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secretion of bile. In other cases the ed very considerably during the sumsymptoms are exceedingly mild; and mer ; but during this last winter I have had frequent opportunities of it has again increased, and typhus seeing instances, in which general fever has been diffused among the lassitude, with inaptitude for exertion poor in the different quarters of the of the body or mind, impaired appe- town, and several persons in the bettite, slightly foul tongue, and disturbed ter ranks. of life have been attacked sleep, were the only symptoms of the by it. During its prevalence, this fedisease, the pulse continuing little if ver has however generally been mild, at all above, sometimes even below, the and few cases have occurred in which natural standard ; and the patients, I have learnt of its having been atwhile lying in bed, feeling so easy in tended by the severe or putrid sympevery respect, that it was difficult to toms which distinguish malignant typersuade them or their friends of the phus. In a great number of the cases propriety and necessity of confine- there can hardly be said to have been ment to bed, and of their observing an any symptom peculiar to typhus fever ; abstemious diet. In these cases the fe- and had it not been from their appaver has been generally long continued, rently contagious nature, it would and its abatement almost impercepti- have been impossible to have distinble; no very distinct amendnient hav- guished them from common continued ing taken place till after a period of fever. In the severer cases, however, several weeks.
the symptoms of typhus were more Besides this fever, there generally distinct, as shewn by the early deliexists in Edinburgh, though usually rium, the suffusion of the eyes, the to a very limited degree, a continued involuntary discharge of the excrefever of a contagious nature, commonly tions, and the black and incrusted fur denominated Typhus or Nervous Fever. on the mouth and tongue. In a conDuring the earlier months of last year, siderable number also of these, an a considerable number of cases of this eruption of a red colour, not unlike fever appeared in town; but these measles in its appearance, but of a paler were chiefly confined to particular si- hue, without being elevated, appeared tuations of the town and suburbs, during the earlier days of the fever, which are close and ill-aired. Indeed and faded during its progress. No inthe greater proportion of cases which stances have fallen under my own obcame under my observation occurred servation, of the occurrence of the in a house in a close in the Grass small black or dark purple points, market, occupied as a beggars' lodging- commonly called petechiæ, which are house, where, in two small and con- apparently formed by blood thrown fined rooms, there were no fewer than out in the skin, and usually considered seven beds, generally completely filled as a mark of putrescency ; but I have by the families of vagrants or stranger been informed of several cases in which poor, who had no permanent residence they appeared. In one of these cases, in the town. Into this habitation, so the petechiæ were preceded, for some well adapted for the reception and days, by the red eruption already nospreading of contagion, a man came ticed. In a very violent case of the from Glasgow affected with fever, and fever, which proved fatal, gangrenous speedily communicated it to others of vesications were formed, about the his fellow-lodgers; and though as eleventh day, on the back and loins, many of the sick as possible were sent from the irritation produced by the to the Infirmary, and, in consequence involuntary discharge of the secretions; of the fever, several of the lodgers left and various instances of the mortificathe house, and others were deterred tion of the parts of the body which from coming into it, yet the disease are compressed in lying have taken spread through fourteen of the inha- place. In two instances, I have seen bitants of this miserable place. The the disease accompanied by an aphthous house was at length left nearly empty; state of the throat and back part of the and ventilation and cleaning having nose. In one of these, the fever went been promoted as much as possible, on till the twenty-first day, when, the contagion appeared to have been under the cooling treatment and antidestroyed, as I believe fever did not phlogistic regimen, an abatement took afterwards recur among those who re- place, and, after a long convalescence, sided in it.
the patient completely recovered. In The number of fevers diminish- the other, which occurred in a brother
of the first, after two relapses, in each part of those exposed to it, and freof which the fever was more severe quently did not proceed further than than in the preceding attack, notwith- the individual first attacked. Durstanding the very liberal and appa- . ing the last month, the number afrently beneficial use of wine, the fected with it has considerably destrength was completely exhausted, creased; and there seems reason to the functions of the stomach failed hope, that a further abatement will completely, vomiting of a black mat- take place with the continuance of the ter like coffee-grounds (very similar to fine weather. The unusual circumwhat is described under the name of the stances, howev of the prevalence of black vomit in fevers of tropical cli a contagious fever, though to an exmates) came on, and the patient died at tent which must appear exceedingly the end of the eleventh week. In both trifling, when compared with what these cases, the aphthous state of the takes place in other large towns, or throat went off during the progress of even with what formerly existed in the fever, and no other symptom of Edinburgh, and of its having attacked putrescency appeared. In a great pro- several individuals in the better ranks portion of cases, an abatement of the of life, to some of whom it proved fever has taken place by the fourteenth fatal, 'have excited a considerable deday; and in many instances, particu- gree of anxiety in the minds of the Iarly in children, much earlier. In public; and nost unfounded alarms, some cases, however, the change did and exaggerated reports, have spread not happen till the twenty-first day. abroad with regard to the extent and In those in whom the fever proved danger of the disease. The discussion fatal, death has, as far as I can learn, which these have occasioned may not very rarely taken place at an early be without its use, as it leads to the period of the disease, but generally at consideration of the causes which prosome time after the fourteenth day of duce the fever, and of the means to be its continuance.
employed for arresting its progress. It is not easy to form any conjecture Among the various causes to which with regard to the causes of the dif- the prevalence of the fever has been ferent degrees of severity of the fever attributed, the one which has excited in different individuals, for among a most attention, is the great accumunumber affected, placed in the same lation of the soil from the town, in the circumstances, and apparently having dunghills in its immediate neighbourderived it from the same contagion, hood. It is true, that it is by no means it has been seen to exist in very va- sufficiently determined, what the cirrious states. The disease has, how- cumstances are under which typhus ever, been in general much milder fever is generated, or whether, any among children than in adults, or in more than small-pox or measles, it is those who had passed the age of pu ever excited except by a specific conberty; and what appears rather re- tagion; but, as far as is known, there markable, it has been in general more seems no reason to believe that a consevere in those of the better classes tagious fever is ever produced by the whom it has attacked than among the putrefaction of dead animal or vegetpoor. It has been among individuals able matter; and, in the present inin the better ranks of life, who had stance, I am aware of no facts which every advantage in their accommoda can tend to shew, that the effluvium tion and treatment, and who previously from the dunghills has had any share enjoyed a high state of health, that I in the production or spreading of the have seen and heard of the most vio- fever which has prevailed, while there lent and malignant cases of the fever. are many circumstances which go far
The typhus which has prevailed, to establish that it has had no such has not appeared to have been of a effect. Besides, when it is considered, very actively contagious nature; for that it is universally acknowledged though in some few families and situ- that close and ill ventilated houses, ations, in circumstances peculiarly well crowded with inhabitants, who, from adapted for the propagation of con- poverty and want of employment, are tagion, it spread very generally, yet, debilitated in their bodies, and dein other instances, where but very pressed in their minds, are situations imperfect means of prevention could most favourable to the propagation of be adopted, it affected only a small contagious fever,—that contagious fe
ver is never entirely absent from have been received into them, but in Edinburgh-and that infection may materially diminishing, since their be imbibed and communicated by the establishment, the number of contaclothes of a person affected with fe- gious fevers in the city. The dislike, ver, or who has been for a continu- however, which exists among the
poor ed period exposed to an atmosphere to avail themselves of the advantages strongly impregnated with its con of an hospital, some of the motives of tagion,-it does not appear difficult which must excite our sympathy rato explain the prevalence of typhus ther than our blame, frequently preamong the poor during last winter, or vents altogether the removal of the its occasional communication to their sick into this institution, and, in richer neighbours
It would seem,
cases of fever, almost always till after therefore, that little benefit can be the disease has considerably advancexpected, in so far as relates to the pre- ed; and when the removal has been vention or diminution of this fever, effected, the remainder of the family from the removal of the dunghills. It continue to live in the room, or even is, however, completely ascertained, to sleep in the bed, from which the that when patients affected with ty- sick person has been taken, and which phus are laid in well ventilated apart- continue loaded with the seeds of the ments, and proper attention is paid to disease. In order to arrest the prothe cleanliness of their persons, and to gress of contagion among the poor, the the removal and washing of their bed- co-operation of the richer part of the ding and clothes, the risk of contagion community is essentially necessary. is incalculably diminished: and so This may be afforded, and can be efmuch is this the case, that even in fectually afforded only, by steps being fever-wards in hospitals, where a num taken to encourage, among the poor, ber of patients with bad fevers are the early separation of the diseased often collected together, the commu from the healthy,--to enable them, nication of contagion to other parts of by contributing towards the expense, the house is unknown, and those whose and by furnishing a temporary supduties require their presence among ply of clothing, to clean the infected the sick, unless from imprudent ex- clothing and furniture, and to fumiposure in remaining too long close gate and white-wash their houses, to the patients, or upon their beds, are and, above all, to ensure that these very rarely infected. Among the rich, measures are carefully carried into efall risk of the spreading of contagion fect, by providing for the superintendis in general completely prevented, byence of them when they are necessary. the removal of the infected person in- In London, Manchester, Liverpool, to a separate room, into which the air and other large towns, associations for is freely admitted, while unnecessary the prevention of contagious fevers communication with the rest of the among the poor have, by adopting family is prohibited, and due attention these means, produced an immediate is paid to the removal and cleaning and great diminution of the number of of the clothes which are used about fevers in these towns; and in Edinthe sick. But among the poor, whose burgh, the formation of some plan for families are generally obliged to oc the same purpose, which might be efcupy one apartment, and often only fected at a very small expense, and one bed, into which the free air is could not fail greatly to diminish the seldom, if ever, allowed to have ac- prevalence of fever, if not wholly to cess, and whose poverty and apathy remove it from the town, seems dictatare serious obstacles to their mak- ed to those enjoying the advantages of ing any effort to rid themselves of affluence, not only by humanity tothe evil, it becomes much more diffi- wards the poor, but also by a regard to cult to arrest the progress of contagion. the safety and comfort of themselves The fever-wards of the Royal Infirm- and their families. ary of Edinburgh, the first of the None of the contagious diseases to kind, I believe, which were establish- which children are liable prevail at ed in Britain, have been productive present in Edinburgh. A few stragof many advantages, not only in pro- gling cases of measles still occasionally moting the recovery of those who occur among those who escaped that VOL. I.
disease when so universally prevalent general of Edinburgh, and the practice during last autumn and winter.* In- of vaccination is very generally adoptstances of scarlet fever also present ed by all classes of the community; themselves from time to time; but this in consequence of which, the town disease, from what cause it is not easy enjoys an exemption from small-pox to say, has not shewn any disposition to an extent, I believe, unknown in to spread itself,—though, as it has not any town of equal magnitude in Briprevailed generally since 1811, a great tain. After very considerable oppornumber of children must be liable to tunities of observation with regard to receive its infection.
this subject, I can myself affirm, that Hooping cough, which prevailed I have seen hitherto nothing to shake, very generally during the last summer and much to confirm, my belief in and winter, has now almost entirely the preservative powers of the cowdisappeared ; and there can be little pox against the small-pox. doubt, that the dry and steady wea The variable climate, and exposed ther of the spring has contributed to situation of Edinburgh, render its inits removal.
habitants, perhaps in a peculiar deCases of small-pox occasionally pre- gree, liable to catarrhs and pectoral sent themselves in Edinburgh, in complaints; but the dry and steady children in whom vaccination has been weather of last spring has occassioned neglected, but during the last year a remarkable diminution in the usual these have been extremely
rare. Com- number of these diseases during that plete confidence in the efficacy of the season of the year. The wet weather, cow-pox exists among the medical pro- however, at the end of May, had an fession, and among the inhabitants in immediate effect in increasing the pre
valence of colds, and in aggravating For an account of this epidemic, see
the complaints of those who
laboured “Reports of the Edinburgh New Town under diseases of the chest, and gave Dispensary,” in the Edinburgh Medical and rise to several cases of well-marked Surgical Journal for January and April croup.
J. W. T. 1817.
Edin. June 1st, 1817.
MEMORIAL, ADDRESSED TO HIS MA shorter time. Of the former, the riots in JESTY GEORGE I. CONCERNING THE
Ross-shire in 1792, were the last struggle. STATE OF THE HIGHLANDS ;
-I am, Sir, your obedient humble Servant,
GAEL. By Simon, LORD Lovat, 1724. June 21, 1817. MR EDITOR,
The Highlands of Scotland being a BELIEVING that the following Memorial country very mountainous, and almost of Lord Lovat to George I. has never been inaccessible to any but the inhabitants published, and that it may interest the thereof, whose language and dress are readers of your Magazine, I submit it to your consideration. It is dated twenty-one entirely different from those of the years before the rebellion, for his activity low country, do remain to this day in which Lord Lovat was brought to the much less civilized than the other scafold. Whether, at the period when the parts of Scotland, from whence many memorial was written, he was loyal at bot- inconveniences arise to his Majesty's tom, I have no means of determining, nor subjects, and even to the government do I know whether the memorial was actu- itself. ally presented to the king. It shows clearly, however, that Lovat was at that period ren and unimproven, has little or no
That part of Scotland is very bardissatisfied. The account given of the state of the Highlands is quite correct. What a trade, and not much intercourse with wonderful change seventy years have effects the low country; the product is aled! Indeed, the change from barbarism to most confined to the catile which feed civilization was brought about in a much in the mountains. The people wear
their ancient habit, convenient for made their retreat good, till they join-
don, where he had been maintained by These circumstances have, in all the charity of Queen Anne. Yet, untimes, produced many evils, which der all these circumstances, Sir John have been frequently considered, and Maclean got together 400 of these men, many remedies attempted, as it ap- out of a remote island in the west seas pears from the Scots acts of parlia- of Scotland, who fought under him ment. Their living among themselves, at Dumblain, against his Majesty's unmixt with the other part of the coun- troops, though commanded by their try, has been one of the causes that own landlord. many of their families have continued This extraordinar state of the counin the same possessions during many try has, in all times, produced many ages, and very little alterations hap- mutual quarrels and jealousies among pen in the property of land ; there are the chiefs, which formerly amounted few purchases, and securities for debts to a continual scene of civil warre; and are very uncertain, where power hap- to this day there remains both personpens to be wanting to support the al and hereditary feuds and animosities legal right.
among them, which have a great inThe names of the inhabitants are fluence over all their actions. The law confined to a small number, partly has never had its due course and aufrom the little intercourse they have thority in many parts of the Highlands, had with other people, and partly from neither in criminal nor civil matters; the affectation that reigns among them, no remedy having proved entirely efto annex themselves to some tribe or fectual, and one of the most usefull family, and thereby to put themselves having been disproved. Schemes of under the protection of the head or this nature have been often framed, chief thereof.
but with too little knowledge of the These several names of families are country, or the true rise of the abuses respectively associated together in to be reformed, and very often with too friendship and interest, each name much partiality, and views of resentunder such person as is, or is reputed ment or private interest; all which tend to be, the head of the family, who has only to create disorders and discontents, very great authority over them, quite to exasperate some, and too much enindependent of any legal power, and courage others, and to make all more has, in severall instances, continued proper and reasonable expedients the great numbers of years after that the more difficult to execute. lands where they live has been alien The families in the Highlands are ated from the chiefs whom they serve. divided (besides the disputes arising There happened two surprising in- among themselves) in principles bestances of this at the late rebellion; tween the Whigs and the Jacobites; the one was concerning the Frasers, and that so near in equality, that the who, upon the Lord Lovat's arrival in authority of the government, by giving Scotland, though he had been ane countenance or discouraging, and by exile for many years, another family, rewards and punishments properly apviz. Alexander Mackenzie of Fraser- plied, and all centering in the advancedale, in possession of the estate, who ment of the Whig interest, united tohad marched a number of them, form- gether, might easily produce a vast ed into a regiment, to Perth, where superiority on the side of those who the rebel army then lay. Yet note are well affected, there being in the withstanding all this, the moment they country a great party who, ever since heard that their chief was assembling the names of Whig and Tory have been the rest of his friends and name in known, have been always ready to venthe Highlands, they got together, and ture their lives in the protestant cause.