories to tell of struggles and triumphs. Let us hope that the present is the dark hour that precedes the dawn, and that ere long the sky may be fired with the red glow of the rushing morn; that soon the shot that brings victory-the last one-may be heard, and if it come from an American gun, no Canadian will begrudge you the lucky honor.

The war has achieved much in cementing the two great Englishspeaking nations of the world as nothing else could possibly have done.

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Great Britain and the United States have never before fought shoulder to shoulder, but they are doing it now, and the fact is one ominous to their enemies. A common peril has united them, and a common aim will perpetuate the union. To no group of people will success in the war mean more than to the Anglo-Saxons, and the fact that this great family will in future dwell together in undisguised confidence and good-will is worth in itself all that the war has cost.

The Allies are depending on this land for food and men, for ships and guns, for ammunition and aeroplanes, and this is leading Britain to recast its views of the United States, and is leading the latter to regard Britain in a more favorable light than ever before. The old suspicions and the ancient grudges are being melted away. Years of misunderstanding were trodden under foot when American boys marched through the streets of an amazed and admiring London.

It had long been a reproach that on this Continent men cared for nothing but the almighty dollar and made gold their hope, but when the call came to sacrifice for the good of the Allies no nation ever responded more gladly or liberally. Britain asked for meat, all you could spare, and you answered with meatless days, with the result that the United States has been able to supply millions of pounds more of bacon and beef than were expected. To-day the British workman has his normal supply of meat, thanks to

America's response.

Germany

never played more clearly into the hands of her foes than when she scornfully defied the world's greatest republic, in the mistaken conviction that while the United States was of great potential strength she would not dare to challenge the mightiest military machine that ever cursed the world. But Germany's blunder will prove the world's salvation if it succeeds in binding together in friendship, the two great peace-loving, freedomcherishing, English-speaking democracies, Great Britain and America.

In 1493, a tiny barque, frail and scarred by many a storm, the first craft from America, returned to the shores of Europe. She bore what was then termed the richest freight that ever lay upon the bosom of the deep—the tidings of a new world beyond that vast waste of water which rolled in untamed majesty to the west.

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That was a year of good news for the people of Europe. The thirst for gold was as keen in the 15th century as it is to-day and the discovery of Columbus disclosed to monarchs and adventurers alike visions of wealth.

Little could they reck that in this year infinitely more precious freight would be borne across the same pathway, when ship after ship, leviathans of the deep, would bring from that new world to somewhere in Europe, offspring of the sturdy pioneers from the old land, who in braving the savage forces of nature had found liberty, legions of brave and noble men, in martial array, with the star-spangled banner at the mast-head, to reveal to the war-bound nations visions of something with which those of the wealth of the boundless West or the gorgeous East could not compare—visions of freedom for all mankind.

Thank God! “Our fathers' God, to whom they came in every storm and stress," America did not turn a deaf ear to the laureate's apostrophe:

"Gigantic daughter of the West,

We drink to thee across the flood;
We know thee most, we love thee best,

For art not thou of British blood ?
Should War's mad blast again be blown,

Permit not thou the Tyrant Powers
To fight thy mother here alone,

But let thy broadsides roar with ours."

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for instance,

TRAUMATIC AND EMOTIONAL PSYCHOSES.

SO-CALLED SHELL SHOCK.'

By J. ROGUES DE FURSAC, M.D., Formerly Chief of Clinic at the Medical Faculty of Paris, Physician-inChief of the Public Insane Asylums of the Seine Department. TRANSLATED BY AARON J. ROSANOFF, M. D.,

Major, Medical Reserve Corps,

U.S. Army Hospital, Plattsburg Barracks, N. Y. “ Traumatic psychoses” and “mental disorders supervening at the occasion of traumatism are not the same.

In the first place, one should not include among traumatic psychoses mental disorders which are brought on by some factor which may be associated with or superadded to a traumatism, as,

an attack of delirium tremens in an alcoholic who has met with an injury, or one of febrile delirium in a wounded man who has developed an infection. It is

proper also to exclude those post-traumatic mental disorders which, by reason of their clinical manifestations or a characteristic morbid anatomy, find their place in a definite pathological group, such as general paralysis, dementia præcox, or a constitutional psychopathic state. In such cases we are dealing not with traumatic psychoses but with general paralysis, dementia præcox, or a constitutional psychopathic state in the etiology of which the traumatism has played a part the importance of which is variable and for the most part merely contributory and indirect. Thus far all are agreed.

(TRANSLATOR'S NOTE.—The European armies have suffered in the course of the present war a large incidence of mental disorders. It may be predicted that when the American army becomes fully engaged in the struggle many cases will develop for psychiatric study. Therefore any studies of war psychoses that have been made by the medical officers of the European armies cannot fail to be of practical interest to us. One of the most lucid presentations of the subject that have come to my attention is this one, which was published by the author in the form of a new chapter added to the fifth French edition of his Manual of Psychiatry. I have translated it in order to bring it within more ready access of medical officers of the

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American army.)

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