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e mixtus ex ebrietate et sapientia jocosa," yet should use mewhat different from that of regular comedy. —— 240. hese words, as well as de medio 1. 243, refer, as the context res, to the language of the play, not to its argument. Orelli aptly compares Pascal, in his Pensées, i., 3: Les es sont ceux que chaque lecteur croit, qu'il aurait pu faire. netura. Comp. n. above, on 1. 48.. -245. Triviis; opis; in the streets of the city; to which is added by ac, the and forcible paene forenses, well nigh sving in the forum, as as the centre of Roman life. - 246, Juvenentur; a word Horace in this one place; it is like the Greek veavievoμai; ung men. 248. Quibus est equns, etc.; i. e. equites, tes, men of rank, birth, and property. To these is opposed ine fricti-emptor, to designate the poor, who buy and eat ts, parched peas and nuts. 251-274. Having preules necessary to be observed in Tragedy and the Satyric poet now treats of the laws of Iambic verse, the measure in re written; thence he passes to a censure of the Roman duly observing these laws; and holds up the Greek writers as citation.. -252. Unde; refers to pes citus. - -Trimetris ; with iambeis, instead of with nomen. See A & S. 204, le the name of Trimeter be added to Iambics; so that they Trimeter Iambics. 253. Iambeis; instead of the usual is; it is an adj.; sc. versibus. Cum-ictus; though it 5; i. e. as the pure iambic line has six iambi, each foot its ictus or arsis, and there would be six beats; whence ius.- -254. Non ita pridem; literally not so long ago; y long ago; ita is elliptical, sc. ut quis putet; See Hand, 491. The whole expression is here used for an indefinite 6. Stabiles; so called, in distinction from the iambi, from s of the spondee, owing to its two long syllables.



into its hereditary rights; the image being drawn from herits property, and shares it with another. The whole

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a poetical complexion, from the personification of the -257. Non ut; restrictive of the two preceding adjectives. admits the spondees, into the line, but not into the second places; these it retains exclusively for itself. 258. Soer the manner of a socius or comrade; "like a good comrade." The word is peculiar to Horace. 258. Hic; i. e. iambus aut quarta sede; as those poets thought it enough to secure ace to the iambus. Hic is the subject of apparet and of e fault of the verses of these poets was, that they were y or ponderous by the great number of spondees. 259. famous; ironical. 262. Premit-crimine; presses (the

verses) with the charge i. e. brings upon (them) the heavy charge. 265. Idcircone, etc. The poet means to indicate two courses which poets might pursue, relying on the indulgence of the public; both of them censurable, but the latter less than the former. The former is a total disregard of rules; the latter only so much regard for rules, as may secure freedom from positive faults. 268. Non laudem merui; i. e. my merit is a mere negative one. Osborne aptly quotes from Pope's Essay on Criticism:

"But in such lays as neither ebb nor flow,

Correctly cold, and regularly low,

That shunning faults one quiet tenor keep,
We cannot blame indeed-but we may sleep."

270. Plautinos numeros et Sales. Here again, as in Epist. ii., 1, 170, Horace criticises Plautus. His severe taste was offended by the roughness of his numbers and of his wit. It is singular that Cicero, on the other hand, speaks of Plautus as illustrating that "jocandi genus," which he styles "elegans, urbanum, ingeniosum, facetum." See De Offic. i., 29.- 275-284. Notices of the Greek Tragedy,- Thespis, -Aeschylus (to 1. 280), and of the Old Comedy (to 284). - 275. Ignotum-genus. The merit of Thespis, which gained for him the distinction of the inventor of tragedy, was this: he combined with the songs of the chorus the recitations of an actor. This introduction of an actor gave a dramatic character to the performance, and was the first decided step in the formation of tragedy, properly so called. Whether the actor was the choragus, and his part was only the narration of some story, or whether he was a person independent of the chorus, and his part consisted both of narration and of dialogue with the chorus, are points not fully settled. The latter view, however, is probably the true one. Thespis was a native of Icarus, one of the country demes of Athens, and he first appeared upon the stage in the beginning of the 61st Olympiad, 536-534 B. C.-For further details, see Dict. Antiqq., under Tragoedia. 276. Plaustris vexisse. It is generally supposed, that this story of actors being carried about in wagons, which were used as a kind of stage, belongs to the beginnings of Comedy, not of Tragedy; and that Thespis really used a platform for his representations. See Dict. Antiqq., under Tragoedia and Comoedia. 277. Faecibus; the lees of wine, used as a kind of pigment, probably formed the first species of disguise for the performers of Thespis's plays; Thespis afterwards introduced linen masks. 279. Aeschylus, etc. This great tragic writer began his career B. c. 500, being then in the 25th year of his age. In this passage Horace touches upon the improvements made by him in Tragedy. They were chiefly these: He added a second actor, and thus further developed the dialogue. He entirely changed

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the relative proportions of the two elements of the drama, viz., the choruses and the recitations, by abridging the former, and expanding the latter into a regular plot. He also improved the theatrical apparatus, by furnishing the actors with the cothurnus (see n. O. ii., 1, 11), and with better and more various masks and dresses. In what respect he modified for the better the construction of the stage, we are not informed; as the words modicis-tignis can hardly refer to the stage of the new stone theatre, the building of which was commenced soon after his first appearance. (See Dict. Antiqq., under Theatrum.) The fall of the old wooden fabric on the occasion of Aeschylus's first representation, and the consequent erection of the magnificent theatre on the S. E. descent of the Acropolis; may be regarded as emblematic of the fortunes of Attic Tragedy before and after the time of Aeschylus. 281. Vetus-comoedia. (See n. Sat. i., 4, 2.) The old Athenian Comedy, of which Aristophanes was the master, flourished from 458-404. Its chief characteristic, to which Horace here alludes, was the unbounded freedom with which it satirized distinguished Athenian citizens, poets, philosophers, statesmen, and the parties and measures, political, social, literary, with which such citizens were associated. The Middle Comedy succeeded the Old, and continued to B. c. 340. It was less personal, and satirized classes rather than individuals, or if it satirized individuals, represented them under fictitious names. The New Comedy continued from B. C. 340 to B. C. 260. This was like the comedy of modern times; it aimed at an imitation of ordinary life, and its subjects and characters were alike fictitious. 283. Lex est accepta. A law restrictive of the freedom of comedy was passed B. c. 440; a similar one, forbidding the ridicule of persons by name was passed B. c. 415. The political changes of the times were directly felt by the Old Comedy; political freedom was essential to its being and life; and accordingly it flourished and fell, along with Athenian democracy. 284. Obticuit. The Middle and the New Comedy had no chorus.

III. 285-476. Critical Instruction for the poet. (See Introduction. The details will be given below, in their place.)

285-294. Horace commends the emulous spirit of Roman poets, and their adoption of Roman subjects, but declares that they have failed of literary excellence through their haste and their impatience of laborious composition; and he inculcates upon the young Pisos the utmost care and correctness in writing. 287. Domestica; opposed to foreign; nation al. 288. Praetextas; (sc. fabulas) for praetextatas; that is, tragedies, which represented a higher and nobler life; so named, because the praetexta was the dress of magistrates, of priests, and of senators on festival days; togatas, comedies, which represent ordinary life; from the toga, the ordinary Roman dress. - Docere is used with fabulam, like the Gr. didáσkey, because the poet instructed the actors and


chorus in their parts; hence exhibit or compose a play, by which latter word we may here translate. 293. Litura. See n. Sat. i., 10, 72 294. Perfectum; agrees with quod; "ita ut perfectum sit." Dillenb. -Ad unguem. See n. Sat. i., 5, 32. 295-304. Horace proceeds to ridicule those poets who affect to despise art and rely solely upon genius, and who, in their reliance upon genius, confound vulgar madness with poetic frenzy, and mere eccentricity with poetic genius. — 296. Sanos; i. e. those who have not the true insania or furor-poeticus; comp. n. O. iii., 4, 6. 297. Democritus; he wrote weρɩ woihσews and TEρt 'Ouhpov. Cicero alludes to his words in De Divin., i., 37; Negat sine furore Democritus quemquam poetam magnum esse possc; and also in De Orat., ii., 46: Saepe audivi poetam bonum neminem (id quod a Democrito et Platone in scriptis relictum esse dicunt) sine inflammatione animorum existere posse et sine quodam afflatu quasi furoris. Comp. Cic. pro Archia, c. 8. 300. Tribus; see n. Sat. ii., 3, 83. The poet here means that a case so desperate as this, would not be cured by all the produce even of three Anticyras; or, which is the same thing for the jest, by three times the amount of hellebore produced in Anticyra (in allusion to either of the two). 301. Licino. The Scholiast tells us, that this was the name of a barber, who was made a senator by Julius Caesar, because he hated Pompey. It must have been a different person from the slave of that name, who was freed by Julius Caesar, and afterwards was made procurator of Gaul by Augustus; mentioned by Dio. Cass., liv., 21. 301. Laevus; = stultus, as in Virg. Ecl. i., 16; and Aen. ii., 54. · - 302. Bilem; comp. Epist. ii., 2, 187. — 304-308. Horace now, waiving all claim to the title and character of poet, assumes the office of a critic, and undertakes to teach what is necessary to the formation and guidance of the poet. Comp. Intr. 309-322. In opposition to the absurd notion he has just illustrated (in 295 seqq.) Horace insists upon good sense as essential to good writing (309); and recommends, in order to just views and exhibitions of character, the study of the Socratic or moral philosophy, and of human life (to 1. 318) adding, in practical illustration, that a poem, in which the manners are justly delineated, is always successful even if it have no other excellence (to 1. 322). — 309. Sapere; a comprehensive word, which expresses the ability to think and judge aright on all subjects whatsoever (“recte cogitare atque judicare de omnibus rebus;" Orelli); without which no one can be a poet, whatever other gifts and acquirements he may have. 310. Socraticae-chartae; the teachings of Socrates; as embodied in the works of his disciples, e. g. Plato and Xenophon; in these moral teachings, the writer, especially the dramatist, may find his subjectmatter (rem); the best illustrations of all that belongs to character, of all the various relations and duties of men. -312. Qui didicit, etc Here follows a mention of particular illustrations of the general word


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ations and duties, of a citizen, a friend, &c.
enatoris; from the expression patres con-
1.317. Exemplar vitae morumque; i. e.
- manners of men present to him who ob-
-318. Vivas; life-like; caught from, and
g. Aen. vi., 849, vivos ducent de marmore vul-
; which rightly depicts the mōres; a dif-
in 1. 321. 323-332. While the Greeks,
ave excelled in letters, the education of the Ro-
e of money, which has been fatal to their success
ado; well-rounded expression; metaphorical
style of language; like the Gr. orpoyyúλov
Passow, and Liddell and Sex &t). - - 325.
-325. Dicat, etc. A scene from a Roman
makes the teacher use the third for the
c. Comp. O. i., 27, 10. - -328. Poteras
words of the master. On the tense dixisse,
edro. Manuscripts were rubbed with oil of
vation.-Cupresso; i. e. in capsae or scrinia,
at. i., 4, 21; and the cut on p. 204.
to instruct, or to delight, or both to instruct
y who aim to instruct, must study brevity
m to delight, must, in fiction, keep to what is
So can unite the useful with the agreeable, will
et whose works will live (to 346). - - 335.
-337. This line furnishes a reason why
aim at brevity. The image seems to be
aich, when filled full, whatever else is poured
So with the mind, when filled with instruc-
ese two lines illustrate, negatively, the pre-
nerally, the latter particularly. The subject
Lamia is the name of a fabulous creature
dren. The Scholiast describes it thus: "est
■ speciem mulieris, inferne vero desinit in
Centuriae seniorum; = senes, the old; the
e centuries of old men in the classes of the
ed by Servius Tullius. See Dict. Antiqq.,
lsi-Ramnes; the haughty Ramnes; for the

for the young. The Ramnes, because the ae equitum (described by Livy, i., 13), here highest nobility. 343. Punetum; vote; er. See n.Epist. ii., 2, 99. - - Dulci; see n. S. See n. Epist. i., 20, 2. -347-365. In -, one or two blemishes are pardonable; but the

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