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Januáry, 1917.] Principles of the Reformations

8 Considering these awful facts, the pre. Perhaps in the records of history only as cise moment of Luther's attack upon the a mad incendiary who had perished in his absurdities and impieties of the age ap. rash attempt; but beginning with a few pears to have been singularly providen- decayed fragments, which he could rea. tial. Unconscious as the agent himself dily prove to every passing spectator were might be of the great work which he was a nuisance to the whole building, he was about to undertake, the vast affair was permitted to commence the demolition of evidently conducted, non sine numine Dei, them: one unsound part thus removed, with a view to the whole of the obnoxious another was rendered visible, so that he systein.

was at length suffered to proceed till he itad Luther begun with attacking a had not left a single portion untouched mere doctrinal error, however flagrant or in the vast edifice of superstition. Indeed absurd, he would doubtless bave been he himself was as little able to support & foiled, if not by the then current subtie premature disclosure of the whole truth, ties of Aristotelian dialectics, at least by as the most bigotted of his opponents. the powerful terrors of inquisitorial au- His own intellectual eye had been but rethority. But an attack upon those ncfa. cently couched, so that he could describe rious pr: ctices in Popery which so un- the objects which he beheld only in the sparingly exhausted the purses of its de gradual order in which they were wisely votees, could scarcely fail to be popular; unveiled to bis perception. A full burst and thus eventually paved the way for a of meridian. light would but have dazzled more free examination of the whole sys. him and his cotemporaries with an overtem to which such expedients were ap- powering glare; they were therefore grapended. So unblushing was the effrontery dually conducted from the pitchy dark. of the priesthood, and so unsuspecting ness of the cavern in which Popish superthe blindness of the age, that the officers stition had so long immured the world, to of the Roinan chancery published a book the first matin glimmering of celestial containing the exact sum to be paid for day;--28 the light advanced, their intelany particular sin. A deacon guilty of lectual optics became familiarized to its murder was absolved for twenty crowns. reception, till at length they could cheer. A bishop or abhot might assassinate for fully bask in the bright and vivifying three hundrer livres. An ecclesiastic beams of a noontide sun. might violate his vows of chastity, even The state of the Catholic Church was with the most : ggravating circumstances, at this period quiet and reposing Though for the third part of that sum. To these many circumstances had occurred to preand similar itens it is added, “ take no. pare the public mind for the introduction sice particularly, that such graces and of a new order of things-though some dispensations are not granted to the Poon; portentous gatherings of the no distant for, not having ivherezoith to pay, they can. tempest might have been discernible to izot be comforted.'

attentive observers, when not only pri. These were facts that came home to vate persons but distinguished princes every bosoin.

No logical or rhetorical' uphraided the despotism, the fraud, the arts were necessary to render the subject avarice, the extortion, the licentiousness interesting. An ignorant man could dis- of the Popish hierarchy, and even decover that a pilg'image was troublesome, manded a reform of abuses by means of a and a thoughtless one, that a dispensation general council.---yet the right of private was expensive; a prince, that the traffic judgment was not asserted, the supreme în indulgences diminished his revenues; authority and infallibility of the Pope in and an ecclesiastic, that a foreign juris- religious affairs was not disputed, and diction was a constant tax and inconvenie the Roman Pontiff felt the utmost self. ence. Had Luther coolly immersed him- consciousness of security. The commoself in his Augustinean cell till he had tions which had been excited in some for. thoroughly formed and digested a com- mer ages by the Waldenses, Albigenses, plete body of pure divinity, he would and Beghards, and more recently by the have found, on its publication, that he Bohemians, seemed to be at an end; and had far outstripped the knowledge and as in nature the storm is frequently pre. the feelings of the age; and would pro- ceded by a peculiar stillness diffused bably have lost his life for his audacity, around, when the winds are hushed into instead of attracting disciples by the just. peace-not a leaf of the forest stirsom not a ness of his reasoning: But beginning, as wave ripples on the tranquilized surface he happily did, with a simple obvious of the lake-not a bird Autters through evil, the untenable system of indulgences, the air to dissolve the universal enchant. he could not fail of securing attention; ment; so was the atmosphere of Rome at and to a man in his circumstances, with this time hushed into the deepest calmo truth and Heaven on bis side, to attract not a breath of murmur stirredienot a attention was to secure victory. Had he tongue moved

not a voice was heard to laid at once a train of gunpowder under excite alarm, and ecclesiastical authority the whole fabrics he would hare literele lolled at perfect ease in the papal chair If the low inutterings of discontent began the necessity of continually recurring to . to roll, they were too distant to be heard, its importance. He perceived that the or too contemptible to be feared. If any abuses which Popery had introduced were intimation were given of the existence of almost all at variance with this fundarebellious feelings, they were only treated mental tenet of revealed religion. Pewith the smile of ridicule. What mortal nances and pilgrimages had nearly superpower could storm the citadel of St. Peter, seded, in human opinion, the necessity for and overturn the turrets of superstition that great and only sacrifice which the Who dare resist the well established New Testament exhibits as the sole atonepower of papal domination? Where was ment for sin ;-and above all, the doctrine a son of Jesse to be found who could of indulgences, besides involving a thou. hope to slay the giant in his strength and sand absurd errors, proceeded on the antiglory?

scriptural hypothesis, that man, frail and Luther was that hero. Assisted by a fallible man, might not only perform all concurrence of providentially disposed that was required, but might even accucircumstances, he resolutely began tlie mulate a supererogated stock of merit, tremendous task, and who has not heard transferable to any individual who would of his aptitude for its fulfilment ? 'Bold, venture his money in the purchase. So vigorous, and persevering, incapable of completely had this idea taken root in the being bribed by kindness or terrified by minds of men, that the shrines of saints, menace, he attacked the papal power in its so called, became crowded with offerings most vital parts, and never ceased the un- and devotees, whilst that of Him who is equal contest till the triple monster sank the only Mediator between God and man beneath his arm. The whole of Europe was neglected and despised. A curious stood spectators of the long protracted instance of this occurs in the annals of combat! Every face exhibited breathless the cathedral at Canterbury, where a expectation and anxiety, interrupted only shrine had been erected to the memory by the terrific clash of contending arms, and worship of that arch-traitor Thomas and the alternate shouts of zealous parti à Becket, whom the Papists canonized as zans encouraging their favourite cham- a glorious martyr for the rights of the pion, or triumphing over the momentary priesthood. The offerings of pilgrims tos fall of his opponent. The wounds re- the cathedral in one year were as follow: ceived by Popery in that memorable con- Becket's shrine L.832 18 6 flict, have never yet been healed; and The Virgin's

63 5 6 though they have not had the happy effect CARIST'S

3 2 6 of materially moderating her pride, they have so greatly exhausted her strength remarkable proof of forgetfulness towards

A subsequent year furnished a still more and crippled her energies, that Europe jim to whom alone we ought to ascribe has comparatively little to dread, at least

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the blessings of salvation. in a political view, from her insolent pretensions.

Becket

L. 554 6 3 Hitherto, however, we hare not advert.

'The Virgin

4 1 8 ed to the precise and most important

Cunist

0 0 0 ! point in which the religious system of Luther. insisted so unremittingly on inLuther, and, we may add, of the New dividual doctrines, especially on the one Testament itself, radically differs from

under consideration, and which he was that which he was the instrument of over. accustomed to denominate articulum stan. powering. Indulgences, and dispensations, tis vel cadentis ecclesiæ, not solely on acand similar topics, did not bound the count of their great relative importance views of our great reformer: he began in the Christian scheme, but on account indeed with these practical and obvious also of their being the precise points on abuses, but his powerful mind soon per- which the wbole Reformation appeared to ceived that they all flowed from a com- him to depend. Adhering to the scriptu. mon source, and however various in ap

ral idea of our justification before God pearance, were only adjuncts to one fun

being, not the reward of our imperfect damental misconception. He viewed the

merit, but a gratuitous act of divine vast system of Popery-though worthy of mercy depending on our repentance and reprobation on various other accounts- faith, he needed no stronger battery from as levelled especially against one plain which to act with irresistible effect on doctrine of our holy faith, which being the whole concatenated system of papa! fully established and defined, the indivi- superstition. dual abuses in question would inevitably

Happy was it for Luther, that amidst lose their support.

his arduous contest with the Romisla The doctrine of a plenary atonement Church, he did not stand alone, but was for sin, an atonement wholly irrespective possessed of a friend and companion emi. of human desert, is the characteristic of nently qualified for correcting his errors, the Christian economy; and it was not, supplying his defects, and regulating the therefore, without reason that Lather felt : hasty sallies of his impetuous spirit. His

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January, 1817.] The Pastor's Visit to the Cottage. keloved Philip Melancthon was about languishing by the slow accession of disfourteen years younger than himself, be- case. The ardour of his mind had preing born in the year 1497.

maturely worn away its corporeal compa.. A circumstance which conduced mate. nion; the sword had cut the sheath. The rially to the happiness of these two emi following is an extract from the letter Bént characters, while it furnished a written by his friend Jonds to the Elector never-failing source of virulent declama- of Saxony, February 18th, 1546. After tion to their adversaries, was their having describing the various symptoms of his cach entered into the bonds of connubial disorder, and the incidents and conversa. felicity. Luther's marriage was peculiarly tions which had occurred during his sick. obnoxious to the Papists, in consequence ness, he adds: of his having been himself a monk, and “ Luther now prayed, saying, O my hea. Catherine de Bora, whom he married, a venly Father, eternal and merciful Goi, thoa nun; nor was it altogether pleasing to the hast revealed to me thy Son, our Lord Jesus Reformers themselves, an account of the Christ. I have preached him, I have confessed anfortunate political juncture at which it Irim, I love bim, and I worship him as my dear. happened. It is pleasing, however, to be

est Saviour and Redeemer, him whom the hold this rough polemic occasionally re

wicked persecute, accuse, and blaspheme. He laxing from his labours to enjoy the com,

then repeated three times the words of the forts of domestic life.

psalı- Into thy hands I commit my spirit

God of truth, thon hast redeemed me. Whilst Warm as he was in temper, and unac. the physicians and we applied medicines, he customed to yield to authoritative com- began to lose his voice and to become faint; nor mands, he yet possessed much of the milk did he answer us, though we called aloud to him of human kindness. Few men entered and moved him. On the countess again giving with more ardour into the innocent

plea. him a little cordial, and the physioian requesting bures of society. His frankness of dispo- that he would attempt to give an answer, he sition was apparent at the first interview, said, in a feelle tone of voice, to Cælius and me, and his communicative turn, joined to the yes, or no, according as the question seemed to richness of his stores, rendered his con.

require. When we said to him, 'Bearest father,

do you verily confess Jesus Christ the Son of versation remarkably interesting. In treat- God, our Saviour and Redeemer ? he replied, ing of humorous subjects, he discovered Yes,' so as to be distinctly heard. Afterwards as much vivacity and playfulness as if he his forehead and face began to get cold, and al. had been a man unaccustomed to serious though we moved him, and called him by name, research. The visitor of Luther's domese he gave no answer, but, with his hands clasped, tic circle was assured of witnessing a

continued to breathe slowly until he expired bepleasing union of religious service with

tween two and three o'clock.” conjugal and paternal affection. His fond, His interment was at once splendid and ness for music continued during life, and sorrowful, and his friend Melancthon pro. spread a charm over the discharge of his nounced, with no ordinary emotions, the serious duties. He was always a zealous funeral oration over his grave. advocate for the use of music in public worship. In an evening, before parting from his family and friends, he was in the The PASTOR's Visit to the COTTAGE. habit of regularly singing a hymn. This

From a late Publication of the Rev. he usually did in a high key, and with all J. CUNMNGHAM, Author of * The the advantage of a delightful voice. In Velvet Cushion.his hours of occasional dejection, music proved his most pleasant and effectual

It happened, that, on a fine sumrestoratiye. It was much to be regretted mer's evening, I was taking my that his constitution, though apparently rounds in my parish, to look after robust, by no means afforded him the my little flock, and came at length steady enjoyment of health. Whether from taking too little exercise, or from to a cottage, where I remember to The repeated occurrence of mertal agita

have paused for a moment, to adtion, he was subject to frequent and se. mire the pretty picture of rural life vere headaches.

In respect to diet, he which it presented. The mists of was remarkably absteminus; a habit pro- the evening were beginning to float bably acquired in his monastery, and continued in consequence of the sedentary

over the valley in which it stood, nature of his occupations.

and shed a sort of subdued, pensive The moment at length arrived, in which, light on the cottage and the objects after eight and twenty years of most inti- immediately around it. Behind it, mate and honourable attachment, these at the distance perbaps of half a friends were obliged to part, at least till mile, on the top of a lofty eminence, that auspicious morning of the resurrection in which they might hope to be again

rose the ancient spire of the village united. Luther, though not more than church. The sun still continued to sixty-three years of age, had been long shine on this higher ground, and

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shed all its glories on the walls of feeling then, as I do always, that the the sacred edifice. "There,” I could weapon of the gospel is rather love not help saying to myself, " is a pic- than wrath, I trust that I did not so

I ture of the world. Those without far forsake the model of my gracious religion are content to dwell in the Master, as to open a wound without vale of mists and shadows; but the endeavouring to show how it might true servants of God dwell on the be bound up. Few persons are, in holy hill, in the perpetual sunshine my poor judgment, frightened into of the divine Presence.”

Christianity : God was not in the I entered the cottage, and was " earthquake,"—he was not in the much struck with the

appearance
of storm,"

"but in the small still its owner.

She looked poor; and voice.” the house was destitute of many of After a pretty long conversation, those little ornaments which are in- I left her, altogether dissatisfied, I dications not merely of the outward will own, with her apparent state of circumstances, but of the inward mind. Nay, such was my proneness comforts of the inhabitants. She to pronounce upon the deficiencies was sitting busily at work with her of a fellow-creature, that I rememsister. I always feel it both right ber complaining, on my return home, and useful to converse a good deal with some degree of peevishness, I with the poor about their worldly fear, of the hardness of her heart.' I circumstances. Not only does hu- would fain hope that I have learnt, manity seem to require this, but I by this case, to form unfavourable find it profitable to myself: for after, judgments of others more slowly; as it were, taking the depth of their and in dubious, or even apparently Bufferings, I am ashamed to go home bad cases, to believe," or, at least, and murmur at Providence, or scold to "hope, all things." at my servants, for some trifling de- Notwithstanding, however, my ficiency in my own comforts. Be- disappointment as to the state of șides, I love to study the mind of her feelings, it was impossible not man in a state of trial-to see how to feel a strong interest in her situanobly it often struggles with difficul- tion. Accordingly, I soon saw her ties--and how, by the help of God, again; but neither did I then discoit is able to create to itself, amidst ver any ground for hoping that her scenes of misery and gloom, a sort heart was in the smallest degree of land of Goshen, in which it lives, touched by what had been said to and is happy.

her. But, at a short distance of After conversing with her for time, as I was one day walking in some time on topics of this kind, my garden and musing on some of and discovering her to be a person the events of my own happy life, and of strong feelings deeply wounded, especially on that merciful appointof fine but uncultivated powers, and ment of God which had made me of remarkable energy of expression, the minister of peace to the guilty, I naturally proceeded to deliver to instead of the stero dispenser of the her a part of that solemn message thunders of a severer dispensation, with which, as the minister of reli- I was roused by the information gion, I am charged; and not disco- that this poor young creature devering in her the smallest evidence sired to see me. of penitential feeling-being able, in- One of her poor neighbours, who deed, to extract nothing more from · came to desire my attendance, inher than a cold and careless acknow- formed me, with apparent tender: ledgment that “ she was not all she ness, that Fanny " was very ill;" ought to be," I conceived it right to that, as she expressed it, she had dwell, in my conversation with her, been in a very "unked state since I chiefly upon those awful passages of saw her, and that she hoped I would scripture designed by Providence to be kind enough to come and comrouse the unawakened sinner. Still fort her.” God grant," I said tQ

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January, 1817.] The Episcopal Church in Scotland.

7 the poor woman, " that she may be given thee,” would also pardon, and in a state to be comforted.” “ That change, and bless her. she is, Sir," said the woman: she I will not dwell upon the details has suffered a deal since you were of this and many other similar conwith her. The boards be very thin versations. Imperfectly as I disbetween our houses, and I hear her, charged the holy and happy duty by day and by night, calling upon of guiding and comforting her, it God for mercy. It would break pleased God to bless the prayers

. your heart to hear her, she is so which we offered together to the very sad. Tom (her husband) scolds Throne of Mercy; and this poor, and swears at her; but she begs, as agitated, comfortless creature bee she would ask for bread, 'Let me came, by degrees, calm and happy. pray, Tom; for what will become of me if I die in my sins ?” This account disposed me, of

The Episcopal Church in Scotland. course, to make the best of my way The Protestant Episcopal Church in Amę. to the cottage. I soon reached it'; rica can never forget her obligations to the and there, to be sure, I did see a

Episcopal Church in Scotland, in consecrating very touching spectacle. Her disa her first Bishop, Dr. Seabury. Concerning case, which her fine complexion had

that Church, Bistrop Horne expressed the opibefore concealed, had made rapid respects, the apostalical and primitive Church

nion, that she more nearly resembled, in ali strides in her constitution. Her co

than any other Church now upon earth. The lour came and went rapidly; and Protestant Episcopal Church in America is she breathed with difficulty. Her nearly allied to the Church in Scotland; exhicountenance was full of trouble and biting Episcopacy as it existed in the first ages, dismay.

uņconnected with a state establishment. We It was evident, as I entered the rejoice to find that the Episcopal Church i room, how anxious she had been to Scotland is rapidly emerging from her state of see me. At once she began to de- depression, and Nourishing in the numbers and scribe her circumstances; informed article contains much interesting information

in the learning of her clergy. The following me, that, even before my first visit, with respect to her present situation. her many and great sins had begun to trouble her conscience ; that al

(From the British Critic.) though her pride had then got the

The Duties and Dangers of the Christian

Ministry considered, in a Sermon preachbetter of her feelings of shame and ed in Charlotte Chapel, Edinburgh, on grief, this conversation had much Monday, June 24, 1816, at an Ordinaincreased them; that she had since, tion held by the Right Reverend Daniel almost every evening, visited the

Sandford, D. D. and now published at house of a neighbour, to hear her

the Request of the Bishop and the Clergy

present. By the Rev. R. MOREHEAD, A.M. read the scriptures and other good of Baliol College, O.xford, Junior Mini-books; that she was on the edge of eter of the Episcopal Chapel, Cowgate, the grave, without peace or hope ;

Edinburgh, and Domestic Chaplain to her that she seemed (to use her own

Royal Highness the Princess Charlotte. strong expression)" to see God

6

Mr. Morehead is already well known by frowning upon her in

a volume of sermons, which both merited cloud

every that passed over her head.”

and obtained a large share of public pa.

tronage. He has lately published a second Having endeavoured to satisfy vohime, which we have no doubt will meet myself of her sincerity, I felt this (as it also merits) with similar approbato be a case where I was bound and tion. privileged to supply all the consola- creditable to the preacher, and peculiarly

The discourse now before us is very tions of religion ; to lead this bro interesting to our feelings, from the cirken-hearted creature to the feet of cumstances of the Church, in the cominu. a Saviour; and to assure her, that nion of which Mr. M. now lives. The if there she shed the tear of real pe- Episcopal Church in Scotland is, in every nitence, and sought earnestly for particular of doctrine, discipline, and wormercy, He, who had said to ano

ship, similar to our own, with the single

difference of being only tolerated, not Thy sins are for- cstablished. It exhibits to us in practice,

ther mourner,

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