Obrazy na stronie

hand, by a judicious plan of selection, meleons, geckos, anoles, lizards, takyreserves a due space for the discussion drome, scinks, efts, and chalcides. The of important subjects, while it is over- third order comprehends the hylæ or loaded with no useless and lumber- tree frogs, rana or common frog, bufo some matter. Its plan is sufficiently or toad ;-these constitute one family, extensive to embrace every thing use- called the batracians, without tails ; ful in history, literature, and science, the other family (or tailed batracians) but not so extensive ; and herein lies consists of the salamander, proteus, its excellence, as to admit of the te- and siren. In treating of the anadious and perplexing tautology, which tomy and physiology of these reptiles, is unavoidable when the same subject the author gives a clear and compréis brought under the view of the read- hensive account of their motions, sener, in different articles, and in various sation, digestion, circulation and abforms. The respectable names which sorption, respiration and voice, secreappear in the list of its contributors tion and excretion, integumation, gewere, from the first, a pretty sure neration, and hybernation. pledge of the ability with which it HISTORY is the next article of imwould be conducted; and the pledge portance. The plan proposed is, first, has been fully redeemed. Many of to point out and explain the various its leading articles may be held forth advantages of the study of history ; as the best treatises which have ap- secondly, to enumerate those branches peared on their respective subjects; of study which ought to be entered and the plan very properly adopted, upon, previous to, or contemporary of having every article an original com- with, the study of history; thirdly, to munication, marked by the signature give a brief and rapid sketch of the or-. of its author, has excited among the der in which ancient and modern hiscontributors a very beneficial emula- tories may most conveniently and ad-!: tion, and conferred on the work a uni- vantageously be read; fourthly, to formity of excellence of which none of point out the order in which the hisits rivals can boast.

tory of particular countries may be Our notice of the articles which read, so that they may be illustrative of this half volume contains must be ex. one another; fifthly, to notice the diftremely brief; and this we are the ferent species of history, besides what less disposed to regret, as there are not is emphatically called history. Notmany of them which can be supposed withstanding some defects, this article to be very generally interesting. The may be perused with considerable adfirst in order is HERPETOlogy, the vantage by those who wish to come. natural history of reptiles. Under the , mence a regular course of historical term reptiles, it is observed, naturalists reading. have generally comprehended all those The account of the province of tribes of oviparous animals commonly HOLLAND is full of important and incalled amphibia, including both ovipa- teresting information. Indeed the georous quadrupeds and serpents ; but in graphical articles of this Encyclopædia this article it is proposed to considerare distinguished in general by the exonly the first order, reserving the his. tensive and accurate knowledge which tory of the serpent tribes for the arti- they display, and by a happy discricle Ophrology. The account which mination, which rejects all extraneous is given of these animals, and of the matter, without omitting any thing history of the science, is methodical, that it is useful to know." The lanclear, and comprehensive; accompanied guishing state of manufactures and with a full list of references, which will commerce in that once flourishing be found very useful to those whose country, affords a striking exemplifi attention is directed to this department cation of the vicissitudes of national of zoology. The reptile tribes are dis- prosperity. We have no room for de tributed into three orders, Chelonians, tails, but, as a proof of the declining Saurians, and Batracians. The first condition of the country, we may state, order comprehends turtles, of which that, since the year 1732, the populathere are six species, and tortoises, of tion of this province had, even previ. which there are fifty-two species. The ous to 1796, decreased by one thirsecond order comprehends crocodiles, teenth of the whole ; that, except the dragon, basilisk, tupinambis, guana, internal trade with Germany, its coinflying-dragon, agamas, stellios, cha- merce is alınost annihilated; that many

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of its principal manufactures have gone pivot-holes; 5. machinery for going to decay; and that the only one which in time of working, invented by Haris on the increase, is the distillation rison--a contrivance of his own for of ardent spirits.

this purpose is described by Mr Reid ; The article New Holland supplies 6. the dividing or cutting engine; 7. the information, which the publica- equation-clocks, an ingenious contriv. tion of Captain Flinders' discoveries ance to show both mean and apparent has put us in possession of respecting time, invented in London about 120 this island, since the article Austral- years since ; 8. repeating clocks and asia was written. The author of these watches ; 9. compensation-pendulums, articles, however, seems to have known two kinds of which have been inventnothing of the journeys of Mr Evans ed by Mr Reid, the one with a zinc and Governor Macquarrie into the in- tube and steel rods, the other with a terior-a deficiency which, we doubt glass tube; 10. wooden pendulumnot, the attention of the Editor will rods, on which Mr Reid made some take the earliest opportunity of supply- experiments, which he details ; 11. on ing. In other respects the article is the sympathy or mutual action of the valuable; containing an accurate and pendulums of clocks; 12. on turretwell-digested account of the coasts clocks; 13. on the method of fitting and bays, the mineralogy, botany, and up astronomical clocks ; 14. on chimes zoology, of this immense island ; of and bells. its inhabitants, their arts, manners, and To the amateurs of gardening, the customs.

article HORTICULTURE must prove an Our attention is next arrested by a exquisite treat; while to the practical very long article on Horology. We gardener it will afford much valuable are told by the Editor, that he is in- instruction. It is evidently written debted for this article to Mr Thomas by a person who not only understands Reid; and this may be regarded as a the subject in all its practical details, pretty sure pledge of its technical ac but who has brought to that delights curacyOn the whole, we consider it ful study an elegant taste, and a phias the best account of horology that we losophical mind. We cannot afford, have seen, so far as the practical part at present, to give any analysis of so of it is concerned ; and as many of the long an article, or even to mention the improvements on various branches of various topics which it comprehends. the art were invented by Mr Reid him. His own definition of HORTICULTURE, self, no person, surely, could be better however, will give some idea of the qualified to describe them. The de- principal branches into which the subpartments of this curious art we shall ject is divided. “ By the term hortiinerely mention, in the order in which culture,” he observes, “is to be unthey occur in Mr Reid's description. derstood the whole management of a 1. The escapement, or scapement, that garden, whether intended for the propart of a clock or watch connected duction of fruit, of culinary vegetawith their beats on this part of the bles, or of flowers. The formation of machinery Mr Reid has made several a garden may be included also, to a improvements; connected with the certain extent, under this subject : escapement is the remontoir, the in- draining, enclosing, and the forming tention of which is, that the move- of screen plantations and hedges, may ment passing through the wheels be considered as parts of horticulture, should, at intervals, be made either to while the general situation of the fruit wind up a small weight, or to bend and the flower gardens, in regard to up a delicate. spring, which alone the mansion-house, and the position should give its force to the 'scape- of some of their principal component ment; by which means the pendulum parts, as shrubberies, hot-houses, paror balance was supposed to be always terres, and walks, belong more proimpelled by an equal and uniforin perly to landscape-gardening.” force-Mr Reid has described a re Thus we have adverted, in a very montoir which he applied to the clock cursory manner, to the leading articles of St Andrew's Church in Edinburgh; in this half-volume. It contains, be2. the compensation-balances, intend- sides, several excellent articles in bioed to counteract the effects of heat and graphy, geography, &c. On the whole, cold on time-keepers; 3. balance or we think that this number supports pendulum springs ; 4. jewellery of well the credit of its predecessors.


A NEW instrument, called a Capillary easily increased from three to seven miles an Hydrometer, for measuring the strength hour. The weight of the machinery will and specific gravity of spirituous liquors, has not be more than three tons, and the space lately been invented by Dr Brewster. The it will occupy is comparatively small: principle of the instrument is to determine Mr J. B. Emmett of Hull has published the specific gravity from the number of some experiments, which he made during drops contained in a small glass bulb, so the summer of last year, with the view of that we bave only to fill this bulb with any ascertaining whether a gas might not be obmixture of alcohol and water, and count tained from oil, equal to that obtained from the number of drops necessary to empty it. coal, so as to prevent the injury threatened When a bulb about 1} inch in diameter to the Greenland trade by the rapidly in, was filled with water, it yielded only 724 creasing use of the latter in the lighting of drops, whereas, with ordinary proof spirits, towns, &c. By distilling various oils, preit yielded 2117 drops, giving no fewer than viously mixed with dry sand or pulverized a scale of 1393 drops for measuring specific clay, at a temperature little below ignition, gravities from 0.920 to 1.000. A correction he obtained a gas which appeared to be a must be made for temperature as in all other mixture of carburetted hydrogen and superinstruments.

carburetted hydrogen gases. This gas proA remarkable fossil has lately been dis. duces a flame equally brilliant, and often covered in the parish of Alford, in the coun much more brilliant than that produced ty of Surrey, some miles east of Guildford. from coal. It differed very little in quality, It was found about eight feet under the whether obtained from mere refuse, or from surface in a bed of clay. Above the clay, in good whale sperm, almond or olive oil, or that particular part, is a bed of gravel, which tallow. The gas, when burnt, produces no extends to a considerable distance east and smoke, and exhales no smell or unpleasant west, and varies in breadth from eleven vapour. Whatever oil is used, it evolves yards to about forty, and has the appear- much more light when burnt as gas than ance of having been the bed of a river. when consumed as oil ; in the latter case, The fossil consists of hard clay covered with the flame is obscured by a quantity of soot ; thin rectangular scales, lying in a regular in the former, the soot remains in the disorder, about of an inch long and broad. tilling vessel, and the flame burns with a These scales have been analyzed by Dr clear light. Thomson, and found to consist of

The water of the ebbing and flowing Animal matter,

11.37 spring lately discovered in the harbour of Phosphate of lime,

65.51 Bridlington, Yorkshire, and described in Carbonate of lime,

19.65 the Philosophical Transactions for 1815, by Loss,

3.47 Dr Storer, has been found to possess many

excellent properties, and been administered

100.00 with decided benefit in numerous cases of This is nearly the composition of the scales chronic disease. It has been analyzed by of fishes as determined by Mr Hatchet. Mr Hume of Long-Acre, who finds that

A new mineral, consisting of sulphate of great purity is one of its most distinguishing barytes and carbonate of strontian, has been properties, in which it may vie with Mala lately discovered at Stromness, in the Ork. verne well ; that although this stream is so. ney Islands, by Dr Thomas Traill of Liver nearly connected with the sea, which covers pool. An account of the analysis of this its whole vicinity twice a day, yet it is altomineral by Dr Traill, was read at one of gether free from muriate of soda, every kind the late meetings of the Royal Society of of sulphate, and magnesia. It is little heaEdinburgh. He proposes to call it bary- vier than distilled water, and contains no strontianite from its composition, or strom other aëriform substance than carbonic acid, nessite from its locality.N.B. We have The solid contents of a wine gallon amount seen specimens of this mineral, and conjec to 134 grains, consisting of carbonate of ture that it is a compound of the two known lime, 3.750; silex, and a little oxide of iron, species, carbonate of strontian and sulphate about .125. of barytes, and that with care the two mi. The Rev. F. H. Wollaston has submitted nerals might be separated from each other. to the Royal Society a description of a ther.

A new artificial horizon has lately been mometer constructed by him, for deterinvented by Mr White of Kinross, of which mining the height of mountains, instead of an account will be found among our Origi. the barometer. It is well known, that the nal Communications.

temperature at which water bo diminishes Mr W. K. Northall of Wolverhampton as the height of the place increases at which announces, that he has discovered a new the experiment is made; and this diminu. method of propelling boats by steam. The tion was suggested, first by Fahrenheit, and Velocity of the boat may, by this plan, be afterwards by Mr Cavendish, as a medium


for determining the heights of places above sentries placed around his dwelling, keeps the sea.

Mr Wollaston's instrument is as himself within doors, and passes his time in sensible as the common mountain barome- dictating his memoirs to MM. Las Casas, ter. Every degree of Fahrenheit on it oc. De Montholon, and Bertrand. Our governcupies the length of an inch. The thermo- ment, however, it appears, are not more dismeter, with the lamp and vessel for boiling posed to grant facilities to the execution of water, when packed into a case, weighs the work of the imperial historian, than they about 11 lb. It is sufficiently sensible to were to the execution of his Berlin and Mipoint out the difference in height between lan decrees. To a late application of a Lonthe floor and the top of a common table. don publisher, for permission to communiThe difference, on two trials with it, com cate with Bonaparte on the subject of pubpared with the same heights, measured by lishing his work, a direct refusal was given General Roy by the barometer, did not ex- by Earl Bathurst. ceed two feet.

Two lizards were lately discovered in a Dr Leach, of the British Museum, has chalk-bed in Suffolk, sixty feet below the recently printed a very complete Catalogue surface ; and the publication of this fact has of Birds and Quadrupeds, which are natives produced the following affidavit :-We Wilof Great Britain. It is perhaps the most liam Mills and John Fisher, both of the correct Catalogue which, in our present im- parish of Tipton, in the county of Stafford, perfect knowledge of British Ornithology, do hereby certify and declare, that a few has been as yet compiled.

years ago, in working in a certain coal-pit Dr Leach has submitted to the Linnæan belonging to the Right Hon. Viscount DudSociety a description of a species of deer ley and Ward, at what is called the Pieces, called the Wapiti, found on the banks of in the parish of Tipton aforesaid, and on the Missouri. Four of these animals, which cleaving or breaking the stratum of coal, are extremely gentle, docile, and elegant, which is about four feet thick, and in that brought from America by Mr Taylor, are situation lies about fifty yards from the surnow exhibiting in the King's Mews. It is face of the earth, we discovered a living said to be domesticated by the natives of reptile of the snake or adder kind, lying America ; and Mr Taylor is of opinion that coiled up, imbedded in a small hollow celi it might be used with advantage in this within the solid coal, which might be about country, in many cases, as a substitute for twenty tons in weight. The reptile, when horses.

discovered, visibly moved, and soon afterMr Beech, a chemist of Manchester, on wards crept out of the hole ; but did not the important subject of gas-lights, states, live longer than ten minutes on being exthat the oil of bitumen, or coal tar, which' posed to the air. The hollow in which it is considered as waste by those who make lay was split in two by means of an iron and burn gas, if mixed with dry saw-dust, wedge, and was rather moist at the bottom, exhausted logwood, or fustic, to the con but had no visible water. It was nearly sistence of paste, and allowed to remain the size of a common tea-saucer; and the until the water has drained off,—2 cwt. of reptile was about nine inches long, of a the mass, being put into the retort instead darkish ashy colour, and a little speckled. of coals, will produce more gas, and be less offensive, than the same quantity of cannel coal; and the process may be repeated until THE Musée Impérial-Royal has again the whole of the tar is consumed. This, he been opened for public inspection ; and notsays, will not only be a saving of about one withstanding the pretty large drafts upon it half the expense of coals, but will add to by Messrs Blucher, Canova, and Co. it is cleanliness and neatness, as the residuum is still perhaps entitled to rank as the richest well known to have a very offensive smell. collection in the world. It contained, before

It has been generally believed, that Bona the restitutions, 1,233 pictures. The cataparte was occupied in writing, a history of logue now published comprehends 1,101 his eventful life. Santini, his huissier du pieces : of these the French school furnishes cabinet, lately returned from St Helena, 233, some artists, not deemed formerly states, that the work is already considerably worthy a place, being now admitted. The advanced, having reached the termination German and Flemish schools seem nearly as of the Egyptian expedition, but that its numerous as before, though some of the best future progress was in some measure arrest works are wanting. ed by difficulties in procuring certain printed The petition of the booksellers of Paris, documents, a set of the author's military for the repeal or reduction of the heavy dubulletins, and the Moniteur from France. ties on the importation of foreign books into So far as written, every year is said to form France, has received attention from the a large volume in manuscript ; and it is government. By the new tarif, books printcomputed that the whole, when completed, ed in foreign countries, in the dead or fomight extend to eight or ten printed volumes reign languages, are only subjected to a in quarto. Bonaparte, who has at all times duty of 10 francs per 50 kilogrammes been particularly careful of his own personal triques, about 2 cwt. safety, not choosing to run the risk of being Madame de Stael is said to have sold her fired upon by some one of the numerous Memoirs of M. Neckar (her father) to an


association of English, French, and German out injury to the workman, in the art of booksellers, for £4,000 : the work is to ap- gilding, the same subject is proposed anew pear in the three languages at the same for 1818..Two other prizes, gold medals, time.

of the value of 3,000 francs each, remainA report made to the council-general of ing also unmerited by any of the memoirs hospitals in Paris, relative to the state of which they have produced, are in like manthose establishments from 1803 to 1814, ner offered again for 1818. The subject contains some important facts. They are of the first is, “ To determine the rise of divided into two classes, called hopitaux the thermometer in mercury comparatively and hospices ; the former, ten in number, with its rise in air from 20 below 0 to 200 being designed for the sick and diseased; centigr. ; the law of cooling in a vacuum ; and the latter, which amount to nine, af. the law of cooling in air, hydrogen gas, and fording a provision for helpless infancy, and carbonic acid gas, to different degrees of poor persons afflicted with incurable infir- temperature, and according to different mities. The Hotel Dieu, the most ancient states of rarefaction. The subject of the of the hospitals, contains 1200 beds. The second prize is, “ to determine the chemigeneral mortality in the hospitals has been cal changes which fruits undergo during i in 7}, and in the hospices 1 in 6); and and after their ripening.” Another prize it has been more considerable among the to the same amount is offered for 1819, for women than the men. It is found, that the following subject :-" To determine by wherever rooms of the same size are placed accurate experiments the defraction of luone over another, the mortality is greatest minous rays direct and reflected, when they in the uppermost. In the Hospice de l'Ac. pass separately or simultaneously near the couchement, in 1814, there were delivered extremity of one or many bodies of an ex. 2,700 females, of whom 2,400 acknowledged tent either limited or indefinite.” that they were unmarried. In the ten years On the first day of the publication of from 1804 to 1814, there were admitted Germanicus at Paris, 1,800 copies were sold. into the Hospice d'Allaitement, or Found. The copyright has been purchased for 4,500 ling Hospital, 23,468 boys, and 22,463 francs, girls, total 45,921 children, only 4,130 of The grand desideratum of rendering sea whom were presumed to be legitimate. The water potable, seems at length to be obtained mortality of infants in the first year after by simple distillation. The French chemists their birth was under 2-7ths. During the have been unable to discover in distilled sea ten years, 355,000 sick were admitted into

water, any particle of salt or soda, in any the hospitals, and 59,000 poor persons into form; and it is ascertained that one cask the hospices. The total number that re of coals will serve to distil six casks of water. ceived relief out of these establishments in essel going on a voyage of discovery, by 1813, which gives about the average of that order of the French government, comperiod, was 103,000, of whom 21,000 be- manded by M. Freycinet, will only take longed to the department of the Seine.- 'fresh water for the first fortnight, and, in. Some pains have been taken to ascertain the stead thereof, coals, which will be but one different causes of mental derangement. It sixth of the tonnage ; distilled sea water appears, that among the maniacs the num- being perfectly as good as fresh water that ber of women is generally greater than that has been a fortnight on board. of men. Among the younger females, love M. Dorion has discovered that the bark is the most common cause of insanity; and of the pyramidal ash, in powder, thrown among the others jealousy or domestic dis- into the boiling juice of the sugar-cane, cord. Among the younger class of males, effects its clarification. The planters of Marit is the too speedy developement of the tinique and Gaudaloupe have given him passions, and with the others, the derange- 200,000 ancs for communicating his disment of their affairs, that most frequently covery. produces this effect. The calamities of the Perpetual Motion. Mr Maillardet of Neurevolution were another cause of madness chatel announces, in a foreign journal, that in both sexes ; and it is worthy of remark, he has succeeded in resolving the celebratthat the men were mad with aristocracy, ed problem of perpetual motion, so long rethe women with democracy. Excessive garded as a scientific chimera. The piece grief occasioned lunacy in the men ; whereas of mechanism to which he applies his printhe minds of the females were deranged by ciple, is thus described : It is a wheel, ideas of independence and equality.

around the circumference of which there is The National Institute of France has this a certain number of tubes, which alternateyear adjudged the prize, founded by Lalande ly radiate or turn in towards the centre, for the most interesting observation or the rendering the moving power at one time most useful memoir in astronomy, M. strong, at another weak; but preserving Bessel, director of the Royal Observatory of throughout such an intensity of force, that Konigsberg. As the Institute has received it is necessary to keep it in check by a reno satisfactory memoir for the premium of gulator. 3,000 francs left by the late M. Ravrio, for M. M. Majendie and Pelletier have coma any person who should discover a process municated to the Academy of Sciences at by which mercury may be employed, with, Paris, an interesting discovery upon ipeca

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