Obrazy na stronie


1. 23.18.

-11. Spis

the action is something only conceived of. See Z. § 629. — Thick foliage, as O. i., 21, 5, where see note.- -17. TesSee note, O. i., 10, 6. Aureae is poetic, as in preceding ode, Pieri. This use of the sing. number, rather than Pierides, is rare. Ovid has, Fasti, 4, 222, Pieris orsa loqui. Orelli. 24. Quod spiro. Quod is not the acc. of the relative, but a particle. That I am moved with poetic inspiration.


This ode and the Fourteenth of this Book celebrate the victo: "es of Drusus and Tiberius, the sons of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia, and the step-sons of Augustus, over the Rhaeti and the Vindelici. The present ode, though chiefly devoted to the praises of Drusus, yet in the expression Nerones, 1. 28, and in the allusion to the Vindelici, l. 18, also does honor to Tiberius; while the fourteenth, in a similar manner, is chiefly in honor of Tiberius, but does not omit the name of Drusus.

The Rhaeti were defeated by Drusus B. C. 15, and soon after, the Vindelici by the two brothers together.

After describing the valor of Drusus (1-24), the poet gracefully extols the careful education of the two brothers by Augustus (25–36), and in the remainder of the ode celebrates the honors of the Claudian family, and especially of Caius Claudius Nero, the conqueror of Hasdrubal, the brother of Hannibal.

1. Qualem, etc. In the comparison of Drusus with the eagle and the lion, in verses 1-18, the correlative talem must be supplied with Drusum, l. 18: qualem-alitem,-qualemve-leonem,-talem Drusum gerentem-. Qualem ministrum fulminis alitem. As the winged minister of thunder. So Virg. Aen. 5, 255, calls the eagle the armor-bearer of Jove; and Pliny, Hist. N. 10, 3, 4, describes him as proof against lightning; negant unquam solam hanc alitem exanimatam fulmine. — 4. Ganymede flavo. In allusion to the story of Ganymede being carried off by the eagle. Comp. note, O. iii., 20, 16. Flavus; fair, the poetic word for beautiful, like gavdós; often used with coma, crinis, golden, as in O. i., 5, 4. 9. Mox. Observe the connection with olim, 1. 5, and nunc, 1. 11; at first, by and by, now. 10. Demisit. With the force of a present indefinite, as also egit, 1. 12. See note, O. i., 28, 20.11. Reluctantes dracones. The commentators compare Pliny, Hist. Nat. 10, 4: Acrior cum dracone pugna―ille multiplici nexu alas ligat, ita se implicans, ut simul decidat; and Virg. Aen. 11, 751. - - 14, 15. Ab ubere Jam Lacte depulsum. The weaning of the young of animals is expressed in Virg. Ecl. 7, 15, by depulsus a lacte (agnos), and in Georg. 3, 187, by depulsus ab ubere (equus). In this place Horace chooses to employ both ab ubere and lacte with the same participle depulsus; though lacte adds nothing essential to the meaning of ab ubere depulsum, but

only shows from the use of what the young lion is deprived, in being forced from his mother's side. Render, then, now weaned from the udder. Some translate ubere as an adjective, agreeing with lacte; but we cannot believe that Horace would have used the same word as an adjective, with which his readers were familiar as a substantive in the expression depellere ab ubere.· -17. Raetis-Alpibus. This part of the Alpine range, still called the Rhaetian Alps, is between the St. Gothard, in Northern Italy, and the sources of the Adige, in the Tyrol.

Its name is from the Rhaeti, who lived on its southern sides, and whose territory lay between Lake Como and the river Adige, the northern part of Lon bardy, and the southern of the Tyrol. 18. Vindelici. This German tribe were the northern neighbors of the Rhaeti; and their territory extended from Lake Constance through the south of Bavaria, and the north of the Tyrol. - Quibus―obarmet. Quibus depends upon obarmet; but we translate such a dative by our possessive; e. g. to whom custom-arms (their) right hands, i. e. whose right hands—custom arms, etc. Unde deductus depends upon quaerere. Obarmet is an unusual word, which we should not expect to find in Horace. Indeed the passage quibus-sed is so heavy and prosaic, that its genuineness is questioned, even by some of the best critics, who, omitting the whole, propose to read thus: Vindelici; et diu, etc. 24. Juvenis. Drusus was at this time but twenty-three years of age. – 27. Augusti paternus. Augustus, after his marriage with Livia, adopted and educated her children, Tiberius and Drusus.-See introduction. - -29. Fortibus et bonis. In the ablative case. Dillenburger cites Ovid, Met. 11, 295, genitore creatus, and 13, 615, viro-creatas. - 33. Doctrina sed. The poet, though he asserts the influence of a noble ancestry, yet insists upon the necessity of a right education, as essential alike to intellectual and to moral excellence. 35. Utcunque; quandocunque, whenever. -38. Metaurum flumen. The battle of the Metaurus, a river in Umbria, fought in B. C. 207, in which Caius Claudius Nero totally defeated Hasdrubal; a victory which inspired the Romans with fresh courage, and gave a decisive and favorable turn to their affairs. 41. Alma-adorea. Adorea, sc. donatio, means properly a donative of ador, spelt, grain; given to soldiers after a victory; hence, figuratively, as here, for victory, military glory. Smiled with benignant victory. -42. Ut. Ex quo, from the time when. 48. Deos-rectos. "Re-established. The statues were replaced, which had been thrown down by the invaders." Osborne. -49. Perfidus. Horace writes like Livy, concerning Hannibal, and expresses the national sentiment touching their great enemy. Comp. Liv. 21, 4. But modern history is more just to the character of the great Carthaginian. See Arnold's Rom. Hist. vol. 2, p. 195; Schmitz's Hist. p. 195.- -50. Cervi. As stags. The remainder of the ode is one of the finest passages any where to be found, in illustration of the

invincible might of the Romans; and Horace gives it an additional significance, by putting it into the mouth of an enemy of Rome. - -57. Pertulit ad urbes. So Virgil, Aen. 1, 67:

"Gens inimica mihi Tyrrhenum navigat aequor,

Ilium in Italiam portans, victosque Penates."

60. Ducit opes. This inherent energy of the Romans, by which they rose above their reverses, and made even losses and misfortunes arouse new strength and courage, is admirably illustrated in the Hantibalian war, immediately after the disastrous affair of Cannae. Observe how fine and just is this simile from the oak, especially in the words ab ipso ferro.61. Hydra. The many-headed Lernaean hydra, destroyed by Hercules. See Class. Dict. 63. Summisere. The teeth of the dragon slain by Cadmus, were sown partly in Colchis, and partly in Thebes; and in each place, as the story was, there sprang up armed men from the earth. Of these, Echion was one; hence Thebes is called Echioniae. -65. Merses. Si is omitted. See Z. 780; comp. Epist. i., 6, 31; 10, 24.-Dillenb. With this passage should be compared the words of Hannibal, in Livy, 27, 14: cum eo nimirum hoste res est, qui nec bonam, nec malam ferre fortunam potest. Seu vicit, ferociter instat victis; seu victus est, instaurat cum victoribus certamen.· Evenit. So the

best MSS. Orelli's reading (from Meineke) exiet was adopted merely to make the verb accord with proruet. The form exiet is not found in good writers. In Tibullus, i., 4, 27, the true reading is transiit, not transiet. Dillenb. 68. Conjugibus. By their wives; i. e. of the Romans. Conjugibus is the usual dative after the part. in dus. 69. Nuntios.

As e. g. after the battle of Cannae. See n. above, 1. 60.73. Nil Claudiae. These may still be considered the words of Hannibal, whom the poet makes predict the achievements of the Claudian family. Thus the ode ends, as it began, with the praises of Drusus and his brother.


The poet begs Augustus to come back to Rome; and describes the peace and good or. der of the kingdom under his reign.

Compare introduction to second ode of this Book, and the note on 1. 43.

2. Abes jam nimium diu. Already too long have you been absent. He had been absent nearly three years.-On jam with the present see note, O. iii., 30, 5.- -4. Concilio. Consilium is the regular prose expression for the senate, and for a deliberative assembly. Concilium is here used as a nobler expression, like concilium deorum.

-9. Notus; the south

wind, a head-wind to any one crossing the Carpathian sea, on the return voyage from Asia Minor to Rome. The Carpathian sea, so called from the island of Carpathus, in the Mediterranean, between Rhodes and Crete. 13. Votis, etc. Livy has a parallel expression in his Preface: cum bonis ominibus votisque et precationibus. -18. Faustitas. An urusual word, for felicitas. See list of such words in note, O. i., 5, 8.20. Culpari metuit. Dreads to be blamed. See note, O. ii., 2, 7. — 22. Mos et lex. Compare the expression in O. iii., 24, 35. The word lex probably refers to the Marriage laws of Augustus, by which he endeavored to check the prevailing licentiousness. See Dict. Antiqq. under Adulterium and Julia Lex et Papia Poppaea. 25. Paveat. Should fear? who needs fear? On the subj. see Arn. Pr. Intr. 424; Z. § 530. On Parthum, compare n. O. iii., 5, 4.- -Scythen. See n. O. iii., 8, 23.

26. Horrida; rough; in reference both to the country and to the people. Tacitus, Germ. c. 2, describes the country as informem terris, and c. 5, silvis horridam.· -27. Ferae. The fierce Cantabri, in Spain. Compare O. ii., 6, 2. -29. Condit. Condere with diem, means to go through the day from morning until the evening; to pass the whole day, with the idea involved of bringing the day to a peaceful close. It is a poetical transition from the meaning of condere, to bury; to put away the day, as one would lay away in the tomb a deceased friend. So condere noctem, lustrum.—Suis. There is here an emphasis in suis, as in the scriptural expression, "his own vine and fig-tree." They are his own hills; in the good order of Augustus's reign, his secure possessions. -30. Viduas; widowed; i. e. from which the vines have been severed, in the prostration of agriculture during the civil wars. See n. O. ii., 15, 4. -31. Redit; i. e. home after the toils of the day. Alteris mensis, the mensa secunda or the dessert of a Roman coena, during which libations were offered to the gods; and here in honor of Augustus. (See note on O. iii., 3, 12.) The three parts of the coena were-1, the gustatorium or promulsis; 2, the fercula or several courses, called also mensa prima; and 3, mensae secundae or alterae. - -35. Uti Graecia; i. e. as Greece worshipped Castor and Hercules for their great services to their country, so all rank thee among their cherished gods.-Castoris and Herculis depend upon memor. -37. Longas-ferlas; "id est, diu, precamur, vivas; as in O. i., 2, 46, diuque Laetus, etc." Orelli.- -39. Sleci, when sober;=nondum poti, Uvidi, i. e. vino; after the coena, or a late banquet.


The last lines of this ode plainly allude to the Secular Hymn of Horace, and it is probable that the whole was written as a kind of prelude to that celebrated Hymn.

The poet invokes the aid of Apollo in executing his task; and gives directions to the chorus, appointed to sing the ode at the Secular Celebration.

1. Proles. The seven sons and daughters of Niobe, who were slain by Apollo and Diana. Magnae. Boastful. The story was, that Niobe, proud of her offspring, arrogated the honors offered to Latona. -2. Tityos. See n. O. iii., 4, 77.- -4. Phthius. Of Phthiōtis, a district in Thessaly, where lived the Myrmidones, who went with Achilles to the Trojan war. 11. Procidit late. The simile and all the language of this stanza are designed to present the image of a hero of gigantic form. Dillenburger compares Virg. Aen. 2, 626; Hom. Od. 24, 39, 40. – 13. Minervae-mentito. The wooden horse was left by the Greeks as an offering to Minerva. 16. Falleret. This word, and ureret, 1. -25. Thaliae. For

29, have the force of a pluperfect. See Z. § 525.the Muse of Grecian song, to which is opposed Dauniae Camenae, for the Latin Muse. Comp. n. O. iii., 30, 11.- 28. Agylen. An epithet

of Apollo, 'Ayvieús, fr. åyviá, a street, as the presiding deity of streets and public squares. In the streets of Athens, statues were erected to his honor.-The epithet levis imberbis has reference to the idea of Apollo's perpetual youth.- -29. Spiritum, etc. Horace here claims for himself that inspiration of genius (spiritum), and that practice in the rules of his art (artem), which together are requisite to insure the name of poet. Compare Ars. P. 408-411, where Horace contends for the union of genius and study. ―31. Primae. He addresses the Secular Chorus (see introd.), composed of youths and maidens, chosen from the noblest families. 33. Tutela. The care; i. e. the object of her care. On Deliae, see n. O. i., 22, 10. - -35. Lesbium pedem. The Lesbian or Sapphic measure, in which the Secular Hymn was written. Comp. O. i., 1, 34. Pollicis ictum, the beat of the thumb, upon the strings of the lyre, to mark the cadences of the measure. The poet fancies himself the leader of the choir, magister chori, instructing them in the song and the dance, with the accompaniment of the lyre.- -38. Noctilucam. From nox and luceo, VUKTIλaμnhs, that illumines the night. Face, with a torch, means here, light. Diana was represented with a torch in her hand.

-39. Fragam. Poetic genitive. See Z. 437. Pronos, fast passing; as O. ii., 18, 16, pergunt interire lunae.- -Nupta. Addressing one of the maidens, probably the leader of the chorus, he suggests, by way of incitement, the delight with which she will some time look back to this festival and to the part she bore in its glad scenes. 42. Luces.

« PoprzedniaDalej »