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Book of Wisdom, i. v. 7. where immensity is predicated of the Holy Ghost; “ The Spirit of the Lord hath filled the whole world.” From I. Corinthians, c. 2. where omniscience is affirmed of him; “ For the Spirit of God searcheth all things, even the profound things of God," where search is the same as comprehend, since God is said, in the seventh Psalm, v. 10. to be—“The searcher of hearts and reins.” Omnipotence is likewise his attribute, Psalm, xxxii. “ By the word of the Lord, the heavens were established, and all the power of them by the Spirit of his mouth.” Sanctification and justification are his works, I Corinth. vi. 11. “ But you are washed, but you are sanctified, but you are justified in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, and in the Spirit of our God.”—The working of miracles and tongues is likewise ascribed to the Holy Ghost, I. Corinth. xii.-“ But the manifestation of the Spirit is given to every man unto profit. To one indeed, by the Spirit, is given the word of wisdom, and to another the word of knowledge, according to the same Spirit: to another faith in the same Spirit: to another the grace of healing in one Spirit: to another the working of miracles ; to another, prophecy; to another, the discerning of spirits ; to another, divers kinds of tongues; to another, interpretation of speeches. But all these things one and the same spirit worketh, dividing to every one, ac cording as he will.” Therefore, the Holy Ghost is true God and a true subsisting person, as to whom the distribution of heavenly gifts and other such like divine operations are ascribed, which belong only to persons.
Second proof, from the Greek and Latin Fathers.
CL. St. Irenæus, in his fourth book against heresies chap. v. says, “ that man was made by the hand of the Father, that is to say, by the Son and the Holy Ghost according to the likeness of God."*
* s Per manum Patris, id est, per Filium et Spiritum Sanctum, factus est hom 20 secundum similitudinem Dei."
Tertullian in his book against Praxeas, chap. xiii. writes thus, “ We say that the Father and the Son are two, and that with the Holy Ghost they are three ; but we are never heard to say that there are two Gods and two Lords, not as if the Father were not God, and the Son God, and the Holy Ghost God, and each one of them God," &c.*
St. Cyprian in his Epistle to Jubajanus, “ As three are one thing, how can the Holy Ghost be reconciled to him who is an enemy either of the Father or of the Son.”f St. Dio. nysius of Alexandria in his answer to the propositions of Paul of Samosata, “ for unless Christ were God the Word, says he, he could not but be subject to sin, for there is none not subject to sin, except Christ only, a's also the Father of Christ and the Holy Ghost.”† And all these Fathers lived before the Council of Nice, held in the year 325.
After the condemnation of the Arian Heresy at Nice, the following Fathers employed their pens against the impugners of the Holy Ghost, viz. St. Athanasius in his Epistle to Serapion; Didymus in his book on the Holy Ghost; St, Hilary in in his books on the Trinity ; St. Basil, in his books against Eunomius and on the Holy Ghost; St. Gregory Nazianzen in his thirty-seventh oration ; St. Ambrose in his books on the Holy Ghost; Theodoretus, in his eighth book against heresies, chapter on the Holy Ghost; St. Epiphanius in Panario seventy-fourth heresy ; St. Gregory Nyssen in the book against Eunomius; St. Augustin, in his books on the Trinity, and against Maximinus an Arian; St. Cyril of Alexandria in the 'Treasury; St. Cyril of Jerusalem, Cathech, xvi. and xvii.
** Duos definimus et Patrem, et Filium, et jam tres cum Spiritu Sancto. Duos tamen Deos et duos Dominos nunquam ex ore nostro proferimus : non quasi non et Pater Deus, et Filius Deus, et Spiritus Sanctus Deus, et Deus unusquisque, &c."
po “ Cum tres unum sunt, quomodo Spiritus Sanctus placatus esse ei potest, qui aut Patris aut Filii inimicus est ?»
* Nisi enim esset Christus Deus Verbum, non potuisset non esse peccato obnoxjus. Nullus enim non obnoxius est peccato, nisi unus Christus, ut et Pater Christi et Sanctus Spiritus."
Third proof, from the authority of Councils.
CXLVIII. The Arian heresy was proscribed by the Nicene Synod in these words of the Symbol, “ We believe in the Holy Ghost."
The error of Macedonius was condemned by the Synod of Alexandria, which was held after the return of St. Athanasius in the year 362, by the Synod of Illyricum in the year 367, and by the councils celebrated at Rome under Pope Dama. sus, who addressed a synodical epistle to the bishops of Illy. ricum, and which has been preserved by Theodoretus, lib. 2. Hist. Eccles. c. 22. “ And this error has been spread after the council of Nice, says this holy Pontiff, that some should dare say with a sacrilegious mouth, that the Holy Ghost was made by the Son. We anathematize those who do not, with all possible freedom, proclaim, that he has one and the same power with the Father and the Son. We anathematize Arius and Eunomius, who with like impiety, although in a different way of expressing it, assert that the Son and the Holy Ghost are nothing more than creatures. We anathematize the Macedonians, who, sprung from the stock of Arius, have changed not their perfidy but their name. If any man do not say, that the Holy Ghost is truly and properly from the Father, as the Son is, of the divine substance, and that he is true God, let him e anathema. If any one say, that there are not three true persons, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, let him be anathema. If any one say that the Holy Ghost is not to be adored by all creatures, as the Son and the Father, let him be anathema."*
* « Επειδη μετα την εν νικαια συνοδον, αυτη η πλανη ανεκυψεν ωσε τολ. μαν τινας βεβηλω κοματι ειπειν, το πνευμα το αγιον γεγενεσαι δια τα νιά, αναθελατιξομεν τες μη μετα πασης ελευθεριας κηρυττοντας συν τω. πατρι και το ευ της μιας και της τυτης εσιας τε και εξασιας υπαρχειο το Αγιον πνευμα ... Αναθεματιρομεν Αρειον και Ευνομιον, οι τη ιση δυσσεβεια ει και τοις ρηματι διαφερονται, τον νιον και το Αγιον πνευμα, κτισμά ειναι δισχυειρονται. Αναθεματιρομεν Μακεδονιανες, οιτινες εκ της Αρειε ριξης καταγομενοί, οχι την ασεβειαν, αλλα την προσηγοριαν ενηλλαξαν •.• No. V.
The same heresy was proscribed by the first council of Constantinople, which, with a view of condemning the error of the Macedonians, added to those words of the Nicene sym. bol, “ We believe in the Holy Ghost," the following words, " Lord and life-giver, who proceedeth from the Father, who is to be adored and conglorified with the Father and the Son: who hath spoken by the holy prophets.”+ This council and the condemnation of Macedonius made in it was approved by Pope Damasus in a council held at Rome by the western bishops, at the very same time that the eastern bishops were assembled at Constantinople.
Last proof, from the argument of Prescription.
CXLIX. In the fourth century the church believed the Holy Ghost to be true God, consubstantial with the Father, and with the Son; therefore, there existed always in the former ages the same faith of the church about the divinity of the Holy Ghost. Why so ? Because, if this was not the primitive faith of the church, the supposed primitive faith was, of course, changed at some succeeding age, and if so, it will be incumbent on the Unitarians to show, and clearly to point out, first, at what precise period of time the dogma of the divinity of the Holy Ghost was first introduced into the Christian world. Secondly, in what place or part of the world. Thirdly, by whose agency. Fourthly, by whose patronage. Fifth and last. ly, who were those that opposed that innovation, and what noise and disturbances its introduction caused in the world. Since, therefore, the Unitarians are not able, in the present
ει τις μη ειπη, τον υιον γενηθεντα εκ τ8 πατρος, τετεσιν, εκ της ασιας θειας αυτ8, αναθεμα εσω... ει τις μη ειπη, τα πατρος και τα 48 και το Αγιο TYEUMATOO Hlav BecTiTA, EŽBoley, Suroeselav, play dočar, xuprotnt«, μιαν βασιλειαν, μιαν θελησιν και αληθειαν, αναθεμα εσωτ-ει τις τρια προσοπα μη ειπη αλητινα, το πατρος και το υιε, και το Αγιο πνεύματος, avalaud sw, &c. Theodoret lib. v. cap. 2.
* Credimus in Spiritum Sanctum, Dominum et vivificantem, ex Patre procedentem, cum Patre et Filio adorandum et conglorificandum: qui locutus est per-sanctos prophetas."
case, to show the smallest vestige of any of the five points mentioned, good logic forces us to conclude, that the doctrine of the divinity of the Holy Ghost, was a doctrine received from the Apostles themselves, and no ways introduced at any posterior period.
Now, that the belief of the divinity of the Holy Ghost was universal throughout the Christian world, in the fourth century, is incontestable from the testimonies of those Fathers, whose names we have mentioned, and from the church history of those times; for it is an undoubted fact, that those, who denied the divinity of the Holy Ghost, in the fourth century, were condemned by the church as heretics, and that by no other way could they be re-united to it, but by abjuring their error. So we learn that in the council of Alexandria in the year 362, it was exacted from those that returned to the church, that they should execrate Arian impiety, together with those who said, that the Holy Ghost was not God. S. Basil would not receive Eustathius of Sebaste into the communion of the church, but after having subscribed to the divinity of the Holy Ghost. Add to this that most ancient and renowned glorification, by which the hymns of the church were every where terminated, “ Glory be to the Father and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost,” or, “ with” or, 6 in the Holy Ghost,” which Sc. Basil in his book on the Holy Ghost, cap. 29, writes to have been indiscriminately used by St. Irenæus, St. Clement of Rome, St. Dionysius of Alexandria, St. Gregory Thaumaturgus, Origen, &c.*
SECTION II. CL. After having established the dogma of the divinity of the Holy Ghost on the exalted authority of the divine Scriptures, and the united testimony of the Christian world for the
: * The dogma of the divinity of the Holy Gbost will derive another irrefragable proof from the arguments which shall be adduced, to establish the Godhead of Jesus Christ, since there is scarce a monument of antiquity in support of the divinity of Christ, that does not go to prove at the same time, that the Holy Ghost is true God,