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The EDINBURGH Review, No 55. several other pious and charitable pur
poses, besides the relief of the paro1. Minutes of the Evidence taken chial poor. The practice is indeed of before the Committee appointed by the long standing; but even in those
paHouse of Commons to inquire into the rishes where there are no legal assess State of Mendicity and Vugrancy in ments, the amount of these voluntary the Metropolis and its neighbourhood. contributions is, from causes which it
- This is an essay on the “Causes and is unnecessary to inquire into in this Cure of Pauperism." The boldness, place, gradually diminishing. That originality, and independence of sen our southern neighours may have timent, for which this celebrated jour. some idea of this mysterious sysnal has been always remarkable,-to tem,” of which they have lately heard say nothing of the acknowledged ta so much, we must beg leave to tell lent, good taste, and profound specua them, that for several years that we lation, by which it has been so pecu- resided in the immediate vicinity of liarly distinguished, -induced us to three country parish churches, this enter upon the perusal of this article collection did not amount, on an avea with very sanguine hopes of finding rage, in each of them, to the sum of that which is at present of such incal- sixpence sterling weekly; and what culable interest-a clear exposition of became of this trifle we never heard, the causes of the rapid increase of pau- nor thought it worth while to inquire. perism, with some definite, enlightened, -As to the legal assessments, in so far and practicable proposal for checking, as they have been deemed expedient, at least, if not for eradicating, this chiefly owing to the non-residence of most alarming evil. In these hopes the principal proprietors, there is little we have been most grievously disap- danger that they can ever either bepointed. The writer proposes to make come considerable in amount, at least our southern neighbours acquainted in country parishes, or be bestowed on with the benefits of the original paro- improper objects. These are the points chial system of Scotland, - deeply de- most interesting to our brethren in plores the introduction of legal assess the south, though the Reviewer says ments for the poor in a few counties, not a word of either. In the comand points out the measures by which paratively few parishes where a poorhe thinks these hitherto very moderate rate is imposed, the heritors of the contributions may be withdrawn, and parish, or their agents, along with the purposes to which, in that event, the minister, hold regular meetings, they may be advantageously applied. at which the assessment is imposed Now this "original parochial system,” equally on themselves and their tenthis “ material mechanism of our pa- ants, according to the real or valued rishes,” and soon, may be described rent of each farm, after a careful exin one word, as being no system at amination of the cases of the applicants all, --nothing more than a practice, now for relief, who are required to attend by no means universal, of making a the meeting, and except in case of collection before divine service at the sickness or infirmity, usually do attend church doors, or within the church and answer the questions which the itself before the dismissal of the con- minister or other members of the meetgregation, out of which the minister ing are in the practice of proposing to and elders of a parish distribute small them. The money is collected by their sums occasionally among the poor, ac- clerk, who is commonly scholmaster cording to their own discretion. As of the parish ; the allowance to each similar collections are made in the pauper, as fixed by the heritors, paid meeting-houses of the numerous bo- by him; and his accounts audited at dies of dissenters which are to be their next meeting. How different all found in every part of Scotland, of this is from the practice of England, which a large portion is avowedly none of our readers need be told; but it applied to other purposes than the is material to remark, that as those who relief of the poor, this practice can impose the assessment pay a moiety of hardly, with any propriety, be called a it themselves, and have thus an evident parochial system. Even in the churches interest in limiting its amount, the rates of the establishment, it is usual to levied for the poor even in the parishes adopt this mode of raising funds for of Berwickshire nearest to the conta.
mination of the English system, and herds, who rear great numbers of where assessinents have been estaba sheep, horses, cows, and goats. The lished for many years, do not, in ordi cause of the insalubrity of this country nary seasons, amount to four pence in is a mystery into which science has the pound of rent.-Another striking not yet been able to penetrate. and most important difference between seems undeniable," says the Reviewer, the English and Scottish poor laws, as " that whatever be the cause of this now administered, is, that no relief is evil, its effects have increased, and are given in Scotland to those who are increasing, at this moment." Rome able to work; and the absence of the itself suffers under the increased action cruel and most injudicious laws of set of the Mal’ Aria; and the extraordinatlement established in England, leaves ry diminution of its inhabitants within every one at perfect liberty to carry twenty-one years, from 1791 to 1813, his labour to the best market.-We from 166,000 to 100,000, is partly have no room to offer any remarks on ascribed to this cause. the measures proposed here for putting 3. Speech of the Right Honourable an end to pauperism; but the substance George Canning in the House of Coma of them is,—the multiplication of pa- mons, on Wednesday, January 29th, rishes with schools and churches, and 1817, on the Motion for an Address to a more intimate intercourse between his Royal Highness the Prince Regent, the minister and his parishioners. It on his most gracious Speech from the has now become the fashion, because Throne.The title of this article is, the poor laws of England are actually “ History of the Alarms." The object a disgrace, as well as an intolerable of the Reviewer is to shew, that there burden, to the nation, to cry out was no good cause for the suspension against all legal provision for the relief of the Habeas Corpus Act, and that it of even the most helpless and despe- had not been suspended in times more rate cases. In this part of the Island, alarming than the present. too far north as we are to write very 4. Aus Meinem Leben. Von GOETHE, learnedly on the subject, we have been This is a continuation of Goethe's Meforward enough to join in this clam- moirs, containing recollections of his our, and to supply the want of local travels in Italy. This volume, the knowledge and dear-bought experie Reviewer says, will be judged by most ence, by what we call general views, readers to be almost as doting as the and of close and perspicuous argument preceding ones, without being equally by elaborate declamation.
entertaining; but, however that may 2. Lettres écrites d'Italie en 1812 et be, the article itself is entertaining in 1813, à Mr Charles Pictet, l'un des no ordinary degree. Goethe and his Rédacteurs de la Bibliothéque Britan- adventures are the subject of much nique. Par FREDERIC SULLIN de good-humoured ridicule. Chateauvieur.-The object of this book 5. Interesting Facts relating to the is to explain the rural economy of Fall and Death of Joachim Murat, Italy; and the title of the article is, King of Naples, &c. By FRANCIS
Agriculture and Statistics of Italy.” MACIRONE.-The“ Foreign Policy of The most interesting part of the cri- England” stands at the top of the pages tique, perhaps, is the account of Man of this Critique ; but the Reviewers remma, which forms the third division confine their attention to the affairs of of the Italian territory. This singular Italy. The Congress of Vienna, and tract extends along the shore of the particularly the representatives of this Mediterranean, from Leghorn to Tere country at that memorable assembly, racina, and reaches inland as far as the are freely censured at the outset; and first chain of the Appennines. Its the transactions regarding Genoa and length is 192 geographical miles; and Ragusa, in 1813 and 1814, brought in in the Agro Romana, where it is proof of the
misconduct of our governgreatest, the breadth is between 30 ment. The Reviewers cannot too much and 40 of these miles. It is unfortu. recommend this book to the reader's nately distinguished by the character attention, whether he look for enterof Mal Aria, an unhealthy constitue tainment, or for information with retion of the atmosphere, or of the soil, spect to the views and conduct of the during the summer season ; and is in- legitimates. An account is then given habited only during the winter, and of the abominable treatment which chiefly by a race of wandering shep- Macirone had experienced from the VOL. I.
Papal government-of his repairing to' The only remark we would beg leave Italy and becoming an officer of the to offer on this important part of the staff to Murat-of the arrangement question is, that the statute of Charles, between Lord William Bentinck and recognizing the prorogation of parliathat personage, and the conduct of our ment for three years without being government in consequence. Some called together, seerns to be in direct very interesting extracts are given from opposition to the more ancient laws, the work, regarding Murat's conceal- which required a parliament to be held ment near Marseilles, before he was every year; and some explanation of able to effect his escape to Corsica; and this obvious inconsistency might have a few curious particulars of theauthor's been expected from this very learnreception at the English head-quarters, ed writer.-As to universal suffrage, to which he was sent by Fouchè with scarcely the vestige of a foundation for propositions after the battle of Was this claim can be discovered; and what terloo,--and of his passage thither, we know of the structure of society in through Blucher's army. The article the earlier periods of our history, is concludes with noticing a story about sufficient of itself to convince us, that the death of Berthier, which is said, this pretended right never was exerwith truth, not to be over and above cised, -as we are certain, that in the credible.
present state of society, it never can 6. The title of this article is, “An- be, without speedily blending, in one nual Parliaments and Universal Suff- undistinguishable mass of ruin, the rage,” and we suppose, that the way in liberties, the energies, and the rewhich the subject is discussed here, sources of the nation. will give satisfaction to the well in 7. Wat Tyler, a dramatic poem; formed and well disposed, whatever and A Letter to William Smith, Esq. may be their political attachments. M. P. From ROBERT SOUTHEY, Esq. Regarding annual parliaments, the -The readers of the Edinburgh ReReviewer proves clearly, by numerous view will at once anticipate the leading references to the rolls of parliament, contents of this article. and other authentic records, that 8. Transactions of the Geological though it was provided by several Society, Vol. II.—There are twentystatutes, that parliaments should be four papers in this volume, of which held every year, yet, that a new parlia. sixteen relate to different localities in ment was not chosen every year, but the British islands, and three only to continued by prorogation for an inde. foreign geology. The account of it is finite period, -in one instance, so early favourable. as the reign of Edward IV. for near 9. Tales of my Landlord.—This three years, and much longer by seve critique is introduæd by some excel. eral of his successors. This preroga. lent remarks on the general character tive of the crown was recognized in of the author's performances; and then one of the first acts of the long parlia- the Reviewer exhibits a concise ana. ment, by which a parliament which lysis of the present work, interspersed was continued by prorogation, and did with copious and well selected extracts. not meet within three years after its What strikes us as rather singular is, last sitting, was declared to be dissolved. that the circumstance of the author's “ We trust we have now proved,” being a Tory, which the critic thinks say the Reviewers, “ to the satisfac- he has discovered him to be, is assigntion of our readers, that, Ist, The me- ed as a reason for passing over some thod of continuing parliaments by pro- of his peccadilloes, with scarcely any rogation, was known from the earliest reproof. It is possible enough, that period of our parliamentary history. Reviewers, as well as Poets, may some2d, That the laws of Edward III. and times nod; for true it is, that the other princes, for annual parliaments, conclusion of this gentleman's lucudid not affect, and were not intended brations is not altogether in his usual to affect, this prerogative. 3d, That style ; and something a great deal betthe statute of 16 Charles I. chap. 1. ter weighed, was to be expected on was the first act that touched or limit- the topics to which be there adverts ed this prerogative of the crown ; and, Martin himself, in the corresponding 4th, That the triennial act of King article of the Quarterly Review, shews Williain was the first statute which a more kindly disposition towards his limited the duration of parliament to homely brother in the bour of his trie a fixed and certain term of years." bulation.
LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.
Discovery of a rich vein of Lead Ore the porphyritic trap, but that oatmeal at Lead Hills. We are informed by Mr is capable of producing the same effects; Braid, surgeon at Lead Hills, that a few by spreading about two quarts of it on weeks ago a very rich vein of lead ore a large dish, and putting it in an exwas discovered in the Scots Mining Com- hausted receiver, when it will freeze near. pany's field.
The vein is fully four feet ly a pint of water in a few minutes ; wide, and filled from wall to wall with the latter being in a pot of porous pure unmixed galena, or lead glance. This earthenware. The fact itself is valuable, important and valuable discovery will in all not only to confectioners and private fa. probability raise the mines of Lead Hills to milies at home, but also to residents their former flourishing state.
in the hottest climes. The absorbent Cumberland Lead Mines. We are also powder recovers all its qualities, after informed, that it is in agitation to re-open operation, if dried in the sun, or before a the lead mines of Cumberland, in Lanark- fire. shire, the property of Michael Linning, The interesting experiment, by ProEsq., which have been lately surveyed by fessor Leslie, announced in our First Num. Professor Jameson.
ber, under the above title, has been sucIn January last, Dr Macculloch read a cessfully repeated by Mr Stodart. The paper to the Geological Society of London, Stone from which he made his absorbent on the Parallel Roads of Glenroy, in which powder was taken from Salisbury Crags, the ingenious author, after a particular des near Edinburgh ; this was pounded and cription of these appearances, entered into a dried ; and with it, under an exhausted minute consideration of all the hypotheses rcceiver, a small body of water was soon which have been suggested relative to the frozen. On preparing a very low receiver, mode of their formation. He thinks the and procuring a larger surface of earth, theory which regards them as the remains the process was accelerated, a larger body of the shores of a lake, is the most proba- of water being soon converted into a cake ble; but allows the difficulties attending of ice. Experiments were made with every opinion as to their origin.
various other absorbents, of which pipe The absolute horizontality of these clay was the best, equalising in intensity “ roads” is a point which, hitherto, has the whin-trap itself. The latter, howa been assumed from inspection with the ever, when in a state of complete decom naked eye, not proved by actual levelling. position, will probably prove to be the But we are happy to be able to inform our
best material for the refrigerating process. readers, that within these few days, this This elegant discovery of the Professor point has been determined in the most promises to prove equally interesting to satisfactory manner. Mr Lauder Dick, the philosopher, and important in its apó with the assistance of some scientific friends, plication to the common purposes of life has ascertained, by a series of levellings,
in every climate.
Whether required as executed with the utmost care, that the a luxury in health or as a necessary in ** roads" are perfectly horizontal at every sickness, ice may at all times be readily point.
He has also examined minutely procured. the corresponding appearances in the At a late meeting of the Bath Literary neighbouring valleys of Glengloy and and Philosophical Society, Dr. Wilkinson, Glenspian; and made a variety of obser. in remarking upon a paper presented by vations, serving very much to confirm Dr Wollaston, relative to the theory of the those views relative to their origin, which diamond-cutting glass, mentioned, that he he lately delivered to the Royal Society of had some micrometers, made by the late Edinburgh.
Mr Coventry, where the lines on glass had Artificial Congelation. -New theories of been so finely drawn, that the cross lines Chemistry and Geology may now be ex. formed a series of squares; so minute, that pected to start up from the recent discover 25 millions are equal to no more than one ies of Professor Leslie, whose frigorific process, by the combined powers of absorption The plan of a new drag for searching and evaporat acts with
for drowned bodies has been submitted energy and effect. He has lately ascertain to, and approved by, the same society. It ed, that the congealing power is not con. consists of an iron-rod, at least six feet, tined to the absorbent earths, particularly, in length, divided into three parts by.
two joints ; so that, as the sides of rivers the expense of raising them will probaare generally sloping, the two extremi. bly be not more than one-fifth part of the ties of the rod may lie on either bank, money. while the central part keeps its horizon Saturday, the 10th ult. Mr Moir extal position on the bed of the river. To hibited a model of a machine before the this road are attached a number of creep. Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, ers, at the end of small chains, about a foot for impelling a vessel against the stream, asunder. This instrument, towed by a without the application of sails, oars, or small boat, will, it is conceived, completely steam. search the bed and banks of any small Bath Literary and Philosophical So. river.
ciety.-March 17.-Mrs Grose favoured African Expedition.-Accounts have been the Society with some specimens of the received from Lieutenant Campbell, on Cicada mannaferens, or locust of New whom devolved the command of the ex South Wales, and likewise of the wild pedition for Exploring the Joliba or Niger honey or manna deposited by that animal River, on the death of Major Peddie, stato on a large Forest tree called the Eucalyping his arrival at the head of the river Nu. tus. This insect continues but a short nez, whence he intended proceeding across time in its winged state; it was first obthe mountains towards "Bammakoo, the served in November 1800, by Colonel place at which Mr Park embarked ; on the Paterson, in the pupa state, and on the surface of which Lieutenant Campbell and same day it appeared with its wings his companions are in all probability at this through an opening in the back of the time.
outer covering ; it was then in a very Earthquakes. The following is an enu. weak state, and slowly left its original meration of earthquakes felt in different abode. The rapidity with which the inparts of the world since the first of January sect enlarges after this is surprising ; in
the course of a few hours it can fly to the Jan. 13. In the Gulf Stream.
top of the tallest eucalyptus, which gene17. At Chamouny, in Switzerland. rally grows to the height of sixty or se19. At the same place.
On this tree Colonel Pater 20. At the same place, and also at son first discovered the manna in great Alcocer, in Spain.
quantities, apparently produced by these Feb. 11.
insects. It may be collected both in a 13. At the same place.
liquid and in a saccharine state : the in. 14.
habitants gathered it, and used it for some 18. At Madrid, Barcelona, Lerida, time as sugar, but soon discovered that and Saragossa.
it possessed in some degree the quality of March 11. At Lyons.
The extraordinary noise these 15. At Chamouny, and Messina, in little creatures make is deserving of noSicily.
tice: the males first begin with a note 18. At Madrid, Pampeluna, and similar to that of the land-rail, and re
several other parts of Spain. peat it for several times ; at length the 22. At Pampeluna.
females join, when the combination of 25.) Ato Frascati, Gensano, trand notes exactly resembles the noise of grind.
other adjacent places in Italy. ing knives or razors; and hence the in26.0 One shock particularly vio sect is popularly known by the name of lent.
the razor-grinder. It makes its appear28. At Chamouny.
ance about the end of November, and 30. ditto.
early in January deposites its eggs in the 31. ditto.
ground. The larva is perfect in SeptemApril 1. ditto.
ber, when it is formed into the pupa, in 2. ditto, very violent, direction which state it remains until November. from north to south.
There is a species of the insect in New (Day not mentioned) At Palermo.
South Wales of the same appearance, and A gentleman at Blackheath has found which make the same sort of noise, but that alcohol and snow, or ice mixed to produces no manna. gether, form an absorbent of such capa The university of Cambridge has recity, that the temperature of snow, when cently received a gift of £20,000 from an the alcohol is not very strong, is reduced unknown individual, who is stated to be from 32° to 17o.
on the verge of concluding a century, and Orders have gone down to Plymouth who has adopted this plan in preference for the Resolute bell-vessel to repair to to a testamentary bequest, as the legacy Portsmouth, in order that the state of duty is thereby saved. The gift is exthe Royal George may be ascertained, pressly to St Peter's College; the Mas. preparatory to the removal of her hull, ter and Fellows of which, it is said, ineither together or in pieces. Her remains tend to expend the interest of the sum in are' estimated to be worth £56,000, while founding some new Scholarships, and