Obrazy na stronie


ndent bearing, which Horace observed in his rela

mer, at the beginning of August, had left Rome to contrary to his parting promise to Maecenas, who y, remained at his villa through the whole month. ons of health, he intended to pass the coming winter to Rome early in Spring. Under these circumesent Epistle; in which, with a manly frankness, cy of grateful friendship, he at once excuses his his own private tastes and wishes. He is profoundly Maecenas, but prizes his personal freedom far more mer than part with that cherished sense of freedom, he farm, and all the other gifts of his patron; senti=by fable and story.

finite number, like our "two or three."
month, changed u. c. 746, in honor of
Ficus prima. The ripening of figs was in
eason of the sickly south winds. Comp.
6. Designatorem. The undertaker at a
here called lictors; so Cic. de Leg. ii., 24,
Er accenso atque lictoribus. -9. Resignat,
- 10. Nives. See n. O. i., 9, 4. - 11. Ad
e coast, perhaps Tarentum; or Baiae.
red; away from the noise of the city; op-
Zephyrus, same wind as Favonius, see n.
, begins to blow early in Spring. 14.
in pears, apples, &c. It would seem from
s were rather vulgar in their hospitality.
form of refusal, when a thing was pressed
ou are very kind." So below, 62.
on thus; i. e. if you give in this way,
el themselves under no obligation.
149; Z. 612.- 24. Pro laude merentis,
terally in proportion to the praise of you
to your merits. - -25-28. The sense of
I have me always stay at Rome, you must
ce was, in my youth. My present age and
erent mode of life. 26. Angusta fronte.
Horace's description of his person in Epist. i.,
ebis, which is sound, because disturbed by
ing.- 36. Divitiis. Comp. n. O. i., 29, 1;


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and, for the construction, n. O. i., 16, 25. ——————— 38. Audisti. See n. Sat. ii., 6, 20. 40. To illustrate his readiness to part with all that he has received from Maecenas rather than give up his freedom, he tells a story of Telemachus and Menelaus (40-45), and of Philippus and Vulteius Mena (46-end). As Telemachus and Vulteius each preferred what was best suited to them, so did he. —45. Vacuum Tiber; i. e. free of bustle and business, quiet; comp. Epist. ii., 2, 81; and, in illustration of the poet's attachment to the places mentioned in the line, O. ii., 6, 5-12; iii., 4, 23. -48. Carinas. The name of a fashionable street on a part of the Esquiline. "As the edge of the hill makes a circuit from the Subura to the Coliseum, this (fact) may have given origin to the name, as resembling the keel of a ship." Keightley. -50. Umbra. Refers to the awning in front of the shop, the shaded shop. Vacua; the barber's shop in Rome was the place for loungers; comp. n. Sat. i., 7, 3. Just now it is empty; and the leisure air of this man, as he sits there cutting his nails, attracts the attention of Philippus. -57. Loco. See n. O. iv., 12, 28.- -61. Non sane, not really, = vix, scarcely. He cannot credit the fact, that he is invited to the house of a great man like Philippus. 62. Benigne. See above, n. 1. 16. –66. Occupat. See n. Sat. i., 9, 6. 67. Excusare. Alleged in excuse. 68. Quod non-venisset. For not having come. As excusare is here the historical infinitive, excusavit, the subj. is explained by A. & S. § 266, 3. 69. Providisset eum. Seen him beforehand. -72. Dicenda tacenda. Like the Greek pŋτà κal appŋra, things worthy of mention, and things unworthy. So Virg. Aen. ix., 595, digna atque indigna relatu. -74. Piscis; sc. ut (like) a fish. 76. Indietis-Latinis, feriis. The Latinae feriae was a holiday season of very ancient origin; first celebrated by the ancient Latins, then converted into a Roman festival by the last Tarquin, and ever afterwards annually observed. They were called indictae, because the particular time for the celebration was every year appointed by the magistrates. See Dict. Antiqq., under -80. Mutna. As a loan. - 85. Immoritur studiis. Studiis is dative; dies at, or over, his labors. "Works himself to death." Osborne. -87. Spem mentita. See n. O. iii., 1, 30.- -94. Quod, i. e. propter quod, the Gr. 8 for diót. Genium.



See n. O. iii., 17, 14.

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A friendly Epistle to Celsus Albinovanus, already alluded to in Epistle Third of this Book, as one of the suite of Tiberius, when that prince made his expedition to Armenia. The poet begins with the usual salutation, and then goes on to describe his own

present ill state of body and mind, and concludes with a word of admonition to Celsus, on the wise use of his good fortune.

Compare Introduction to Epistle Third.

1. Gaudere et bene rem gerere, the Greek xaipei кal eûmpátтEW. 3. Multa-minantem; projecting many and glorious things; i. e. plans of writing and study. -5. Vites. Comp. O. iii., 1, 29. 10. Curproperent. See n. O. i., 33, 3. 14. Juveni. "Tiberius, who was then twenty-two years old." Dillenb. 16. Instillare; so Juvenal, Sat. iii., 110: quum facilem stillavit in aurem. the rest of your friends.

17. Nos; i. e. I and

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This is a letter of introduction, in which Horace commends his friend Septimius (see O. ii., 6) to the favorable regards of the young prince Tiberius. With a rare skill and tact the poet faithfully discharges his duty to his friend, while he avoids all appearance of presuming upon his own influence with Tiberius. The piece may be justly regarded as a model of this kind of composition.

1. Nimirum. Assuredly; in a pleasant tone of irony. - - 3. Seilicet. Also ironical. Forsooth! As if I had any influence! 4. Legentis honesta. Who selects (only) what is honorable; i. e. has only men of high character about his person. Of Tiberius in his youth, Tacitus says (Ann. vi., 51): "Egregius vita famaque, quoad privatus vel in imperio sub Augusto fuerat. 8. Mea; i. e. my influence with you.- 11. Frontis urbanae. Frons, the brow, from its betraying any affection of the mind, comes to be used for any such affection itself; here, as shown in next line, for pudor. But its connection with urbanae gives it an opposite sense, viz. modest assurance, boldness; urbanae, of one versed in the arts of city life, of a man of the world.· 13. Gregis ; company or coterie of friends.


In this Epistle, addressed to Aristius Fuscus (see O. ii., 22), Horace expresses his hearty love of the country, and recommends his friend to keep aloof from the ambitious strifes of city life, and wisely seek for peace and independence in contentment and moderate desires.

5. Annuimus; assent to; the object being quidquid. Annuimus probamus nuta, there being a sportive allusion to the billing of doves. Comp. Sall. Cat. xx.: nam idem velle atque nolle, ca demum firma amicitia





est; and Cic. de Am. vi.: Est autem amicitia nihil aliud, nisi omnium divinarum humanarumque rerum summa consensio. -Vetuli; sc. ut or some such particle of comparison. – 6. Nidum. Keeping up the comparison of the doves. - -7. Musco circumlita. Clothed around with moss, i. e. moss-grown. 8. Simul;= simulac, as soon as. -9. Fertis; means, as well as the other reading, extol. So Sall. Cat. liii.; ad coelum ferunt.· - 10. Liba. Sweet cakes, used as offering to the gods, and then given, as food, by the priests to their slaves. The slaves would naturally soon be cloyed with the dainty diet, and long for bread. 16. Canis Leonis. See n. i., 17, 17; iii., 29, 19.- - 19. Lapillis. Mosaic floors, of Numidian marble; see n. O. ii., 18, – 20. Plumbum. The leaden pipes of the aqueducts in the city. Outside the city, the aqueducts, in their whole course, were generally made of brick. 21. Silva. The trees planted in the impluvium of a Roman house. See n. O. iii., 10. He urges, that men thus love to make the city resemble the country as much as possible, by making a rus in urbe.· 26. Contendere callidus; skilfully to compare, and therefore mistakes the purple of Aquinum for the genuine Tyrian. - 30. Plus nimio. See n. O. i., 33, 1.- 40. Improbus, immoderate in his desires; as in O. iii., 24, 62. -42. Olim. Sometimes; see n. O. ii., 10, 17. ———— 49. Dictabam. The past tense, because, in writing a letter, a Latin writer has in view the time when the letter reaches the person addressed. See Z. 503. Vacunae; the goddess of rural leisure, worshipped by the Sabines; the poet seems, either in jest or in earnest, to use the word as a derivative of vacare. At the present day, in the neighborhood of the site of the poet's farm, are still standing some walls, bearing an inscription, which show them to have belonged to a temple of Victory, repaired by the emperor Vespasian. It is probable, that this temple was formerly the Fanum Vacunae.

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The sentiments of this Epistle resemble those expressed in several of the poet's Odes; e. g. O. i., 16; ili., 1; i., 7. Horace remonstrates with one of his friends, who had wandered away to foreign lands, in quest of peace of mind. He tells him that no mere change of place and scene can change one's temper and character; that an even, contented mind is any where and every where a source of sure and lasting happiness.

The Epistle is a sensible chapter on travelling, and may be read with profit by many a modern Bullatius.

1. Chios; in the Aegean sea; see n. O. iii., 19, 5. Nota, for its wine; also its poets, see n. O. i., 1, 34. - -2. Samos. Also in the Aegean. It was especially celebrated for its elegant temple of Juno.➖➖➖➖

Sardis. Generally written Sardes; the capital of Lydia. 3. Smyrna; also in Lydia. - Colophon, in Ionia. 5. Attalicis; e. g. Pergamus, Thyatira, which, with other places, belonged to the empire of Attalus. 6. Lebedum, in Ionia, and once a flourishing place. 11. Sed neque, etc. The poet had said, that even at Lebedus, he himself could live content; he goes on to show, by various illustrations (11-21) that one's stay in such a place would only be temporary, and the result of necessity; and that a sensible man would not insist upon staying there, just because he was discontented with a different place. - 18. Paenula. A rough, thick coat, used chiefly in travelling.-Campestre ; an apron worn in the Campus (Martius), by persons engaged in gymnastic exercises; sometimes, too, in warm weather, in place of the tunic.. 27. Coelum. The climate. 28. Strenua-inertia ; laborious idleness; a good illustration of the callida junctura of Horace in Ars. P. 47.—30. Ulubris. A small, unattractive place in Latium. Juvenal says, Sat. x., 102: vacuis-Ulubris.

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Horace writes to Iccius (see O. i., 29), who was then agent of Agrippa's estates in Sicily. He seeks to do away with the complaints of his friend concerning his narrow means, the confinement incident to his position, and his want of leisure for literary pursuits. He concludes by commending to his kindly regards Pompeius Grosphus, and by mentioning some items of city intelligence.

1. Fructibus. Fructus is a general word for all the returns of property. -2. Non est ut, οὐκ ἔστι (δυνατόν) ὅπως; comp. n. O. iii., 1, 9.- -7. In medio positorum. Of things that are put before you; ready for use, and at your own disposal. As these are here opposed to herbis et urtica, they must refer to the richer fare, which Iccius might enjoy as the factor of a rich man's estates.-The sense here is: if, under these circumstances you prefer a simple diet, you would exercise the same choice, if you were suddenly to grow rich yourself, either (1. 10) from your natural disposition, or (1. 11) from practical views of life.12-20. The poet pleasantly commends Iccius, that in spite of worldly engagements, he yet finds time for his scientific pursuits. - 12. Democriti. Democritus, the philosopher of Abdera, who was so absorbed in his lofty speculations, that he paid no attention to his worldly affairs.- -18. Quid-orbem. Obscurum agrees with orbem. Premat obscurum; literally covers obscure, i. e. obscures, covers with darkness. 19. Concordia discors, in allusion to the force of attraction and of repulsion in matter; "the harmony of opposing forces." Osborne. Comp.


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