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SECTION XXIII.

SALTS OF URANIUM.

NITRATE OF URANIUM,

Experiment 1. If uranium or its oxyd be dissolved in nitric acid, nitrate of uranium will be formed, which on evaporation, will yield crystals in hexagonal tables or in four flat sided prisms. This salt is composed of 61 oxyd, 25 acid, and 14 water.

Experiment 2. If this salt be exposed to a strong heat, it acquires a lemon yellow colour, and is converted into sub-nitrate of uranium.

MURIATE OF URANIUM.

Experiment 1. When oxyd of uranium is dissolved in muriatic acid, the solution, on evaporation, will yield crystals, having the form of four sided tables, of muriate of uranium.

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SULPHATE OF URANIUM.

Experiment 1. If the oxyd of uranium be digested in sulphuric acid, it will be dissolved, and form sulphate of uranium, which crystallizes in prisms or tables. This salt is composed of 18 acid, 70 oxyd, and 12 water.

ACETATE OF URANIUM.

Experiment 1. Oxyd of uranium readily dissolves in acetic acid, and yields acetate of uranium in long slender transparent four sided prisms, terminated by four sided pyramids. See Uranium.

The salts of uranium give the following appearances:

1. The pure alkalies afford a yellow precipitate ;

2. Prussiate of potash produces a brownish red pre cipitate;

3. Hydro-sulphuret of potash occasions a brownish yellow precipitate; and,

4. Infusion of galls imparts a chocolate coloured precipitate.

SECTION XXIV.

SALTS OF TUNGSTEN.

This genus of salts is still unknown. From the difficulty of obtaining the metal in a state of purity, none of its combinations have been particularly examined. See Tungsten.

SECTION XXV.

SALTS OF TITANIUM.

NITRATE OF TITANIUM.

Experiment 1. When carbonate of titanium is dis. solved in nitric acid, nitrate of titanium is formed, which crystallizes in the form of elongated rhombs, having two opposite angles truncated so as to represent six sided tables.

MURIATE OF TITANIUM.

Experiment 1. Carbonate of titanium dissolved in

muriatic acid, forms muriate of titanium, which crys tallizes in cubes.

SULPHATE OF TITANIUM.

Experiment 1. The carbonate of titanium treated in the same manner with sulphuric acid, forms sulphate of titanium, which does not crystallize.

Remark. The salts of titanium exhibits the following properties :

1. Carbonated alkalies occasion a flaky precipitate;

2. Prussiate of potash, a yellowish brown precipi. tate ;

3. Hydro-sulphuret of potash, a dirty bottle green; and,

4. The infusion of galls produces a fine red precio pitate.

When a rod of tin is plunged into a solution of titanium, the liquid assumes a red colour: a rod of zine occasions a deep blue colour. See Titanium,

SECTION XXVI.

SALTS OF COLUMBIUM.

Owing to the scarcity of this metal, the experiments have been few, and confined to a few chemists; consequently its combinations have been but imperfectly examined. Oxyd of columbium is said to be very readily soluble in some of the vegetable acids, as the oxalic, tartaric, and citric, but scarcely soluble in sulphuric, nitric, and muriatic acids. No change is said to take place when prussiate of potash, or hydro-sulphuret of potash is added to a solution of this metal; but infusion of nut-galls throws down an orange coloured precipitate.

SECTION XXVII.

SALTS OF CERIUM.

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The salts of this metal, although more known than those of columbium, are few in number.

Of the combination of this metal with acids, we have the nitrate, muriate, sulphate, carbonate, acetate, &c. which are either of a white or a yellow colour. The salts of cerium are decomposed by several of the reagents, viz.

1. Hydrosulphuret of potash; which throws down, form their solution, a white precipitate.

2. Prussiate of potash, which gives a milk white precipitate ; and,

3. Oxalate of ammonia, which occasions a white precipitate insoluble in nitric and muriatic acids. See Cerium.

PART XVIII.

OF COMPOUND COMBUSTIBLES.

SECTION I.

OF ALCOHOL.

Experiment 1. If wine, beer, or other fermented liquor be distilled, the product will be ardent spirits ; and,

Experiment 2. If this product be again distilled, with a gentle heat, either by itself, or from potash, dry muriat e of lime, &c. the liquid called alcohol, or spirit of wine will be obtained.

Remark. The pure inflammable part of spirit is called alcohol. As ardent spirits are obtained by the distillation of various fermented liquors, it is obvious that they receive various names according to the nature of the substance employed. Thus brandy is obtained from wine, rum from the fermented juice of the sugar cane; whiskey and gin from the fermented infusion of malt or grain, or from cyder, &c. As ardent spirits, therefore, contains at least three ingredients, viz. water, pure spirit or alcohol, and some essential oil, it is evident that when distilled, the first portion which comes over (if the spirit be not strong) is nothing more than the rectified spirits of commerce. In the distillation of alcohol, the object is to separate as much as possible the water, with which it is diluted in the form of spirit. This, we have said, may be effected either by repeated distillation, or by the use of potash or dry muriate of lime, which has the property of keeping down the aqueous portion, whilst the alcohol rises. For conducte

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