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Experiment 2. If this solution be left to itself, or concentrated by evaporation, oxyd of tin will be precipi. tated.
Experiment 3. If concentrated nitric acid be diges. ted on tin, the metal will be converted into the per oxyd.
Remark. As the per oxyd of tin is formed, in con. sequence of the rapid decomposition of the acid, no solution of the metal takes place. During the action of the acid animonia is formed, and remains in a combination with the acid.
Experiment 4.. If a solution of gold be added to a solution of tin in nitric acid, a beautiful purple precipitate falls. See Gold.
MURIATE OF TIN.
Experiment 1. If tin be introduced into muriatic acid, and a gentle heat applied, it will be dissolved, and form muriate of tin.
Experiment 2. If this solution be evaporated, crys. tals in the shape of needles will be formed.
Remark. As this salt readily combines with oxygen, whether from the atmosphere, from oxymuriatic or nitric acid, or from various metallic oxyds and salts, the remarkable changes which it produces on many metallic solutions is accounted for.
Experiment 3. If an amalgam of tin and corrosive muriate of mercury be mixed and distilled in a retort, at first water comes over, and then a dense colourless liquid condenses, which is the smoaking liqour of Libavius or oxyınuriate of tin.
Rationale. The muriated mercury is decomposed; the muriatic acid quits the mercury and unites with the tin, which being sufficiently oxydized in the process, constitutes oxymuriate of tin.
Experiment 4. If muriate of tin be exposed to the atmosphere, it will be converted into the oxymuriate ; or,
Experiment 5. If a current of oxymuriatic acid gas
be made to pass through the same solution, the same product will result.
Experiment 6. If oxymuriate of tin be combined • with a sufficient quantity of water, it will yield, on evaporation, small prismatic crystals. See Tin.
SULPHATE OF TIN.
Experiment 1. If sulphuric acid be added to muri. ate of tin, sulphate of tin will be formed in the state of a white powder; and,
Experiment 2. If this powder be dissolved in water and the solution evaporated, crystals of sulphate of tin will be the result.
Experiment 3. Iftin be oxydized to the maximum, and then combined with sulphuric acid, or the nitrate of tin decomposed by sulphuric acid, a salt will be formed called oxysulphate of tin, which assumes the form of a jelly.
SULPHITE OF TIN.
Experiment !. When tin is kept in sulphurous acid, it is converted into oxyd and sulphuret of tin; the for. mer is then dissolved, and forms the sulphite of tin.
PHOSPHATE OF TIN
Experiment 1. Phosphoric acid united with tin forms phosphate of tin, which is a white powder insoluble in water.
FLUATE OF TIN.
Experiment 1. Fluoric acid attacks tin, when oxydized, and forms a gelatinous solution of fluate of tin.
BORATE OF TIN.
Experiment 1. Boracic acid unites with tin into a white insoluble powder, called borate of tin.
ACETATE OF TIN.
The prot oxyd of tin unites with acetic acid into acetate of tin; but,
Experiment 2. If the per-oxyd be used, it forms oxacetate of tin, which is not crystallizable.
SUCCINATE OF TIN.
Experiment 1. Succinic acid in solution combines with tin, forming succinate of tin, which crystallizes.
BENZOATE OF TIN.
Experiment 1. If benzoic acid be united with oxyd of tin, benzoate of tin will result.
OXALATE OF TIN.
Experiment 1. Tin dissolves in oxalic acid forming oxalate of tin, which crystallizes in prisms, and is very soluble in water.
ARSENIATE OF TIN.
Experiment 1. Arsenic acid unites with tin, which is a white insoluble powder.
Remark. The salts of tin are, for the most part, soluble in water: they exhibit the following properties :
1. Prussiate of potash gives a white precipitate.
2. Hydro-sulphuret of potash occasions a brownish black, or golden yellow precipitate.
3. Muriate of mercury produces a black or a white precipitate.
4. Infusion of nut-galls occasions no precipitate in these solutions.
SALTS OF LEAD.
NITRATE OF LEAD.
Experiment 1. If lead be dissolved in diluted nitric acid, and the solution evaporated, crystals of oxy-nitrate of lead will be formed.
Remark. The crystals of this salt are sometimes tetrahedrons, having their apexes truncated; sometimes octahedrons. They are opake and white, and have a silvery lustre. Their taste is sweet and harsh. They are not altered by exposure to the air. They dissolve in less than eight parts of boiling water. When heated it decrepitates, and in a strong heat the acid is driven off, while at the same time the oxyd is partially reduced to the metallic state. This salt is composed of 66. yellow oxyd, 34 acid and water.
Experiment 2. If lead be boiled in oxy-nitrate of lead, a salt will be formed called nitrate of lead.
Remark. In this salt the lead is between a minimum and maximum of oxydizement; the solution which it forms is of a yellow colour. When evaporated the salt crystallizes in scales, and in small prisms. The oxyd in my trials appeared to be the yellow: but Buchloz. affirms that it contains less oxygen.
This salt is composed of 81.5 oxyd, 18.5 acid.
HYPER-OXYMURIATE OF LEAD.
Experiment 1. If oxyd of lead be diffused in water, and a current of oxy-muriatic acid gas passed through the water, hyper-oxymuriate of lead will be formed.
• MURIATE OF LEAD. Experiment 1. If muriatic acid be poured into a se
lution of lead, a white precipitate falls, which is muriate of lead; or,
Experiment 2. If muriate of soda be added to a solution of nitrate of lead, muriate of lead will be precipitated as before. See Lead.
Experiment 3. If this salt be fused in a crucible, it forms plumbum corneum ; and,
Experiment 4. If the heat be urged, it is converted into sub-muriate of lead, or patent yellow. See Lead.
Remark. The muriate of lead is composed of about 181 acid, and 81 yellow oxyd. The crystallized salt contains 76 per cent. of metallic lead.
SULPHATE OF LEAD.
Experiment 1. If sulphuric acid be poured into a solution of lead, sulphate of lead will be precipitated; or,
Experiment 2. If sulphate of soda be added to nitrate or acetate of lead, the same compound will preci. pitate. See Lead.
Remark. Sulphate of lead is a white powder insoluble in water, alcohol, and nitric and acetic acid. It is found native, crystallized in octahedrons. It is composed of about twenty-five acid and seventy-five yellow oxyd. An hundred parts of it according to Kirwan, contain twenty-one of metallic lead. It may be heated to redness in a platinum crucible without alteration; but when in contact with charcoal, it melts and the lead is reduced.
SULPHITE OF LEAD.
Experiment 1. If lead or its oxyd be combined with sulphurous acid, a tasteless insoluble white powder will be formed, called sulphite of lead, which contains 74.5 per cent. of oxyd.
PHOSPHATE OF LEAD.
Experiment 1. If a solution of phosphate of soda be