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tas a great idleness in Theophylact, the patriarch of C. P. to spend his time in his stable of horses, when he should have been in his study, or the pulpit, or saying his holy offices. Such employments are the diseases of labour, and the rust of time, which it contracts, not by lying still, but by dirty employment.
10. Let our employment be such as becomes a Christian; that is, in no sense, mingled with sin: for he that takes pains to serve the ends of covetousness, or ministers to another's lust, or keeps a shop of impurities or intemperance, is idle in the worst sense; for every hour, so spent, runs him backward, and must be spent again in the remaining and shorter part of his life, and spent better.
11. Persons of great quality, and of no trade, are to be most prudent and curious in their employment and traffic of time. They are miserable, if their education hath been so loose and undisciplined, as to leave them unfurnished of skill to spend their time: but most miserable are they, if such misgovernment and unskilfulness make them fall into vicious and baser company, and drive on their time by the sad minutes and periods of sin and death. They that are learned, know the worth of time, and the manner how well to improve a day; and they are to prepare themselves for such purposes, in which they may be most useful in order to arts or arms, to counsel in public, or government in their country: but for others of them, that are unlearned, let them choose good company, such as may not tempt them to a vice, or join with them in any; but that may supply their defects by counsel and discourse, by way of conduct and conversation. Let them learn easy and useful things, read history and the laws of the land, learn the customs of their country, the condition of their own estate, profitable and charitable contriva ances of it: let them study prudently to govern their families, learn the burdens of their tenants, the necessities of their neighbours, and in their proportion supply them, and reconcile their enmities, and prevent their law-suits, or quickly end them; and in this glut of leisure and disemployment, let them set apart greater portions of their time for religion and the necessities of their souls.
12. Let the women of noble birth and great fortunes do the same things in their proportions and capacities, nurse
their children, look to the affairs of the house, visit poor cottages, and relieve their necessities, be courteous to the neighbourhood, learn in silence of their husbands or their spiritual guides, read good books, pray often and speak little, and " learn to do good works for necessary uses;" for, by that phrase, St. Paul expresses the obligation of Christian women to good housewifery, and charitable provisions for their family and neighbourhood.
13. Let all persons of all conditions avoid all delicacy and niceness in their clothing or diet, because such softness engages them upon great mispendings of their time, while they dress and comb out all their opportunities of their morning devotion, and half the day's severity, and sleep out the care and provision for their souls.
14. Let every one of every condition avoid curiosity, and all inquiry into things, that concern them not. For all business in things, that concern us not, is an employing our time to no good of ours, and therefore not in order to a happy eternity. In this account our neighbours' necessities are not to be reckoned; for they concern us, as one member is concerned in the grief of another: but going from house to house, tatlers and busybodies, which are the canker and rust of idleness, as idleness is the rust of time, are reproved by the apostle in severe language, and forbidden in order to this exercise.
15. As much as may be, cut off all impertinent and useless employments of your life, unnecessary and fantastic visits, long waitings upon great personages, where neither duty, nor necessity, nor charity obliges us; all vain meetings, all laborious trifles, and whatsoever spends much time to no real, civil, religious, or charitable purpose.
16. Let not your recreations be lavish spenders of your time; but choose such which are healthful, short, transient, recreative, and apt to refresh you; but at no hand dwell upon them, or make them your great employment: for he that spends his time in sports, and calls it recreation, is like him, whose garment is all made of fringes, and his meat nothing but sauces; they are healthless, chargeable, and useless. And therefore avoid such games, which require much time or long attendance; or which are apt to steal thy affections from more severe employments. For to whatsoever
thou hast given thy affections, thou wilt not grudge to give thy time. Natural necessity and the example of St. John, who recreated himself with sporting with a tame partridge, teach us, that it is lawful to relax and unbend our bow, but not to suffer it to be unready or unstrung.
17. Set apart some portions of every day for more solemn devotion and religious employment, which be severe in observing: and if variety of employment, or prudent affairs, or civil society press upon you, yet so order thy rule, that the necessary parts of it be not omitted; and though just occasions may make our prayers shorter, yet let nothing, but a violent, sudden, and impatient necessity, make thee, upon any one day, wholly to omit thy morning and evening devotions; which if you be forced to make very short, you may supply and lengthen with ejaculations and short retirements in the day-time, in the midst of your employmentor of your company.
18. Do not the "work of God negligently” and idly: let not thy heart be upon the world, when thy hand is lift up in prayer: and be sure to prefer an action of religion, in its place and proper season, before all worldly pleasure, letting secular things, that may be dispensed with in themselves, in these circumstances wait upon the other; not like the patriarch, who ran from the altar in St. Sophia to his stable, in all his pontificals, and in the midst of his office, to see a colt newly fallen from his beloved and much-valued mare Phorbante. More prudent and severe was that of Sir Thomas More, who, being sent for by the king, when he was at his prayers in public, returned answer, he would attend him, when he had first performed his service to the King of kings. And it did honour to Rusticus', that, when letters from Cæsar were given to him, he refused to open them, till the philosopher had done his lecture. In honouring God and doing his work, put forth all thy strength; for of that time only thou mayest be most confident that it is gained, which is prudently and zealously spent in God's service.
19. When the clock strikes, or however else you shall measure the day, it is good to say a short ejaculation every hour, that the parts and returns of devotion may be the measure of your time: and do so also in all the breaches of thy
& Cassian, Collat. 24. c. xxi.
h Jer. xlviii. 10.
i Plutarch. de Curiosit. c. XX,
sleep; that those spaces, which have in them no direct business of the world, may be filled with religion.
20. If, by thus doing, you have not secured your time by an early and fore-handed care, yet be sure' by a timely diligence to redeem the time, that is, to be pious and religious in such instancesk, in which formerly you have sinned, and to bestow your time especially upon such graces, the contrary whereof you have formerly practised, doing actions of chastity and temperance with as great a zeal and earnestness, as you did once act your uncleanness; and then, by all arts, to watch against your present and future dangers, from day to day securing your standing: this is properly to redeem your time, that is, to buy your security of it at the rate of any labour and honest arts.
21. Let him, that is most busied, set apart somel" solemn time every year,” in which, for the time quitting all worldly business, he may attend wholly to fasting and prayer, and the dressing of his soul by confessions, meditations, and attendances upon God; that he may make up his accounts, renew his vows, make amends for his carelessness, and retire back again, from whence levity and the vanities of the world, or the opportunity of temptations, or the distraction of secular affairs, have carried him.
22. In this we shall be much assisted, and we shall find the work more easy, if, before we sleep, every night " we examine the actions of the past day with a particular scrutiny, if there have been any accident extraordinary; as long discourse, a feast, much business, variety of company. If nothing but common hath happened, the less examination will suffice: only let us take care, that we sleep not without such a recollection of the actions of the day, as may represent any thing, that is remarkable and great, either to be the matter of sorrow or thanksgiving: for other things a general care is proportionable.
23. Let all these things be done prudently and moderately, not with scruple and vexation. For these are good advan
και οι εν αυτούς ευδοκιμούντες, οίς ήμαρτον, ευπρεπεστέραν την απολογίαν εισαεί φέρονται.Procop. 2. Vandal.
1 1 Cor. vii. 5.
τη Μηδ' ύπνον μαλακούσιν επ' όμμασι προσδέξασθαι, Πρίν των ημερινών έργων τρίς έκαστον επιλθεϊν· π σταρέζην και τι δ' έριξα; τί μοι δέον ούκ ετελέσθη ;-Pythagor. Aur. Carm.
tages, but the particulars are not Divine commandments; and therefore are to be used, as shall be found expedient to every one's condition. For, provided that our duty be secured, for the degrees and for the instruments every man is permitted to himself and the conduct of such, who shall be appointed to him. He is happy, that can secure every hour to a sober or a pious employment: but the duty consists not scrupulously in minutes and half hours, but in greater portions of time; provided that no minute be employed in sin, and the great portions of our time be spent in sober employment, and all the appointed days, and some portions of every day, be allowed for religion. In all the lesser parts of time, we are left to our own elections and prudent management, and to the consideration of the great degrees and differences of glory, that are laid up in heaven for us, according to the degrees of our care, and piety, and diligence.
The benefits of this exercise. This exercise, besides that it hath influence upon our whole lives, it hath a special efficacy for the preventing of 1. beggarly sins, that is, those sins, which idleness and beggary usually betray men to; such as are lying, flattery, stealing, and dissimulation. 2. It is a proper antidote against carnal sins, and such as proceed from fulness of bread and emptiness of employment. 3. It is a great instrument of preventing the smallest sins and irregularities of our life, which usually creep upon idle, disemployed, and curious persons. 4. It not only teaches us to avoid evil, but engages us upon doing good, as the proper business of all our days. 5. It prepares us so against sudden changes, that we shall not easily be surprised at the sudden coming of the day of the Lord : for he, that is curious of his time, willnot ea sily be unready and unfurnished.
The second general instrument of holy Living,
Purity of Intention. That we should intend and design God's glory in every action, we do, whether it be natural or chosen, is expressed by