Obrazy na stronie

keen observation and familiar knowledge of the character and of men,-it is there that we find the wise, comprehensive and genial mind, that could readily seize, and interpret in easy and graceful verse, the characteristic incidents of his eventful times, the features of Roman life and manners, and the great facts of human life and experience. The value of these writings to the student of Roman history and Roman character, has been briefly and truly expressed by Mr. Milman. "Of Rome," he says, 66 or of the Roman mind, no one can know any thing, who is not profoundly versed in Horace; and whoever really understands Horace will have a more perfect and accurate knowledge of the Roman manners and the Roman mind, than the most diligent and laborious investigator of the Roman antiquities." In their relations to the study of poetry as an art, and to all aesthetic criticism, they are scarcely less valuable. Critics and writers on rhetoric have always ranked them among their chief authorities, and have found in their aphoristic maxims, admirable alike in thought and expression, the fundamental rules of good taste and good composition. But these writings have a greater and wider value -a value for all men of all times. This consists in the practical wisdom that pervades them-the noblest and best wisdom of the world, and more than this was not then attainable the cheerful philosophy of human life, gained by a large and thoughtful observation and experience of the world, and imparted in no obtrusive, dogmatic tone, but with all the kindness of a familiar friend, bidding us shun "the care that loads the day with superfluous burden," and thankfully accept every joyous hour that is given us, to seek for happiness not in honors and riches, or rank, or in any external circumstances, but in ourselves; not in distant lands, and in new and strange scenes, but here, at home, wherever our lot may be cast, in a 1 In his Life of Horace, prefixed to his illustrated edition of the poet's works.


Quod petis, hic est,

Est Ulubris, animus si te non deficit aequus.

Epist. 1, 11, 29, 30.

oltivated, well-regulated mind, in reasonable desires, in an even, contented spirit. It is here that we discover the secret of Horace's power over so many minds; it is not his style, with its rare union of elegance and vigor, it is not his terseness and felicity of expression,-these alone could never explain nor could they create so wide and enduring a popularity; but it is the wise thoughts, just sentiments, and genuine truths, universally applicable to the every-day lives of men, which are the staple of his work, and of which the graces of style, the felicitous expression, are the rich and finished setting, it is these that have made him the favorite companion, not only of classical scholars, but of statesmen, philosophers, and men of the world; the most read, the best remembered, and the most frequently quoted of all the writers of antiquity.

The fame of Horace has far exceeded the measure of his own proud prophecy. It has outlived those solemn processions to the Capitol of pontiffs and vestal virgins, it has outlived the entire religion of ancient Rome, and ancient Rome itself, and after the lapse of ages, it still flourishes in all its early freshness; and with equal truth and beauty has it been described in an apostrophe to Horace, by an Italian poet:

Salgo la cima ombrosa, e fresco e verde
Veggio l'alloro tuo lassù tenersi,
Che per si lunga età foglia non perde:

Veggiol dell' immortal tua lira adorno,
E le immagini belle e i sacri versi
Con la grand' Ombra tua girarvi intorno.

"I climb the shady summit, and behold
Thy laurel there still ever fresh and green,
Which thro' long ages not a leaf hath lost:

I see it decked with thy immortal lyre,
And beauteous images and sacred verse
Still wandering round it with thy mighty shade.

1 O. 3, 30, 8-10.

U. C. B. C.






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L. Aurelius Cotta, L. Horace is born, on the 8th of December.
Manlius Torquatus.

12 Cn. Domitius Calvinus, Horace is carried to Rome.


706 49 16

M. Valerius Messala.

C. Claudius Marcellus. Civil war between Caesar and Pompey.
L. Cornelius Lentu- Pompey leaves Italy. Caesar goes to Rome.

lus Crus.

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C. Julius Caesar III.,
M. Aemilius Lepidus.
C. Julius IV. (without
colleague), Dictator.
C. Julius Caesar V., M

Battle of Pharsalia. Assassination of Pompey.

Battle of Thapsus. Death of Cato at Utica.
Horace goes to Athens.

Assassination of Julius Caesar.

22 C. Vibius Pansa, A. Hir- Octavianus, Antony and Lepidus form the

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Cornificius, Sext.

34 C. Caesar Octavianus
III., M. Valerius Mes-
sala Corvinus.

35 C. Caesar Octavianus
IV., M. Licinius Cras-


36 C Caesar Octavianus
V., Sex. Appuleius.

second triumvirate. Preparations for war
between the triumvirs and Brutus and
Cassius. Horace enters the army of Bru-
tus, as tribune. Death of Cicero. Birth
of Ovid.

The two engagements at Philippi. Death of
Brutus and of Cassius. Birth of Claudius
Tiberius Nero.

Horace returns to Rome.

The alliance between Octavianus and Antony, formed at Brundusium, and called Foedus Brundusinum.

Asinius Pollio is sent against the Parthini ; triumphs over them. Horace is introduced to Maecenas.

Beginning of the friendship between Maecenas and Horace.

The journey to Brundusium; see Sat. 1, 5.

Phraates, the Parthian king, dethroned on account of his cruelty, and Tiridates placed upon the throne. Horace publishes the

First Book of Satires.

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U. O. B. O



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C. Caesar Octavianus Octavianus dedicates the temple of Apollo on the Palatine; O. 1, 31. VI., M. Agrippa II. 38 C. Caesar Octavianus Aug. VII., M. Agrippa III.

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24 41

40 C. Caesar Octavianus
Aug. IX., M. Junius

C. Caesar Aug. X., C.
Norbanus Flaccus.

42 C. Caesar Aug. XI., A.
Terentius Varro Mu-

731 23

732 22


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Octavianus receives the title of Augustus and of Imperator. Preparations are made for an expedition against Arabia; O. 1, 29. Expedition of Augustus against the Cantabrians. Expedition against Arabia, under command of Aelius Gallus.

Phraates expels Tiridates from Parthia. Augustus, having conquered the Cantabrians, returns to Rome, and closes for the second time the temple of Janus; O. 3, 14; ib. 4, 15. Death of Quinctilius; O. 1, 24. Horace (probably) publishes the first Three Books of his Odes.

Death of the young Marcellus; O. 1, 2, 45 seqq. Augustus is invested with the tribunician power for life.

M. Claudius Marcellus, A
L. Arruntius.

conspiracy against Augustus discovered and suppressed.

M. Lollius, Q. Aemilius Augustus goes to Greece; winters at Samos.

C. Sentius Saturninus, Death of Virgil at Brundusium.

Q. Lucretius.

47 P. Cornelius Lentulus, Horace publishes the First Book of Epistles. Cn. Cornelius Lentul

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