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By what means Clement weather- apostle, by addressing himself “ to ed this storm we are not told, only the called and sanctified,”, though at we may be sure he would not prosti- the same time he arrogates to himself tute his Christian integrity by any no dignity, but speaks merely as the unworthy concessions. His epistle to representative of the Church of Rome the Corinthians, to which we have al- to the Church of Corinth:* Referready had occasion to refer, is suppos- ring to the unhappy divisions which ed to have heen written shortly after prevailed amongst them, he remarks, the accession of Nerva to the throne. < The apostles preached to us from By those who can be charmed with our Lord Jesus Christ; Jesus Christ sanctity of sentiment and the effusions from God. Christ, therefore, was of genuine piety, unadorned by the sent by God; the apostles by Christ. brilliancy of genius, or the refine- Both missions were in order, accordments of human learning, this working to the will of God. Havings will be perused with considerable in- therefore, received their eommission, terest. “ It has a simplicity and a being thoroughly assured of the replainness not easily relished by a sys- surrection of our Lord, and believing tematic modern; but there belongs in the word of God, with the fulness to it also a wonderful depth of holic of the Holy Spirit, they went abroad, ness and wisdom.” The primitive declaring that the kingdom of God Christians, indeed, seem to have had was at hand. Thus they travelled neither opportunity nor inclination through different countries and cities, to polish their compositions. But and appointed the first-fruits of their

whether more or less excellence be.

ministry, after they had proved them longed to them as writers, the sin. by the Spirit, to be bishops and deacerity in which they walked, the zeal cons over those who should afterwards which they displayed in diffusing the believe. knowledge of truth, and their wil.

* The following excellent remarks, in relingness to die in defence of it, were ference to the supremacy assumed in later eminently their attainments. ΤΙ ages by the pontiffs of the Romish Church situation also of most of the primi

over the rest of the Christian world, will ap

pear strictly appropriate to every pious reader tive Christians, the scantiness of their

who is acquainted with St. Clement's epistle:means for improvement in human “ If the claims of authority be well ground knowledge and science, and their con- ed, they will, of course, be highest when

nearest to their source: yet upon this supposistant exposure to sufferings, make it

tion how unaccountable is the conduct of Clemore surprising that their works are mens and the Chureb of Rome. We have so well written than that they are not

here the first instance upon record in which

that Church thought proper to interpose in better. If they abound not, however, the religiorrs concerns of its brethren. It might, in the graces of diction, that want is therefore, have been expected, that the bishop

of Rome should have began with asserting his compensated by the vein of fervent

own sovereign authority over the Corinthian piety, the native dignity of Divine and all other Churches; should have required truth, and occasionally the flow of un- implicit obedience to his mandates; and, in tutored eloquence which they display.

case of non-compliance, denounced the rebel

lious assembly cut off from the body of the Clement's epistle appears to have faithful: yet, as if it were intended by Provibeen composed in answer to one writ- dence, that the first known interposition of a ten by the Corinthian Church, which

Roman pontiff in the affairs of another Church,

should remain as a lesson of humility, or a l'ewas at that time much in the same

proof of arrogance to his successors, the evanstate, as when the apostle wrote to gelical author of this epistle seems purposely them. It contained many very pious

to extenuate his authority even over his owu

people; merges even his own name in that of members, but was harassed by va- bis Church; and though he reproves the misrious religious contentions, and in conduct of the Corinthians with freedom, and danger of having a sound and exem

even with dignity, yet it is only with the free

dom of a benevolent equal, and the dignity of plary presbytery, superseded by a

a grieved friend. But above all, humility and self-conceited and turbulent, set of patience are coħspicuous: no holy rage, no heretical teachers.

zeal calling for judgments, no asperity of reClement commences his epistle in

proach; but prayers and intreaties, or, at most,

expostulations and arguments, constituted, at a manner not dissimilar to that of the that time, the spiritual weapons of the Ruman



October, 1817.]
Life of Clement.

293 “ The apostles themselves were in among you? Have you not all one formed by our Lord Jesus Christ, that God, and one Christ? Is not one contentions would arise concerning Spirit of grace poured out upon us the ministry. On this account, there all, and one calling of Christ bestowfore, they not only themselves or- ed upon us all? Why then do we dained ministers, as we have before rend and tear the members of Christ, mentioned; but also gave directions and excite seditions in our own body? that on their decease, other chosen Your schisin kas perverted many, has and approved men should succeed discouraged many, has staggered ma

We cannot, therefore, but ny. It has caused grief to us all; think, it unjust to eject such persons and, alas! it continues still." from the ministry as were ordained As the nature of this epistle is (with the approbation of the whole practical, no very regular or preciso church) either by the apostles or holy statement of doctrine is to be expectmen succeeding them; who have mi ed. Still, however, the essential docnistered to the flock of Christ in a trines of revelation are clearly exhihamble, peaceable, and disinterested bited. He thus, for instance, plainly manner, and for a series of years states his sentiinents respecting rehave been well reported of by all. For demption by the atonement of Christ surely it is a sin of no small magni- “ Let us look steadily at the blood of tude to dismiss from that office such Christ, and see how precious his blameless and holy pastors! Happy blood is in the sight of God; for on are those presbyters, who have ale account of its being shed for our salready finished their course, and died vation, the grace of repentance is in the fruitful discharge of their la- provided for all mankind." In the bours; they have now no reason to following passage we have the infinite fear that any one should remove them condescension of Christ stated as a from the place appointed for them. ground for enforcing Christian humiBut, alas! we learn that you have lity. “ Qur Lord Jesus Christ, the ejected some excellent ministers,whose sceptre of the majesty of God, came blameless lives were an ornament to not in the pomp of pride and ostentatheir profession. Ye are contentious, tion, though he could have done so, brethren, and zealous for things which but in humility. You see, brethren, belong not to salvation. Search the the example he afforded us. If the Scriptures, the faithful records of the Lord thus humbled himself, how Holy Spirit. There you find that should we too demean ourselves, who good men were persecuted indeed, are brought by him under the yoke but by the wicked; were imprisoned, of his grace." Þut by the unholy; were stoned, but In the annexed quotation, wherein by transgressors; were murdered, but he is speaking of the Old Testament by the profane, and by such as were fathers, he clearly states the all-imunjustly incensed against them. Let portant doctrine of justification by us, therefore, unite ourselves to the grace through faith, and at the same innocent and righteous, for they are time repels the yet common objection God's elect.

of its licentious tendency. “ All these 6 Why are there strifes, angers, were magnified and honoured, not divisions, schisms, and contentions, through themselves, not through their

own works, not through the righteous * “ It is impossible, calmly to weigh the

deeds which they performed, but arguments incidentaily introduced by St. Cle through God's will. And we, also ment, in this place, without acknowledging by his will, being called in Christ that it furnishes good ground for considering. Jesus, are justified, not by ourselves., the three orders of ministers which exist in our Church, as agreeable to the institution of nor by our own wisdom, or underChrist. The apostles and their successors, to standing, or godliness, or by the works whom the name of ezbFLET01 was afierwards which we have wrought in holiness of appropriated, correspond to our bishops; the elders, or presivyters, to our priests; inil the heart, but by faith; by which Al. ministers, to ous deacous"

mighty God bath justified all, w!

are, or have been, justified from the thers, which have thus travelled down beginning'; to whom be glory for ever from the times of the apostles, through and ever. Amen. But what then? every intervening age, to the present Shall we neglect good works? Does day. For this transmission of the it hence follow, that we should leave words of Holy Writ affords a consithe law of loving obedience ? God derable proof, and one which has forbid; let us rather hasten with all been justly urged in support of its earnestness of mind to every good authenticity; and a similar transmiswork; for the Lord himself rejoicession of the sense of any doctrine of in his works. Having such an ex. Scripture, which is agreeable to that ample, let us strenuously follow his which the Church generally receives will, and work the works of righte- in our own times, affords a presumpousness with all our might.”

tive truth that this is the real and true Referring to the exalted privileges interpretation, groanded at once on and graces of the real believer, he the antiquity and universality of its breaks forth into a kind of transport, acceptance. whilst at the same time he strongly

Hitherto Clement had been woninculcates the importance of culti- derfully preserved during several váting, personal holiness. “ How dreadful persecutions; but the time blessed, how amazing, my beloved, was now at hand, when it was “giare the gifts of God! Life in im- ven to him in the behalf of Christ, mortality! splendour in righteousness! not only to believe on him, but also truth in liberty ! faith in assurance ! to suffer for his sake." It is not imsobriety in holiness! And thus far, probable, that he had a presentiment even in this life, we know by expe- of his impending sufferings; for in rience. What, therefore, must those his epistle to the Corinthians, after things be which Christ has prepared referring to the persecutions endured for those that wait for him? The by the apostles, he adds, that he lookHoly Creator and Father of the uni- ed upon himself and his people as verse alone knows their greatness and appointed to run in the same lists, and excellency. Let us, therefore, ear

engage in the same conflict. nestly seek to be found amongst that The following is an abstract of the number who wait for him, that we occasion and circumstances of the may obtain the reward which he has martyrdom of this eminent father, as promised. And how, beloved, shall related by Cave, from the account of we attain these rewards ? By esta- Simeon Metaphrastes. It is, howevblishing our hearts in faith towards er, proper to inform the reader, that God, and by seeking to do his will the authenticity of the whole account in all things with truth and earnest- has been questioned. Several indiness. Thus, beloved, shall we find viduals of high rank and character our salvation, even Jesus Christ, the having been converted by Clement High Priest of our offerings, and to the Christian faith, the jealousy helper of our weakness."

and ill will of the pagans was at Eusebius, speaking of this epistle, length excited against him. At the remarks, that Clement had inserted instance of one Torcutianus, a man in it many sentiments of the Epistle of considerable influence in the city, to the Hebrews, and also used some he was accused of using magical arts; of the very expressions. Certainly and, upon his resolute refusal to sain many parts there is an evident re- crifice to the heathen gods, he was semblance; but whether Clement be banished by the emperor Trajan, and supposed to quote from that epistle, condemned to labour in some distant or only to say the same things as it mines. were by unconscious coincidence, we This mode of punishment, not uncannot but be pleased to observe an common amongst the Romans, was infusion of the language, spirit, and considered in severity next to a capimatter, of the sacred Scriptures in tal one. The condemned person was the writings of this and the other fa- treated with the greatest inhumanity,

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October, 1817.] Protestant Episcopal Sunday Schools.

295 He was deprived of his estate, scourg. pleasure. For this purpose Clement ed, and fettered; and reduced to a was selected; and, after promises and state of abject slavery. And in after threatenings had been employed in times the sufferings of the miserable vain to cause him to retract, he was captive were increased by additions cast into the sea with a heavy weight at once contemptuous and cruel. His affixed to his body. head was half shaved, his forehead Thus was the temporal existence branded with a hot iron, his right eye of this eminent apostolical father, bored out, and his left leg disabled. after a long course of active and ex

On Clement's arriving at the place tensive usefulness, at length termiof his exile, he found great numbers nated by a watery grave, about the of Christians condemned to the same commencement of the second century. lamentable fate. His presence, lowever, darted a cheering ray through Protestant Episcopal Sunday Schools in the the glooiny caves that surrounded them, whilst his labours, through the

City of New York. Divine blessing, were not only made

It is conceived that the employment of useful in comforting his captive bre. Sunday in teaching young persons to read thren, but also the means of con- with merely secular views, would not verting numbers of the neighbouring comport with the sanctity of that holy inhabitants to the Christian faith.

day. The only justifiable object of SunHow interesting it is to behold this

day Schools is instruction, with an imme. venerable saint, thus steadily perse- diate view to religious improvement. Hence vering in his labour of love, under it has been considered by many that these the pressure of those sufferings, to schools would be most properly managed which he was condemned by his ene

by each Christian denomination, who mies. Although now far advanced in

could convey such religious instruction years, an exile, and a captive, his heart is filled with gratitude, and his

as they deemed proper, without any dan: mouth with praises; only anxious that ger of collision or interference with each whilst life and breath remain he may

other. It would seem proper also that be made the happy instrument of the schools of each congregation should pouring the balın of consolation into be subject to the superintendence and di. the wounded spirits of his fellow-pri- rection of its minister and lay members, soners, and of leading all around him, subject indeed to some general bond of whether friends or foes, to a partici- union among congregations of the same pation of the same Gospel privileges Christian profession, but not liable to the with himself. Admirable is the wis- inspection and direction of those of a dif. dom that characterizes his epistle; ferent religious belief. On these princi. exemplary the deportment wherewith ples, several congregations of the Prohe adorns his episcopal office; but his testant Episcopal Church in the city of conduct while a prisoner in the mines New-York, united for the purpose of esta. surpasses in glory!

blishing Sunday Schools, and adopted the The wonderful effects which at.

following constitution. tended the labours of this eminent man having at length reached the CONSTITUTION of the Nero-York Protest

ant Episcopal Sunday School Society. ears of the emperor, he ordered the

ARTICLE I. This Institution shall be depresident to stop the increase of Christianity, by putting several of the bre. nominated The New-York Protestant Episthren to death. Finding, however, jects shall be the institution, direction,

copal Sunday School Society; and its robe that the executions of one day serv- and encouragement of Sunday Schools in ed but as examples to encourage the city of New-York. others to suffer in the same cause the ART. II. The Society shall consist of next, he resolved, if possible, to strike persons paying to its funds an annual sum terror into the rising sect, by singling dollars in one payment, shall be Members

not less than fifty cents ; donors of five out the most eminent teachers among for life ; donors of ten dollars in one par. them as the monuinents of his dis ment, shall be Managers for life.

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Art, III. Members of this Society, be- Schools ; including the number of scho, longing to the same congregation in this Jars at the time; the names of those adcity, may form a School, or Schools, to be ded, and of those that have left the Schools attached to that congregation, under such (specifying the cause of removal) since rules, in subserviency to this Constitution, the last report ; distinguishing, between as they may think proper. The Clergy- adults and children, male and female, man of each congregation shall be Presi- white and coloured; the number of classe dent of the Board of Directors of every es, and of individuals in each class, with School attached to the same: 'And where the studies pursued by each respectively, there are more than one Clergyman be- and notices of particular proficiency or longing to the same congregation, the neglect; and such other inforination as Rector shall be President, and the Assist. may afford a full view of the state nf the ant Ministers Vice-Presidents.

Schools in union with this Society, ART. IV. There shall be a Board of Ant. IX. The payments of the Mem. Managers for transacting the business of bers of this Society must be made to the the Society, consisting of the Bishop of Treasurer of the Board of Managers, who the Diocess of New York, who shall be, shall have charge of the same, and of all ex officio, President of the Society and books and other property of the Society. Board; Clergymen of the Protestant The Directors of any School may make Episcopal Church in the city of New application to the Board for money, York, who are Members of the Society; books, or other necessary articles; which such persons as agreeably to Article II. application shall be subject to the deterof this Constitution, are Managers for mination of the Board : Provided that dife; and two laymen appointed by the every School shall be entitled, annually, Directors of each School.

to such súm as the Board of Managers Arr. V. The Board of Managers shall may deem sufficient for the payment of an meet' on the Wednesday next after the Instructor or Instructors for such School Anniversary of the Society, and at such If the funds should at any time prové other times, not less than once in three more than sufficient to defray the expen. months, as they may deem expedient; and ses of the Schools in union with this so. any five members shall be a quorum for ciety, the surplus may be appropriated business : Provided that any number of by the Board to any object which they Members appearing at a time and place think will promote the religious and moduly notified, sball have the power of cal. ral benefits designed by this institution. ļing an adjourned meeting. Extra meet- And should any School withdraw from ings shall be called by the President, or union with this Society, it shall have no (if he be absent from the city) by the claim whatever on its funds or other prog senior Vice-President then in town, at perty. his discretion, or at the written request Art. X. The Anniversary of this Society of any three Managers.

shall be celebrated on the evening of the ART. VI. At the first meeting of the festival of" The Holy Innocents;" when Board prescribed in the preceding Arti- all the children and others taught in the cle, they shall elect, by ballot, from a. Schools attached to the same shall be as. mong their own number, three Vice-Pre- sembled in a Church or Chapel to which sidents, a Secretary, and a Treasurer. either of the Schools belongs, (to be preVacancies in these offices, at any time oc. viously determined by the Board of Mani curring, may be immediately supplied by agers ;) the evening service of the Church the Board.

shall be there celebrated ; such exercises ART. VII. The Board of Managers shall in singing as may have been previously form laws for the government of their assigned by the Bishop, shall be performown body, and such rules as they may ed by the Scholars; the annual Report of deem advisable for the Schools in union the Board of Managers (collected from with this Society; shall determine and the Reports of the different Schools for procure the books (than which no other the last year) shall be publicly read ; a books shall be used) and other articles sermon or address be delivered ; and a for the Schools ; and, in general, adopt collection made for the benefit of the Sosuch measures, conformably with this ciety. The services on this occasion shall Constitution, as they may think most con- be performed by Clergymen previously ductive to the interests and success of appointed by the Bishop. On the day the institution. The Members of the following the anniversary celebration, (or, Board shall, at all times, have the privi- if that be Sunday, then on the next day) lege of visiting any of the Schools. at a time and place previously appointed,

Ant. VIII. The Board shall inform the and publicly notified by the Board, the Directors of each School of the times of Treasurer shall be in readiness to receive their stated meetings. And it shall be the annual contributions of the Meinbers; the duty of the Directors to present to to each of which, if not paid by that time, the Board, at every such meeting, ac. shall be added the sum of 12 1-2 cents, counts of the state of their respective in order to meet the expense of collecting.

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