Obrazy na stronie

War. Great Events. Trifles.

In bello parvis momentis magni casus intercedunt. "In war great events arise from trivial causes."

Man. Bravery. Endurance. Patience.

Qui se ultro morti offerant, facilius reperiuntur, quam qui dolorem patienter ferant.

"It is easier to find men who will volunteer to die, than who will endure suffering with patience."

Sacrifice. Religion of the Gauls.

Pro vita hominis nisi hominis vita reddatur, non posse deorum immortalium numen placari arbitrantur; publiceque ejusdem generis habent instituta sacrificia. Alii immani magnitudine simulacra habent, quorum contexta viminibus membra vivis hominibus complent; quibus succensis, circumventi flamma exanimantur homines. Supplicia eorum qui in furto aut in latrocinio aut aliqua noxa sint comprehensi, gratiora diis immortalibus esse arbitrantur; sed, cum ejus generis copia defecit, etiam ad innocentium supplicia descendunt.

"They think that unless the life of a man be offered for the life of a man, the favor of the immortal gods cannot be won, and they have sacrifices of that nature ordained for national purposes. Others have images of ponderous size, the limbs of which, bound with twigs, they fill with living men; and as these are set on fire, the men perish enveloped in the flames. They consider that the oblation of those who have been taken in theft, or in robbery, or in some such offense, is more acceptable to the immortal gods; but when a supply of that class is wanting, they have recourse to the sacrifice of even the innocent." B. G. VI, 16. Describing the Gallic idea concerning sacrifice.

The text of Caesar is so accessible to all, and the character of the subject matter such, that extended selections from his writings are thought to be unnecessary.


BORN 106 B.C.-- DIED 43 B.C.

MARCUS TULLIUS CICERO, the greatest of Roman orators, and one of the greatest of Roman statesmen and men of letters, was born at the little village of Arpinum, some fifty miles east of Rome, 106 B.C. He was educated at Rome under the ablest teachers, among whom were the poet Archias, and the great jurist, Scaevola. His attention was especially given to the study of rhetoric, elocution, law, and philosophy. He was a devoted student of Greek, and studied successively in the schools of the Epicureans, Academics, and Stoics. During the early years of his practice at the bar, he gained distinction by his orations in defense of Publius Quintius, Sex. Roscius, Q. Roscius, and Pro A. Caecina; and later, by his orations, In Verrem, for extortion, 70 B.C. His oration, Pro Lege Manilia, was delivered four years later; and in 63 B.C. he was elected Consul. It was during this period that he delivered his famous orations, In Catilinam, which won for him the distinction of Pater Patriae, or Father of his Country. His orations, De Lege Agraria, Pro L. Murena, Pro Poeta Archia, and others, belong to this period. At the expiration of his consulship, his popularity began to wane; and in 58 B.C. he was compelled to go into banishment at Thessalonica, from which he was recalled, some sixteen months later, and received at Rome with great honor. To this period belong the orations Pro Cornelio Balbo, In L. Calpurnium Pisonem, and Pro Cn. Plancio. Instead of entering prominently into public affairs, however, he devoted himself rather to literary pursuits, composing his De Oratore and De Legibus, each in three books, and De Republica, in one book. During the dictatorship of Caesar, Cicero lived in comparative retirement, and composed his principal works on rhetoric and philosophy, including Orator, Hortensius, De Finibus in five books, De Officiis in three books, De Natura Deorum in three books, De Divinatione in two books, Tusculanarum Quaestionum in five books, Para

doxa, De Senectute, De Amicitia, and others. During the stormy days that followed Caesar's assassination, Cicero allied himself to the cause of Octavian, and delivered his celebrated Philippics against Antony, which cost him his life. He was pursued by the soldiers of Antony, slain, and his head and hands taken back to Rome and displayed in the Forum, which had so often resounded with his eloquence.

What Forsyth says of Cicero is doubtless true: "His great foible was vanity and an immoderate estimate of the value of his services. He was extravagantly fond of praise, and as fearful of censure, and could bear anything better than the loss of popular applause." Even this, however, is almost praise, considering the times in which he lived and the much greater vices which commonly characterized the ambitious leaders of his day.

His writings are voluminous, and cover a wide range of subjects. His rhetorical and philosophical works are especially interesting, and fill five octavo volumes. His correspondence, much of which is valuable, fills two similar volumes, and comprises over eight hundred letters. Nearly every page of his writings glows with choice thoughts which attract the thoughtful reader and allure him on. He was the most distinguished writer of Latin prose, and probably did more than any other author to bring it to perfection.


Omnes artes, quae ad humanitatem pertinent, habent quoddam commune vinculum, et quasi cognatione quadam inter se continentur.

"All the arts which tend to refinement have a certain common bond of union, and are connected to one another, as it were, by a kindred tie."— Archias, 1.

Oratory. Literature. Recreation.

An tu existimas aut suppetere nobis posse, quod quotidie dicamus in tanta varietate rerum, nisi animos nostros doctrina excolamus, aut ferre animos tantam posse contentionem, nisi eos doctrina eadem relaxemus?

"Do you imagine that I could find materials for my daily speeches on such a variety of subjects, if I did not improve my mind by literary

pursuits; or that I could bear such a strain, if I did not occasionally seek relaxation by that same means? “— Archias, 6.

Literature. Studies.

Nam ceterae neque temporum sunt, neque aetatum omnium, neque locorum: haec studia adolescentiam agunt senectutem oblectant, secundas res ornant, adversis perfugium ac solatium praebent, delectant domi, non impediunt foris, pernoctant nobiscum, peregrinantur, rusticantur.

"For other occupations are not suited to all times, or ages, or places whereas literary pursuits are the employment of youth, the delight of old age; the ornament of prosperity, the refuge and comfort of adversity; a delight at home, no obstacle abroad; they attend us at night, they journey with us, and relieve our loneliness." Archias, 7. A splendid tribute to books and literary pursuits.

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Education versus Nature.

Etiam illud adjungo, saepius ad laudem atque virtutem naturam sine doctrina, quam sine natura valuisse doctrinam.

'Moreover, I affirm that nature without education has more frequently raised men to distinction and honor, than education without natural ability.” — Archias, 7.

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Poetry. History. Fame.

Quam multos scriptores rerum suarum magnus ille Alexander secum habuisse dicitur? Atque is tamen, quum in Sigeo ad Achillis tumulum adstitisset, "O fortunate," inquit, "adolescens, qui tuae virtutis Homerum praeconem inveneris." Et vere: nam, nisi Ilias illa exstitisset, idem tumulus, qui corpus ejus contexerat, nomen etiam obruisset.

How many historians of his exploits is Alexander the Great said to have had with him? And yet, while he stood on the promontory of Sigeum, by the tomb of Achilles, he exclaimed. O fortunate youth, to have found a Homer as herald of thy praise!' And truly; for had the Iliad not existed, the same tomb which covered his body would also have buried his renown."- Archias, 10.

Praise. Glory.

Trahimur omnes laudis studio, et optimus quisque maxime gloria ducitur.

"We are all attracted by the lo of praise, and the noblest are influenced most by glory."- Archias, 11.


Ut ignis in aquam conjectus, continuo restinguitur et refrigeratur: sic refervens falsum crimen in purissimam et castissimam vitam collatum, statim concidit et exstinguitur.

"As fire thrown into the water is immediately cooled and extinguished, so a false accusation directed against a pure and holy character at once falls down and disappears."— Q. Roscio Commedo, 6.

The Populace. Prejudice.

Vulgus ex veritate pauca, ex opinione multa aestimat.

"The populace estimates few things from a true standpoint, most things from preconceived notions." -Q- Ros. Com. 10.

Self-made Men. Merit.

Is mihi videtur amplissimus qui sua virtute in altiorem. locum pervenit.

"He is, in my opinion, the noblest, who by his own merit has attained to a higher position."— Sex. Ros. Amerino, 30.

Diversity of Gifts.

Non enim possumus omnia per nos agere: alius in alia est re magis utilis.

"We are unable, by ourselves, to do everything: one is especially gifted in one direction; another, in another."— Sex. Ros. Am. 38.


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