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presence of one or two beauties cannot redeem a poem generally faulty (tol. 359); this truth is illustrated (to 1. 365) by a comparison of poetry with painting... 347. Ignovisse. See n. O. i., 1, 4. 352. Fudit; the word keeps up the metaphor in maculas. Comp. Sat. i., 6, 66. 354. Scriptor-librarius; the transcriber; the slave employed to copy books. See Becker's account of the librarii, in Gallus, p. 236. Idem; neut. acc. 357. Choerilus. See n. Epist. ii., 1, 233. 358. Idem. Nom. masc.; see n. O. ii., 10, 16.- 359. Dormitat Homerus.

On cons.

It is unnecessary to suppose that Horace had in mind any particular fault of Homer; he merely uses Homer as an example of a good poet. 361. Ut pietura. Perhaps the mention of Homer, and the thought of his graphic, picture-like poetry suggested this comparison of poetry with painting. So Cic. in Tusc. v., 39, says, in speaking of Homer: Traditum est etiam, Homerum caecum fuisse. At ejus picturam, non poesin, videmus. Quae regio, quae ora, qui locus Graeciae, quae species formaque pugnae, quae acies, quod remigium, qui motus hominum, qui ferarum, non ita expictus est, ut, quae ipse non viderit, nos ut videremus, efficeret? -364. Non formidat. The chief point in the comparison is, that the poem of high merit, the true poem, is that which will bear frequently repeated and the closest examination. -366–378. Having inculcated the necessity of excellence in poetry, the poet now shows the reasonableness of his doctrine: In such pursuits as are necessary to life, mediocrity is tolerated; but from poetry, which is not indispensable, but is intended to please, mediocrity is excluded. 367. Sapis; see above n. on 1. 308. 368. Tolle memor; lay up in your memory. 368. Consultus juris-actor. Illustrations of certis-rebus. juris, see n. Sat. i., 1, 9.- 371. Messalae. See n. Sat. i., 10, 29. 371. Cascellius Aulas. A Roman jurist; mentioned by Valerius Maximus, 6, 2, 1, as vir juris civilis scientia clarus; as this mention of him belongs to the year B. c. 41, he must have been, if still living, at the time of this allusion, a very old man. 372. Mediocribus; on the construction, see n. Sat. i., 1, 19. 373. Columnae; the columns or pillars of the porticoes, under which were the booksellers' shops. See n. Sat i., 4, 71; i. e. the books of such poets are not worth (as we should say) the advertising, are unsaleable. 375. Sardo. The Sardinian honey was bitter. Roasted poppy-seed with honey was a favorite dish at the dessert of a Roman dinner. -379.–384. And yet many, entirely destitute of the requisite capacity, venture to write poetry. Comp. with this passage, Epist. ii., 1, 114-117. -379. Campestribus; of the Campus Martius. Comp. nn. O. i., 4 and 10.- - 381. Coronae; the ring; the crowd of spectators. - 382. Nescit; sc. fingere. -383. Census; a participle; followed by summam, as a Greek accusative; see n. O. i., 1, 21. On equestrem summam, see n. Epist. i., 1, 58.- 385-40%. Turning again directly to Piso, he bids him consult


ris abilities, before he write; if he ever write, to submit his writings to faiful critics, and to beware of hasty publication (to 390); then, to awaken in him a just sense of the sacred dignity of poetry (see lines 406, 407), he passes to an enumeration of the ancient and noble offices of the art (to 407). — - 385. Invita—Minerva. Cicero, in de Off. i., 31, explains this expression; invita ut aiunt, Minerva, id est, adversante et repugnante natura. -386. Est. The true reading. Esto is a mere conjecture. -387. Meti. See n. Sat. i., 10, 38.- 388. Nonum-in

annum; indefinite; = "in aliquod tempus," which is the expression of Quinctilian in a parallel passage, 10, 4, 2: "Nec dubium est, optimum esse emendandi genus, si scripta in aliquod tempus reponuntur, ut ad ea, post intervallum, velut nova atque aliena redeamus.". 389. Intus;

i. e. in the scrinium. On membranis, see n. Sat. ii., 3, 2. -390. Nescit, etc. See Epist. i., 18, 71.- -391. Horace draws his firs illustrations from the bards of the mythic period, Orpheus, Amphion, whose poetry he describes (to 1. 401) as the parent of civilization, the source of religion, laws, and the useful arts. Silvestres homines; i. e. living

in the woods; "the barbarous natives of the wood." Colman. Comp. n. O. i., 10, 2. Sacer. Virg. Aen. vi., 645, uses of Orpheus the expres sion Threicius Sacerdos. Deorum; i. e. of their will. 394. Dictus ob hoc. Comp. O. i., 12, 9-12. Thus Horace beautifully explains the stories of the magical sway of Orpheus over nature and the beasts of the field; it is the wondrous influence of music and poetry in promoting human civilization. - 394. Amphion. See n. O. iii., 11, 1.

396. Sapientia quondam; i. e. the office of the ancient sages or poets. Haec points to what follows, publica, etc. - 401. Post hos, etc. He now mentions briefly the different kinds of poetry, and the ends they aimed at. 402. Tyrtaeus. The poet-warrior, who inspired, by his songs, the courage of the Lacedemonians in the 2d Messenian war. The commentators quote the words of Justin, 3, 5, concerning him: Carmina exercitui pro concione recitavit; in quibus hortamenta virtutis, damnorum solatia, belli consilia conscripserat. -403. Sortes. The lots or responses of oracles, which were in verse. See Dict. Antiqq. under the word. 404. Vitae-via; in allusion to instructive or didactic poetry, e. g. the writings of Hesiod, Theognis, and others, see Manual Class. Lit., p. 168.- Gratia regum. This expression is illustrated by the lyric songs of Pindar, in praise of the exploits and victories of kings. - 405. Ludusque repertus; dramatic poetry, which originated in the festivals (Dionysia) of the people, held at the time of vintage. See n. above on 193-201; and Dict. Antiqq. Dionysia.

408-415. The poet must unite with genius the laborious culture of art. 409. Nec studium. On this question Cicero expresses the same opinion, pro Archia, 7: Atque idem ego contendo, cum ad naturam eximiam atque illustrem accesserit ratio quaedam conformatioque doctrinae,


tum illud nescio quid praeclarum ac singulare solere existere. -412. Qui studet. The necessity of art is illustrated in the case of the competitor in the foot-race (at the Olympian Games), and of the fluteplayer at the Pythian Games. Metam. See n. O. i., 1, 4; and the illustration on p. 309. -414. Pythia; acc., sc. certamina. Comp. n. Epist. i., 1, 50. The Pythian Games were celebrated at Delphi; Dict. Antiqq. The poet refers to the musical contests at the Games. 416-452. He who would be a true poet, must not be self-complacent (to 1. 418); nor give heed to selfish flatterers, to whom he will be especially exposed, if he happen to be rich (to 1. 437); but submit to the guidance of the honest and faithful critic (to 1. 452). -417. Occnpet-scabies; plague take the hindmost; an expression, borrowed (according to the Scholiast) from the sports of boys, as it was the usual cry of the boy who outstripped his fellows in running. -421. Dives agris, etc. This line is repeated from Sat. i., 2, 13.- 422. Unctum; sc. cibum or convivium; а savory," (Osborne) sumptuous banquet.

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423. Levi; light, who has no credit. -430. Saliet; i. e. for joy. Tundet pede ; = saltabit; comp. O. iii., 18, 15. So Orelli, who thus explains the connection of saliet with tundet: "exsiliet, quin etiam saltabit.”- -431. Conducti; used for all who were hired to mourn at a funeral; more general than praeficae, on which see n. O. ii., 20, 21.- 433. Derisor; as the opposite of vero laudatore, = falsus laudator, flatterer. 435. Torquere mero; to put to the wine-torture; i. e. to make wine (as a quasi tormentum), a test, or means of extorting, character. See n. O. iii., 21, 13.435. Perspexisse. See n. O. i., 1, 4.

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437. Vulpe; i. e. pelle vulpina.

438. Quinctilio. He now draws, in contrast to the flatterer, a picture of an honest and faithful critic, selecting for the purpose the example of Quinctilius Varus (the literary and personal friend, whose death he had mourned in O. i., 24). · 439. Alebat; the indic. although si-recitares precedes; instead of si-recitabas,—aiebat (or dicebat) or sirecitares, diceret. See Z. ý 519, b. - Negares; sc. si. -441. Tornatos incudi. An instance of a mixed metaphor; drawn from the turner's lathe, and the smith's anvil. The text-books of rhetoric furnish similar instances from the poets, ancient and modern. 444. Quin— amares; subjunctive, because it is oratio obliqua; Quinctilius would have said, in oratio recta, quin amas. — - So Orelli; and the explanation is better than that which makes the subj. dependent upon the idea of hindering supposed to be involved in nullum-insumebat. -447. Signum; the obelus (†), or the Greek Theta, put to a line by the ancient critics, to show that it was bad or spurious. Comp. Pers. iv., 13; "Et potis es nigrum vitio praefigere theta.". -450. Aristarchus; an Aristarchus ; in allusion to the famous Alexandrian critic of that name. So Cic. ad Att. i., 11: "mearum orationem tu Aristarchus es." -453-476. In conclusion, to illustrate the last point he had proposed to himself as a

critic, viz., quo ferat error (1. 308), Horace draws the picture of a bad poet; who, despising all study and counsel, and infatuated by self-love, is an object of universal contempt and aversion. Dillenburger well says: "Respondet exitus initio, imago insani poetae imagini monstruosae figurae." -453. Morbus regius, also called arquatus, means the jaundice; so called, according to Pliny and Celsus, from its requiring costly remedies and constant amusement. Yet our expression, king's evil, is used of scrofula. -455. Tetigisse; see n. O. i., 1, 4. - -457. Sublimis; "with head erect." Colman. - -460. Non sit; non is here used for ne; and the subj. has an imperative force. -465. Empedocles; the philosopher of Agrigentum (see n. Epist. i., 12, 18), who flourished about 450 B. c. Horace humorously quotes one of the fables, told about his death; the time and manner of which were unknown. -467. Occidenti; dat. depending upon idem; see Z. § 704; A & S. Ø 222, P. 7. –470. Nec satis apparet, etc. Horace adds a satirical ground for not trying to save such a poet: perhaps this madness of versemaking is a visitation from heaven for some act of impiety.· Factitet ; keeps making.. -471. Bidental; a name given to a place which had been struck by lightning, and on which, therefore, a two-year-old sheep (bidens) was offered up as an expiatory sacrifice. It was customary to build an altar on the spot, and surround it with a fence, and to venture into it was deemed sacrilege. 472. Certe; in connection with utrum—an, etc., but certainly (at any rate) he is raging mad; whatever the cause, the fact is certain.

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