Obrazy na stronie

drawing near to death, he knew of and zeal for God he passed so many no divine in that awful hour to whom years. And now it pleased God to he could so properly apply for advice put his servant into the fire of afflicas to Cranmer. He therefore sent tion, in order that he might add his for him to Croydon, where he then noble testimony to the truth which dwelt; but before the Archbishop he was the principal means of estacould arrive the King had lost the blishing in England. Queen Mary power of utterance; yet stretching was soon enabled to set aside her out his hand to Dr. Cranmer, he held brother's will, and after she had behim fast. The Archbishop exhorted headed the relation who usurped her him to put his trust in Christ and to throne, she pardoned all the witnesses call upon his mercy, and moreover to the will but Cranmer. Yet when he desired him to give him some it appeared on his trial at the Guildtoken if he did trust in the Lord. hall" in London, that he had signed The King immediately wrung his the will last, and that against his own hand as hard as he could, and shortly judgment, by the advice of all the after died.

judges and learned counsellors in the And now Cranmer's golden days land, the Queen could not with any began; for it pleased God in great propriety withhold her pardon. Ho mercy to this realm, to place that had therefore the punishment of treapious young prince King Edward the son remitted, that he might suffer Sixth upon the throne. Cranmer was that which was pronounced upon hehis godfather, and doubtless had a resy. And although many may think great hand in imprinting on his heart this a circumstance by no means to that love for the Bible, the benefits be rejoiced at, since burning is a of which we feel even to this day. It much more painful death than beappears indeed that the scholar had heading, yet was Dr. Cranmer exoutgone his master in knowledge of ceedingly thankful for it, since the the gospel truth, for it was not till cause was now not his own but after several conferences with Bishop Christ's, not the Queen's but the Ridley as we have before mentioned, Church's. He was accordingly sent that Cranmer overcame all the pre- down to Oxford, to the same disputajudices of his education, and became tion, as it was called, in which Latiestablished in the truth.

mer and Ridley were condemned, had quietness and encouragement to and, as might be expected, he shared do all the good he wished, and he no other fate than his brethren. But therefore lost no time in setting forth they were soon dispatched, whereas a Book of Common Prayer, nearly poor Cranmer, as more noble game, the saine with the one we now use, was to be sported with and entangled the Catechism, and the Book of Ho. in their nets, and deluded with false milies, a considerable part of which hopes, and brought to a hearing again he wrote himself, and the rest was and again, that their glory in their composed by pious inen who lived in prize might be the greater. From his palace. Thus in sliort time the summer of 1553 to the 21st of he fulfilled a long time;" for, álas! March, 1556, the day of his martyrthe days of his prosperity were soon dom, he was frequently brought, un

, , to end. The pious King Edward died. der one pretence or other, before at the age of 16, and with him dicd commissioners, to see whether any all the earthly hopes of the Protest-, signs of wavering might be perceived ants ; for the heir to the crown was in him. On the 14th of December, his eldest sister, who was soon after- 1555, Bonner, Bishop of London, and wards known by the well-merited Thirlby, Bishop of Ely, proceeded te

to title of bloody Queen Mary: degrade him. Much against his will

We have followed good Archbi- did Thirlby undertake this office, shop Cranmer through the whole of having received from the Archbishop the prosperous part of his life, and

while he was in his prosperity, a conseen with what meekness, charity, tinual repetition of kindness, as if he

He now


was very

April, 1817.] The Life of Thonias Cranmer.

101 had been his own brother. There obtained their purpose than they took was never any thing in the Archbi- off the mask. "Dr. Cole was ordered shop's house, however dear, were it to prepare a funeral sermon for Cranplate, jewels

, horse, maps, books, or mer's burning, and the 21st of March any thing else, but if Thirlby com- was appointed as the day on which he mended it, Cranmer either gave it should preach it. to him or shortly sent it after him to And now Cranmer was in a most his house. Notwithstanding this great wretched situation: he had neither friendship, the painful office of de- quietness in his own conscience, nor grading the Archbishop was commit- any help from man; he neither could ted to Thirlby, who performed it, as die with honour, nor might he live in might be expected, with so much dishonour. Early on the morning of grief, so tenderly, and with so many the 21st of March, Cranmer began to tears, that when he assured him it guess the designs of the Papists from was the most sorrowful thing that Dr. Cole's coming to him and asking ever happened unto him, Cranmer him if he had any money, and when gently comforted him, and said, he he replied he had not, giving him 15 well content.

crowns to distribute to the poor. He Happy would it håve been for also exhorted him to be constant in Cranmer, if the persecution of his the faith, and departed. Cranmer onemies had continued to the end of now began to see that he could no his life ; but they were so well aware longer dissemble his faith with Christ's of the generous disposition of the people, he therefore employed himself man they had to deal with, that they until he was called to hear his funeral saw severity would never bend his sermon, in writing a prayer and exfortitude, although perhaps kindness hortation, to be recited to the people and pretended love might cause him before his confession of faith, lest he to comply with their wishes. After should be prevented afterwards. he had been therefore in prison near- About 9 o'clock, Lord Williams, ly three years, they took him to the Sir Thomas Bridges, and other jusDeanery-house, in Christ Church, tices came to Oxford, and from all where he lacked no delicate fare, sides there was a very great conplayed at bowls, had his pleasure for course of people; the Papists hoping walking, and every thing else which to hear what would confirin them in might allure him to the love of life. their errors, and the Protestants exArguments they had tried in vain; pecting something from the Archbithey now sought to entice him to re. shop worthy of his former life and cant, by promises not only of life, but labours. Through this great crowd of an ancient dignity, or of an honour- of spectators Cranmer came from able privacy, if he preferred it; in Bocardo to St. Mary's Church. It short, nothing the Queen could give rained, or it was intended to take him should be withheld from Cranmer, to hear the sermon at the place of provided he became a Roman Catho- execution. The Mayor of Oxford lic. Flattery, promises, terror, and a went first, and then the Aldermen. spirit broken with the continual hard- After them followed Cranmer beships of Bocarde prison, at last in- tween two friars, who mumbled forth duced him to listen to the proposal certain psalms, till they came to the of his crafty enemies. He appears church door, and then they began the first to have written a short recanta- Song of Simeon, called Nunc Dimitțion, which in a certain sense per- tis, which they continued till they haps contained nothing untrue : this brought him to his place of standing, was accepted, but soon returned for which was a stage a little raised from some small addition and explanation; the ground over against the pulpit, till at last, after no less than six al where Cranmer waited till Cole made terations, a full recantation was ex: himself ready for his sermon. torted from the miserable man.

The lamentable case and appearNo sooner had his cruel enemies ance of that man gavo a sorrowful spectacle to all christian eyes that dignified a man, awakened astonishbeheld him. He that was lately ing pity in all men's hearts. Archbishop, Metropolitan, and Pri. Cole, after he had finished his ser. mate of England, being now in a mon, told the people to stop; and exbars and ragged gown with an old horted Cranmer to make a proféssion square cap, did admonish men not of his faith, that all men might under only of his own calamity, but of their stand that he was a Catholic. “ Instate and fortune. For who would deed I will do it," said the Archbinot pity his case and bewail his for- shop," and that with a good will;" tune, and might not fear his own and putting off his cap, he began to chance, to see such a prelate, so speak thus to the people. grave a counsellor and of so long 6 I desire you, well beloved brecontinued honour, after so many digo thren in the Lord, that you will pray nities, in his old years to be deprived to God for me to forgive me my sins, of all, adjudged to die so painful a which above all men, both in number death, and from such rich ornaments and greatness, I have committed. to descend to such vile and ragged But among all the rest, there is one apparel ?

offence which most of all at this time In this habit, when he had a doth vex and trouble me, whereof in good space upon the stage, turning to process of my talk - you shall hear a pillar which was near, he lifted up more in its proper place.” Then his hands to heaven and prayed to putting his hand into his bosom, he God once or twice, till Dr. Cole en- drew forth his prayer, which he retered the pulpit. The sermon con- cited to the people as follows. sisted of an aggravation of what were “Good christian people, my dearly called the Archbishop's crimes, ex- beloved brethren and sisters in Christ, cept in the latter part, for then the I beseech you inost beartily to pray condemned man was encouraged to for me to Almighty God, that he will take his death patiently, by several forgive me all my sins, and offences, examples of grace vouchsafed to suf- which be many without number, and ferers, taken from Scripture and great above measure. But how great Church History; and lest this should and how many soever my sins be, I bring him no comfort, Dr. Cole con- beseech


God of his mercy cluded, by promising in the name of to pardon and forgive them all.” And all the priests who were present, that here kneeling down, he said, dirges, masses, and funerals should “O Father of Heaven, Son of be performed for the succour of his God Redeemer of the world, O Holy soul, in all the churches of Oxford. Ghost, three persons and one God,

The agitation of Cranmer's body, have mercy upon me, most wretched and the several alterations of his caitiff and miserable sinner. I have countenance during the time of the offended both against Heaven and sermon, showed the great grief of his earth, more than my tongue can ex, mind better than any man can declare press. Whither then


I it; one while lifting up his hands and whither should I fly? To heaven I eyes unto heaven, and then again for may be ashamed to lift up mine eyes ; shame letting them down to the earth. and in earth I find no place of refuge A man might have seen in him the

or succour. To thee, therefore, O very image of perfect sorrow. More Lord, do I run ; to thee do I humble than twenty different times the tears myself, saying, O Lord my God, my gushed out abundantly, dropping down sins be great, but yet have mercy from his venerable and fatherly face. upon me for thy great mercy. The They that were present testify that great mystery that God became man, they never saw more tears in a child

· was not wrought for little or few than burst out from him all the ser- offences. . Thou didst not give thy mon; but especially when he recited Sun, O heavenly Father, unto death his prayer before the people. Such for small sins only, but for all the abundance of tears from so aged and greatest sins of the world; so that

to pray

go, or


April, 1817.] The Life of Thomas Cranmer.

103 the sinner return to thee with his written in the Old and New Testawhole heart, as I do here at this pre- ment. sent. Wherefore have mercy upon

66 And now I come to the great me, O God, whose property is always thing which so much troubleth my to have mercy;


mercy upon me, conscience more than any thing I O Lord, for thy great mercy. I crave ever did or said in my whole life, nothing for my own merits, but for and this is, setting forth a writing, thy name's sake, that it may be hal- contrary to the truth, which I now lowed thereby, and for thy dear Son here renounce and refuse, as written Jesus Christ's sake. And now there with my hand contrary to the truth I fore, Our Father which art in heaven, thought in my heart, and written for hallowed be thy name," &c. Then fear of death. And because my hand rising, he made an exhortation to the offended, it shall first be punished; people.

for rnay I come to the fire it shall ist. He addressed those who set first be burned. And as to the Pope, their hearts upon this false and cheat- I refuse him as antichrist, with all ing world, putting them in mind of his false doctrine.” the Apostle's words, that the love of Here all the standers by were astothe world is enmity against God. nished, and it was a sight to see the

2d. He put all persons in mind of doctors, now they were beguiled of their duty to honour and obey the their liopes. They began to fret, and King and Queen.

fume, and rage, and that so much 3d. He exhorted them to love each the more because they could now no other like brothers and sisters, to do longer threaten and hurt him, for the good unto all as much as in them lay, most miserable man in the world can and to hurt no man any more than die but once. So when Cranmer bethey would hurt their own natural gan again to speak of Popery, Cole brother or sister.

cried out, “Stop the heretic's mouth, 4th. And because a sore famine and take him away." Then was was then in England, he largely ex• Cranmer pulled down from the stage, horted the rich to show their charity, and led to the fire, all the way exrepeating to them three moving texts horting the people. for them to consider, viz. our Savi- And when he came to the place our's declaration, that it is hard for a where Ridley and Latimer were rich man to enter into the kingdom burnt before him, he prayed, and put of heaven; St. John's saying, that he off his garments, except his shirt, and that "seeth his brother have need,” prepared for death. His shirt was &c. 1 John iii. 17; and St. James's inade long down to his feet. His warning, “Go to now, ye rich men," feet were bare. His head, when his &c. James v. 1, &c. Afterwards he caps were off, was so bald that one proceeded with his exhortation thus : hair could not be seen upon it. His * And now, for as much as I am beard was long and thick, covering come to the last end of my life, his face with wonderful gravity. whereupon langeth all my life past Such a countenance moved the hearts and all my life to come, either to live of his friends and enemies. with my master Christ for ever in Then was an iron chain tied about joy, or else to be in pain for ever with Cranmer, and they commanded the wicked devils in hell; and I see be- fire to be set unto him. And when fore mine eyes either heaven ready the wood was kindled and the fire to receive me, or else hell ready to began to burn near him, stretching swallow me up; I shall therefore de- out his arm, he put his right hand clare unto you my faith without any into the flame ; which lie held so im dissimulation, for now is no time to movable, (saving that once with that dissemble, whatever I have said or hand he wiped his face, that all men written in time past.

might see that his hand burned be “ First, I believe in God the Father fore his body was touched ; and when Almighty, Maker; &c. and evory word the fire came to his body, he moved

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them; to be reminded that they are our upon the testimony of the external marks spiritual guardians, liable, like other with which it is accompanied. Religion guardians, to be called to account. That with them undergoes a kind of personifi. such an interference should be tempered cation. That the clergy of this kingdom with delicacy and respect, nor repeated are improving in religious zeal, and relioftener than occasion requires; that it gious consistency of life, we venture fearshould be grave, liberal, and honest; that fully to hope. Whether this improvement it should confine its reproof to those keeps pace with the improving spirit of things which are plainly within the reach inquiry which has of late gone forth, is a of remedy, mixing with censure a due question of the deepest practical import. value and reverence for an Order which ance to the stability of the Church of comprises so much individual excellence England. in all its departments, and which would The safety of the Church rests much be sacred, if by nothing else, in virtue of upon the lives, but it also rests much upits destination alone; that it should dig. on the official ability of its clergy. I dain the gossip of the idle and the slan- theological learning they cannot be der of the malevolent, feeling and allow, ported deficient, (though we cannot think ing for, with charitable sympathy and that in this respect their education is conscious humility, the kindred infirmi- sufficiently specific, or admit that Greek ties of a fallen creature, and doing all and Latin have a right to all the first from christian love and with christian years of a son of the Church), for the temper:--that these should be the cha- great and essential objects of enunciation racteristics of every remonstrance or ap- and elocution their education makes no peal addressed to the clergy as a body, provision. It was said by Dr. Johnson, none feel more strongly than ourselves. that the first business of an author was to

We will not dwell upon irritating to procure readers; it may with equal truth pics, and shall therefore make but slight he said, that it is the first business of a mention of some practices and omissions teacher to take care to be heard, and his which appear to us to be conducive to next, to be heard with attention. Decen. the insecurity of the Church and the dis. cy, or duty, or devotion, may create a esteem of its ministers; and among the congregation; but distinct utterance and things to be complained of, we shall impressive delivery are necessary to keep wholly omit all flagrant immoralities, or

them awake. profane and profligate associations; they A long residence in either of our'unj. speak their own condemnation to every versities cannot be favourable to that zeal untainted ear and solid understanding or activity of disposition which are wantWhatever is immoral in a layman, is ed in a pastor of a parish, or to brace the more mischievously and malignantly so mind for those gratuitous offices which in a clergyman; and many things scarcely are the sinews of a laborious ministry. disreputable, or but ambiguously wrong The divinity, also, of persons who have in others, are decided deformities, to say passed through the grades of academical the least of them, in a dispenser of God's education, is apt to be of too ethical a word, and an official servant of Christ. cast for sound evangelical instruction.

It cannot be doubted for a moment, by The waters of comfort to which the poor any man commonly sensible, or endued should be invited to come and quench with the primary principles of sound mo- their thirst, have never wasbed the foot ral taste in character (putting the con- of Helicon, or glided along the pleasant cerns of the soul for a moment out of bank where Socrates sat and discoursed. consideration), that racing, fox-hunting, No knowledge is adapted to the pulpit and all rough and boisterous pastimes, but the saving knowledge of the Gospel, especially those which border upon cru

and there is nothing in a Christian's hope eliy, induce gambling, or lead to noisy independent of him who has opened the conviviality, are to be deprecated in a only road that leads to heaven. lergyman. Public ball-rooms and card assemblies are certainly not the scenes wherein clergymen appear to the most

SOUTHEY. advantage. The reasons are many and not usfficult to be assigned; but the con

The following remarks on the charac. sidiration of them is scarcely necessary: ter of Southey as a poet, and on his poem tasielland feeling simmarily decide the of Roderick, are, extracted from the Bri. point. It is enoug that no good man

tish Review. likes to see them there. There is in the mass of mankind a natural and general We live, and let us feel it a privilege sense of physical and moral proportion that we do so, in times that are signalized whic, logic can surpass or subvert. by the correction of abuses, and the re. Igno taien contemplate religion in its newal of a vigorous system of activity in prof * , and raise their thoughts to many departments, in which a sleepy torthe eption of its internal excellence por seemed established by precedent.....


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