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TOWS,

all, by his fear lest Neoptolemus, de- yields to this supernatural agency, and terred by his situation, should abandon consents to accompany them. There him, and leave him to the practices is something exceedingly tender in his of his enemies, Diomed and Ulysses. farewell address to Lemnos. After a short slumber he awakes,

“ Thou cave, that long hast been my refreshed and relieved from pain. Now habitation, that Neoptolemus had obtained the Ye nymphs that guard the meadows and the bow, and was freed from the terror of fountains, that formidable weapon, he confesses Ye jutting rocks, from which the briny spray to Philoctetes that he was in league Has often showered upon my naked head, with Ulysses, and that it was his ob• Borne by the south winds—and ye dashing

waves, ject to carry him to Troy.

Farewell. Farewell, thou hill of Mercury, “ Phil. Destructive as the fire ! waker of That oft has echoed to my lamentations. mischief!

Ye fountains, ye sweet waters, and green Traitor ! have I done ought to merit this ?

fields, Say, art thou not ashamed to look on me, Farewell: I leave you to return no more. A helpless suppliant, who did trust in thee? Lemnos, endeared to me even by my sorWho robs me of my bow, robs me of life? Oh, wo is me! he will not speak to me; Farewell." He does not deign me even a look of mercy. Ye lakes, ye promontories, and ye rocks,

From this view of the play of PhiHaunts of the wild beast of the wilderness, loctetes, it will appear, that nothing To you again do I address my plaints: can be more simple than its fable. Oft have ye seen my tears and heard my The stratagems used to decoy him *cries.

from the island, their failure, and the See what the cruel man has done to me! intervention of a supernatural agency, He pledged his faith that he would bear me which for such a purpose is quite un

home, And now betrays me to mine enemies.

necessary, form the whole of the plot.

The interest of this drama does not By guile he has obtained the sacred bow, Drawn by the mighty hand of Hercules,

then arise out of an intricate and elaYet he will vaunt him of the victory

borate action. Its whole charm conThat he has won over a dead man's corpse. sists in the character, or rather the Oh! I am like the shadow of the smoke, circumstances, of Philoctetes-the roThe image, not the substance of a man. mantic nature of his situation, and the Were I what once I was, he had not tri- hopelessness of his distress--his helpumphed,

lessness and solitude his longings And not even now, but by a stratagem. Alas! dost thou refuse to speak to me ?

after his native country and the soBy a mean treason thou hast ruined me,

ciety of his kindred-and his pathetic And spurn’st me from thee like a hideous appeals to the rocks, and the valleys, thing.

and the mountains of Lemnos, which Thou cave, my shelter from the winds and had become as the friends and comrain,

panions of his long exile from his Without one beam of hope I enter thee.

fellow men.

It would not be easy My bow no longer shall procure me food, to conceive a form of distress of which But I shall die of famine, and my limbs Shall be the banquet of the fowls of heaven." heighten the picture. The Solitary

the poet has not availed himself to Ulysses now comes on the stage, and suffers from the excess of bodily pain confesses to Philoctetes that he had and extreme infirmity, from famine, been betrayed through his agency. A and from almost all the privations to long dialogue ensues, but he resists all which man is exposed; and yet there the advices and all the stratagems of is no deviation from nature, and the Neoptolemus and Ulysses, till, near poetry is of exquisite simplicity and the conclusion of the play, the ghost beauty. of Hercules appears, and informs him, The Greek tragedians had chiefly that it was for his sake that he had in view the exhibition of one chardescended from heaven, commissioned acter in some situation of deep disby Jupiter ; that a mansion was pre- tress, or under the influence of some pared for him among the Gods;

but one of the more violent passions, that he must first repair to Troy, and neglected the subordinate personwhich could not be taken but by ages. There is nothing original in the means of the bow which he had be conception of the characters of Ulysses queathed to him, and that there only and Neoptolemus. They are mere he could be cured of his wounds. He copies from Homer; and, like all other

OF

THE SABBATH.

copies, fall greatly short of the origi- in Shakspeare alone that we breathe nals. In Ulysses, wisdom degenerates the atmosphere of real life. He alone into low cunning; and Neoptolemus, unites the accurate observation and the son of Achilles, is, like his father, faithful delineation of the minutese guileless and impetuous; but, in the shades of human character with the contemplation of both, the mind is led divine inspiration of poetry. He alone to their prototypes in Homer, and not never declaims, nor ever appears in to nature. Even in Philoctetes the his own person ; and in him alone poet is more studious of making us every character seems to be formed for acquainted with his sufferings, and of the place assigned to him, and no exciting our sympathy by them, than other; and expresses his own feelings, of giving an individuality to the por- and his own sentiments, in his own trait to which he has chosen to give language, which is always the voice of that name.

Nature. It is rather extraordinary that, with the example of Homer before their eyes, whose characters are always men

MEMOIR OF JAMES GRAHAME, AUTHOR of nature, each marked by his own individual peculiarity-the Greek tragedians should have often been so The contemplation of superior excelcareless, or so unsuccessful, in this lence is perhaps the most impressive, most important department of drama as well as interesting, subject of meditic writing. Of Philoctetus I have no tation in which the human mind can notion but what is connected with a be engaged. For it is impossible to certain transaction supposed to have reflect on exalted virtue, without feel happened in the island of Lemnos. ing our own nature improved, or upon Not so in Shakspeare. Having once extensive acquirements, without being seen his characters, I remember them inspired with some degree of emulafor ever, independent of all situations. tion. But when genius is added to They seem to be men and women with these perfections of which our comwhom I have been intimately ac mon nature is susceptible, the characquainted, and the scenes in which I ter of the individual is raised to a highhave seen them, only a portion of the er standard of excellence; and while great drama of life. It not in the our admiration is increased, we conleast necessary to my conception of the sider the mind so gifted, as belonging character of Hamlet that he should be to a superior species of beings, in whom the avenger of his father's murder ; are qualities quite beyond our powers but I feel convinced, that if he were of attainment; and, dazzled by the lusso, or expostulated with his mother on tre by which they are surrounded, we her unnatural conduct, he would speak look up to them as from a humbler and act exactly as we see him do in sphere, with a sort of mysterious vethe wonderful play that bears his name. neration. In the mind, of which I He is, in my mind, as much an indi am now to attempt a delineation, those vidual being as Cæsar or Alexander. powers were so happily blended, as to I could suppose him placed in ten produce a result of the most endearthousand other situations, and should ing nature. It is not so much the life, recognise him in all. His sentiments as the character of the Bard of the Saband actions are the result of his char- bath, with which I would make my acter, and never err in consistency. readers acquainted. In the first there We have a similar example in the was nothing remarkable, in the latter character of Sir John Falstaff, whom there was every thing to engage the we are tempted to believe Shakspeare attention and amend the heart. oopied from real-life, and then invent JAMES GRAHAME was born in Glased situations for him ; and in every gow, on the 22d of April 1765—and situation there appears so much of the was there educated in the usual routine truth of nature, that we could be easie of public classes, in which he eminently persuaded that the poet is repre- ly distinguished himself. He wrote senting an action that really happened. some elegant Latin verses when very

The Greek tragedians are eminently young; and, although averse to the successful in the natural and simple appearance of being particularly studie, expression of sorrow, and abound in ous, he was, even then, so ardeutly depassages of beautiful poetry; but it is voted to literary pursuits, that he ale

Gloucestershire, at which place he re- months as an interim curate, and sided with his family for above, a year, was extremely popular; after which, and then returned to Annan on a visit. he was appointed to the curacy of While there, St George's Chapel in Sedgefield, in that see. In this Edinburgh becoming vacant, he was place he preached before the bishop, induced, by the persuasion of his who expressed high approbation of friends, to offer himself a candidate. him, and warm interest in his faHe came to Edinburgh for that pur-vour ; but before there was time for pose, and preached several times. The any preferment from his lordship’s performance of his sacred duties was patronage, the bad health to which he in unison with his character, simple, had always been subject, increased to elegant, and affecting. He evinced, an alarming degree. Being afflicted both in his manner and his doctrine, with violent headach, and oppressive the deepest impression of those impor- asthma, he was induced to come to tant truths he was to explain ; but Edinburgh for change of air. He ara laboured more to inspire his hearers rived at the house of Mrs Archibald with pious feelings, and to imbue Grahame, his only surviving sister, their minds with love, and peace, and very much indisposed. He was often charity, than to bewilder their under- agonized with excruciating pain in his standings, or dazzle their imaginations. head; yet he had intervals of ease, He appeared like the Apostle of Peace, and was able occasionally to see and making mankind ashamed of every converse with many of his friends; at turbulent and unruly passion. He which time he evinced all that playforgot not the awful justice of his ful cheerfulness, which in former days Divine Master; but mercy was the was so attractive in his manners. He attribute on which he loved to dweil. found in this amiable sister a soothing His appearance, in the robes of his and an attentive nurse ; but his malasacred office, was solemn and devout, dy wearing an alarming aspect, Mrs while the deep tones of a voice, rich Grahame joined him in Edinburgh ; in natural pathos, were rendered still and on his expressing an ardent desire more impressive by the pale hue to go to Glasgow, she accompanied him which sickness had spread over his in his last journey to that place. Though fine features; and he seemed like a very ill before he set out, and aware of messenger sent from Heaven, that was his danger, he did not imagine his disto lead the way to that happier state solution so near; but was animated with of living to which he was directing his the idea of visiting the scenes of his fellow travellers. His excellence as a early days and happiest recollections. preacher was acknowledged ; and at He even hoped to preach in his native one time there appeared to be a ma town, and took two sermons for that jority of the electors in his favour; purpose, the subjects of which bear a but, upon the final trial, another cane striking analogy to the situation of didate was successful.

their author; the text of one of them This disappointment was most pain- being,“ O death where is thy sting ?” ful to his friends, who were eager to The

victory indeed was soon to be his. again enjoy the society of one in whom He became worse by the way, and two they so much delighted, but he bore days after, having arrived at Whiteit without a murmur, and replied to Hill, near Glasgow, the residence of the impatient and indignant lamenta- his eldest brother, he expired on the tions of a much interested friend, in 14th of September 1811, in the fortythe language of meekness and consola- seventh year of his age. tion, saying, " It mattered not where Immediately afterwards, there was we passed our time for a few short published a beautiful monody on his years. Before returning to Annan, death, peculiarly soothing to the feelhe paid a last visit to his respected ings of his friends; the elegant aumother, who resided in Glasgow, and thor seemed to have wandered in his who died soon after.

favourite haunts, and to have caught, When the affair of St George's with affectionate ardour, his very tone chapel was finally settled, he went to of simple pathos and holy enthusiasm. Durham, and became a candidate for It appeared, from the report of the a minor canonry; but failed there also, medical attendants, that the complaint as it had been promised to another in his head had been of many years before he applied. He officiated three duration, and must have occasioned

Soon after this, he published, in the printing, he and his respectable pubKelso Mail, under the signature of lisher, Mr Pillans, always held their Matilda, a succession of beautiful pic. necessary interviews at some tavern, tures of nature through several months and seldom more than once at the same of the year, beginning with April, place. On its publication he brought which were afterwards extended and the book home with him, and left it printed in an edition of his works, on his parlour table. Returning soon with the title of “ The Rural Calen- after, he found Mrs Grahame engaged dar.” About the year 1800, he wrote in its perusal; but without venturing Mary Stuart, a tragedy. This latter to ask her opinion, he continued walkpiece was rather a favourite with the ing up and down the room in breathauthor, and though not adapted to the less anxiety, till she burst out in the stage, it contains many fine poetical warmest eulogiums on the performpassages, and must ever be considered

ance; adding,

“Ah! James, if you an elegant dramatic tale.

could but produce a poem like this !": From a sense of duty, however, he The disclosure of the author will readipaid all due attention to the labours ly be anticipated; but the mutual hap, of his profession, especially after his piness of such a moment, when the timarriage, which took place in March mid reserve of the poet yielded, in the 1902. He married Miss Grahame, fulness of delight, to the applause of a cldest daughter of Richard Grahame, judge so respected and beloved, may Esq. of Annan, a woman possessed of be better imagined than described. very superior powers of understanding, From this time he became still and much kindness of heart. On her more attached to poetry; and at Kirk judgment and reflection he relied with bill, a beautiful retirement on the unlimited confidence. In political and banks of the Esk, where he resided moral principles they were perfectly during two successive summers, he congenial; but his poetical propen- composed the poem of " The Birds of sity she was led to discourage, from an Scotland.” In this neighbourhood were idea, that it interfered with his profes- the ruins of the once splendid abode sional duties. On discovering, hową of the sanguinary MʻKenzie, and the ever, that he was the author of the humble cottage of John Kilgour, which Sabbath, which his timidity induced he has in that poem so interestingly him to keep a profound secret even contrasted. from her, she became convinced, that About this period, his original desire to check his natural bias to poetry, of entering into the church revived would be like extinguishing the men with irresistible power ; and the writer tal vision that was destined to explore of this Memoir will never forget the the most interesting beauties of the na eager longing with which he surveyed tural, and the most refined modifica- the humble church of Borthwick, on tions of the moral world ; and from a fine summer evening, when the sun's that period she was proud of his geni- last rays had gilded the landscape, and us, and deeply interested in its success. rendered every object in nature more The unfavourable review of the Sab- sweet and impressive. He cast a look bath, she was much less willing to ex of delighted complacency around the cuse than he was himself. He indeed peaceful scene, and said, with an acnever indulged any displeasure against cent of regret, “ I wish such a place as its author; he loved the man so much, that had fallen tò my lot.” And when and felt such respect for his critical it was remarked, that continued retirepowers, that he bowed in acquiescence ment might become wearisome, “Oh! to the decision, and was rather offend- no," he replied, " it would be delight, ed with those friends who expressed ful to live a life of usefulness among a themselves indignantly upon the occa- simple people, uninolested with petty sion.

cares and ceremonies.” The extreme delicacy and diffidence In the following spring, having seof Grahame's character, are strikingly riously formed the design of quitting exemplified in some circumstances the bar, he left Edinburgh, and, after which attended the first publication of spending a few months at Annan, prothis beautiful poem.

None of his ceeded to Chester, and from thence friends had the slightest previous inti to London, where he was ordained by mation or suspicion of its existence. the Bishop of Norwich. He was soon To avoid observation while it was after appointedł curate of Shipton in

Gloucestershire, at which place he re- months as an interim curate, and sided with his family for above a year, was extremely popular; after which, and then returned to Annan on a visit. he was appointed to the curacy of While there, St George's Chapel in Sedgefield, in that see. In this Edinburgh becoming vacant, he was place he preached before the bishop, induced, by the persuasion of his who expressed high approbation of friends, to offer himself a candidate. him, and warm interest in his faHe came to Edinburgh for that pure vour ; but before there was time for pose, and preached several times. The any preferment from his lordship’s performance of his sacred duties was patronage, the bad health to which he in unison with his character, simple, had always been subject, increased to elegant, and affecting. He evinced, an alarming degree. Being afflicted both in his manner and his doctrine, with violent headach, and oppressive the deepest impression of those impor- asthma, he was induced to come to tant truths he was to explain ; but Edinburgh for change of air. He arlaboured more to inspire his hearers rived at the house of Mrs Archibald with pious feelings, and to imbue Grahame, his only surviving sister, their minds with love, and peace, and very much indisposed. He was often charity, than to bewilder their under- agonized with excruciating pain in his standings, or dazzle their imaginations. head ; yet he had intervals of ease, He appeared like the Apostle of Peace, and was able occasionally to see and making mankind ashamed of every converse with many of his friends; at turbulent and unruly passion. He which time he evinced all that play. forgot not the awful justice of his ful cheerfulness, which in former days Divine Master; but mercy was the was so attractive in his manners. He attribute on which he loved to dwell. found in this amiable sister a soothing His appearance, in the robes of his and an attentive nurse; but his malasacred office, was solemn and devout, dy wearing an alarming aspect, Mrs while the deep tones of a voice, rich Grahame joined him in Edinburgh ; in natural pathos, were rendered still and on his expressing an ardent desire more impressive by the pale hue to go to Glasgow, she accompanied him whịch sickness had spread over his in his

last journey to that place. Though fine features; and he seemed like a

very

ill before he set out, and aware of messenger sent from Heaven, that was his danger, he did not imagine his disto lead the way to that happier state solution so near; but was animated with of living to which he was directing his the idea of visiting the scenes of his fellow travellers. His excellence as a early days and happiest recollections. preacher was acknowledged ; and at He even hoped to preach in his native one time there appeared to be a ma. town, and took two sermons for that jority of the electors in his favour; purpose, the subjects of which bear but, upon the final trial, another can striking analogy to the situation of didate was successful.

their author; the text of one of them This disappointment was most pain- being, “ O death where is thy sting?" ful to his friends, who were eager to The

victory indeed was soon to be his. again enjoy the society of one in whom He became worse by the way, and two they so much delighted, but he bore days after, having arrived at Whiteit without a murmur, and replied to Hill, near Glasgow, the residence of the impatient and indignant lamenta- his eldest brother, he expired on the tions of a much interested friend, in 14th of September 1811, in the fortythe language of meekness and consola- seventh year of his age. tion, saying, " It mattered not where Immediately afterwards, there was we passed our time for a few short published a beautiful monody on his years.”. Before returning to Annan, death, peculiarly soothing to the feelhe paid a last visit to his respected ings of his friends; the elegant aumother, who resided in Glasgow, and thor seemed to have wandered in his who died soon after.

favourite haunts, and to have caught, When the affair of St George's with affe nate ardour, his very tone chapel was finally settled, he went to of simple pathos and holy enthusiasm.

Durham, and became a candidate for It appeared, from the report of the a minor canonry; but failed there also, medical attendants, that the complaint as it had been promised to another in his head had been of many years before he applied. He officiated three duration, and must have occasioned

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