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-On the tense of this verb, comp. n. O. i., 22, 10. -Praeneste. See n. O. iii., 4, 22, 4.- -4. Chrysippo. See n. Sat. i., 3, 127. Crantor was a philosopher of the Academic school, the head of which was Plato. 7. Barbariae, sc. terrae; here used for Phrygia. The Greeks used the word corresponding to barbaria for a foreign country.-10. Ut salvas, etc.; that is, that he will not consent to the restoration of Helen; in persisting in this purpose he perilled his own rank and personal happiness. Regnet must refer to the rank and station of Paris as a prince. 11. Lites. The quarrel that grew out of the seizure of Briseis. See n. O. ii., 3, 4. 14. Plectuntur. Comp. n. O. i., 28, 27. -19. This line and the following one are a free translation of the opening of the Odyssey. Comp. Ars. P. 141. -23. Sirenum-Circae. The Sirens of the Odyssey, who charmed by their melodious voices the passing mariner, and Circe, who by her magic cup, turned men to beasts, Horace here teaches were meant by Homer as illustra tions of the seductive and degrading influence of sensual pleasures. 27. Nos numerus summus. Nos is here = maxima pars hominum, exactly as in English the pronoun we is often often used for people in general, the world, &c. Comp. the same use of nos in Sat. i., 3, 55. Numerus, like the Greek apiuós, means those who have only a numerical value, people of worthless character; mere ciphers.-The sense of the passage is this: as Homer's Ulysses is a rare example of temperance and wisdom, so the worthless suitors of Penelope, and the young men of Alcinous, i. e. the sensual Phaeacians, are illustrations of the generality of men. -29. Plus aequo. See n. O. i., 33, 1.-31. Cessatum ducere curam. Cessatum is a supine, depending upon ducere ; and the whole expression is poetic for-" citharae cantu omnem curam abigere," (Orelli) to lull care to rest. 34. Noles, sc. currere, which in this line is meant for vigorous exercise. The poet teaches in the passage, that, in regard to both health and to character, men learn by sad experience the necessity of care and discipline. -39. Est; from edo; see A. & S. § 181.- -44. Beata. Rich; see n. O. i., 29, 1. Pueris, dat. does not depend upon beata.· -47. Non domus, etc. Comp. the passage O. ii. 16, 9.- 54. Vas. Here metaphorical for the mind. 56. Semper-eget. Comp. O. iii., 24, 64. - - 59. Irae. See Arn. Pr. Intr. 220. -61. Festinat, festinat exigere, or festinanter exigit; comp. n. O. i., 16, 21. Odio is dat. etc. Osborne aptly compares the lines of Moore:
"You may break, you may ruin the vase, if you will,
-69. Quo semel,
This is a friendly epistle to Julius Florus, who, as we gather from the testimony of Horace himself, was a young man of talents and cultivation, and not without some merit as a poet. The Epistle furnishes a pleasing proof of the established position which Horace now held at Rome as a poet and a man of letters, and of the kind of paternal interest which he cherished in all young men who were aspiring to literary excellence.
Julius Florus was now attached to the suite of Tiberius Claudius Nero, the step-son of Augustus, and afterwards successor to his imperial honors; who had been dispatched with an army to the east to place Tigranes on the throne of Armenia, and to settle the af fairs of that kingdom.
Horace makes inquiries concerning the present occupation of Tiberius and his com. mand, and of Florus himself (1-25), and then exhorts Florus to the study of philosophy (25-29), and to a full reconciliation with Munatius (30-35).
3. Thraca. The Greek form, instead of Thracia. Tiberius' route to Armenia was through Macedonia and Thrace, across the Hellespont (1. 4. freta), and through Asia Minor (1. 5. Asiae).· 4. Turres. Two towers, one at Sestos, the other at Abydos on the opposite shores of the Hellespont. -6. Studiosa. In early life, Tiberius was fond of literary pursuits, and at this time had in his train several literary men. Studiosa thus means learned.-Operum depends upon quid. 9. Quid, sc. struit. Of Titius nothing certain is known. He was one of the party, and, as is apparent from the passage, was a poet.- 10. Pindarici fontis. Metaphorical for the loftiest lyric poetry; in contrast with which, lacus-apertos represents lyric poetry of an ordinary kind. It is a pleasant hit-without, however, any purpose of disparagement-at the adventurous spirit of the young poet.-Expalluit is poetic for extimescuit. 14. Desaevit―ampullatur. Humorous words, to designate the passionate, and the grand, tone of tragedy. On ampullatur, comp. Ars. P. 97. 15. Mihi. An instance of what is called the dativus ethicus. We may translate: what is my Celsus doing? See Z. § 408. ———— 17. Palatinus. See Intr. to O. i., 31. 19. Plumas. An allusion to the fable of the jackdaw shining in the plumes of the peacock. See Phaedrus, i., 3. 23. Civica. See n. O. ii., 1, 1.- -26. Frigida curarum fomenta; cold remedies for care; such as ambition, riches, which may help to relieve worldly anxiety, but yet tend of themselves to make the heart cold and empty; hence called frigida. - 27. Coelestis sapientia. "Socrates autem primus philosophiam devocavit e coelo, et in urbibus collocavit, et in domos etiam introduxit, et coegit de vita et moribus, rebusque bonis et malis quaerere." Cic. Tusc. v., 10.- - 30. Curae, sc. sit tantae.
-31. Munatius. Who this was is not known; it is conjectured, a son of the Munatius, who is addressed in Ode Seventh of Book First. 36. Votiva. Comp. the passages, O. iv. 2, 55; i., 36, 2.
An Epistle addressed to a brother poet, Albius Tibullus, at the time at his villa at Pedum. Horace compliments him on his poetic gifts and attainments, on his good health, and his fortunate social position, and exhorts him not to be disturbed by cares and fears, but to live a quiet and cheerful life.
Pedum was on the road from Tibur to Praeneste.-— 3. Cassi Parmensis. A different person from the Cassius, satirized in Sat. i., 10, 61. This one had served in the army of Brutus and Cassius, and afterwards of Sextus Pompeius. Like Tibullus, he wrote elegies.
6. Non-eras. Never were. The imperf. denotes continuance; i. e. during all the time I have known you, down to the present moment. 13. Omnem crede, etc. Comp. similar expressions of this sentiment, in O. i., 9, 13; iii., 29, 43; iv., 7, 17.- 15. Me pinguem, etc. Horace pleasantly describes himself as such an Epicurean as the Stoics were fond of describing, and such a one, too, as many persons doubtless were; one who made the chief good to consist merely in sensual pleasure; but his own Epicureanism was a quiet, cheerful enjoyment of life, together with an ascendency over base and corroding desires. Tibullus, and every one else who knew Horace and his manner of life, at once appreciated the jesting tone of these two concluding lines of the Epistle.
An Epistle to Torquatus, the same friend of the poet, to whom is inscribed the Seventh Ode of Book First. Horace invites his friend to join him, on the eve of the birth-day of Augustus, at his frugal table, and bids him put aside the anxious cares of life, and give himself up to cheerful discourse, and all the gay and inspiring influences of the festive hour.
This is one of those lighter pieces of Horace, which seem to bring us into the presence of the poet in his own home, and show us how he loved there to gather about him his friends, and with such cheer as his house might afford, share with them the delights of social converse.
1. Archiacis. So named from Archias, the maker of them; probably simple, though tasteful, suited to men of moderate means. 3. Sapremo-sole. Supremo ad occasum vergente; at sunset. - 4. Tauro. T. Statilius Taurus was consul the second time, a. u. c. 728. If the ode was written, as is generally supposed, A. U. c. 734, the wine would be five or six years old. Comp. n. O. iii., 8, 12. Diff' nsa ; i. e.
into the amphorae. See n. O. i., 20, 3. -5. Minturnas. See n. O. iii., 17, 7. Petrinus was the name of a hill near Sinuessa; it is now called Rocca di Monti Ragoni. 6. Imperium fer; submit to my authority;
7. Splendet. This refers to
datam esse credam." Dillenb.
i. e. as the host, master of the feast. the polishing of the lares in the atrium. See n. Epod. ii., 66. It does not refer to the fire, as is plain from aestivam in 1. 11. 9. Moschi. A celebrated rhetorician, then accused of poisoning, and defended by Torquatus.-Porphyrion. 11. Aestivam. Augustus' birth-day was the 23rd of September; so that strictly it was not a summer's night; but aestiva is used because the night was of about the same length as in summer. 12. Quo; sc. Assidet; poetic for similis est, Comp. the sentiment, O. ii., 7, 26; iv., 12, 28.- -20. Paupertate. Comp. O. i., 18, 5.- 22. Toral. See n. Sat. ii., 4, 84. Butram, etc. Of the persons here named, we have no knowledge. 28. Umbris. See n. Sat. ii., 8, 22. 30. Quotus ; quot comites.31. Postico. By the back-door. A happy end to the Epistle. He tells his friend to dodge his clients who are waiting for him in the atrium, by making his exit at the back-door.
The sole means of securing a happy life is a dispassionate frame of mind (1, 2), free from the disturbing influence, alike of joy and of grief, of desire and of fear (3-14). Even virtue itself is not to be pursued beyond just and reasonable limits (15, 16). What folly, then, with passionate eagerness, to strive for gold, fame, worldly goods, all frail and perishable (16-27)! As when in ill health, you seek the means of recovery, so, if you will live aright, use earnestly the true means (28, 29); if the true means of right living be virtue, then vigorously cultivate virtue (30); if you think virtue an empty word, then go, find the chief good in riches (31-48), or in honors (49-55), or in luxurious living (56-64), or in love (65, 66). These are my sentiments; use them, if you have no better, if you have, impart yours to me (67, 68).
Thus in the mingled tone of a philosopher and a poet, and in the discursive style of an epistle, Horace exhorts Numicius to the rational, even-tempered pursuit of a virtuous tife.
Of this Numicius we have no definite knowledge.
1. Nil admirari; to regard nothing with passion; it is the Greek μηδεν θαυμάζειν, the θαυμαστία of Democritus, the ἀπάθεια of the Stoics, the árapatía of the Epicureans. 2. Possit. See A. & S. ( 264, 10. -4. Momentis. Laws of motion. —— 5. Quid censes, etc. On the construction, see Z. § 769. 7. Dona; the civil honors. Quiritis Quiritium, populi. 17. I nune, etc. He argues from the greater to the less; see Introduction. The form of address is ironical,
and as familiar in English as in Latin.· - Aera. Bronzes; vases of Corinthian bronze. 21. Dotalibus; received, as a dowry, with his wife; i. e. that Mutus, who has married a rich wife, may not have broader lands than you. - 26. Porticus Agrippae. An extensive public promenade, covered with a roof, and supported by columns, and adorned with paintings; it was built by Agrippa. Via Appi. See n. Sat. i., 5, 6.28. Si latus, etc. See Introd. -30. Virtus. By some commentators this means a special virtue, that which consists in nil admirari, calmness of mind. But as no such limitation is expressed, it must necessarily be taken in its general sense-virtue. So also in the next line, virtutem. 31. Verba. Dillenburger aptly quotes Schiller: "Und die Tugend, sie ist kein leerer Schall." 32. Lucum ligna;= nihil esse nisi ligna; that a sacred grove is a mere collection of trees, only so much wood. 32. Occupet. Reach before you. Comp. Livy, i., 14, bellum facere occupant; i. e. prius faciunt.- - 33. Cibyratica. Of Cibyra, a town in Phrygia, where iron was manufactured in large quantities. On Bithyna, see O. i., 35, 7. 34. Rotundentur; be rounded; i. e. the round sum of a thousand talents be made. - 35. Quae—quadret; i. e. a fourth part or thousand. 36. Scilicet. Forsooth!- 38. Suadela. The Gr. Пe, goddess of persuasion. -39. Rex. The then king of Cappadocia was Archelaus; of his predecessor Ariobarzanes, Cicero wrote ad Att. vi., 1; Nihil illo regno spoliatius nihil rege egentius. Cappadocia furnished Rome with many slaves. 40. Lucullus. The con-49. Species et gratia.
queror of Mithridates, and immensely rich.Show and popular favor. See Introd. 50. Servam, etc. The slave, called nomenclator, whose duty it was, as he accompanied his master, to mention the names of people, that passed, so that the master might recognize and address them. -51. Trans pondera. A very obscure expression. Orelli explains it as the weights on the counter of a tradesman's shop or stall, across which the master stretched his hands for a friendly salutation. 52. Fabia-Velia. Names of two of the tribes. 61. Crudi-lavemur. Comp. Juv. i., 142:
"Poena tamen praesens, cum tu deponis amictus
62. Caerite cera. Cera cereis tabulis, the waxen tablets, on which were registered the names of citizens. The inhabitants of the Etrurian town of Caere, were in early times made Roman citizens, but without the jus suffragii. Afterwards the name Caerites included all citizens who, from any cause, had lost the jus suffragii. - 63. Remigium. See n. Epist. i., 2, 23. - -65. Mimnermus. An elegiac poet of Colophon, who lived in the time of Solon.