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thorough and complete, and the resultant so homogeneous, that a new generation may almost lose sight of the facts which are gathered together in this monograph. The author gives us first the literature which has been prepared on the subject of the United Synod, its doctrines, organization, history, and union with our Assembly. In the next chapter he gives a statement of the organization of the Synod and of its union with the Southern Church, and outlines the study which he will present in the following pages. This chapter should be in the preface or an introduction. The next chapter is on the source of the United Synod. In it Dr. Johnson discusses the causes leading to the disruption in 1838, showing that for several reasons very many adhered to the New School party who were not in sympathy with the theology current among the leaders or the majority of that party, and also showing how the New School party was influenced immediately after the disruption to become more Presbyterian, more churchly, more Calvinistic. The author then traces the history of the New School body, giving special attention to its repeated deliverances on the subject of slavery, out of which at last, in 1857, when its Assembly issued a deliverance specially aimed at the portion of the church in the South, grew the determination of the Southern brethren to withdraw from the body. In the fourth chapter he tells of the Convention of the Southern brethren, held in the summer of 1857, in Richmond, Va., at which it was determined to withdraw from the Assembly and form a separate organization, to be called the United Synod. At this Convention there was a strong disposition to unite at once with the Old School body. This measure was opposed by Rev. Dr. A. H. H. Boyd, and strongly advocated by Hon. J. Randolph Tucker, the one being the leading “antagonist” of the scheme, and the other its distinguished “protagonist,” according to our author, in a somewhat unwarranted adaptation of words to express his meaning. The opponents of the measure prevailed, but the spirit of union manifested at the very beginning grew in strength, until within seven years the new body was one with the Southern Old School Church. This chapter also contains the substance of the declaration of principles of the new body. The next chapter describes the development and growth of the organization, and is followed by a full account of its union, with the various steps leading thereto, with the Presbyterian Church in the Confederate States of America, in 1864. In the last chapter the author shows that there has been no trace in the churches thus united of New Schoolism as it was known in the earlier days of the division. The whole work, while brief, is of great value as a bringing together and recording of facts and incidents which would otherwise be apt to be forgotten, and is a worthy contribution to the bibliography of our church.

AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF CHARLES FORCE DEEMS, D. D., LL. D., Pastor of the Church

of the Strangers, New York City, ard President of the American Institute of Christian Philosophy; and Memoir. By his sons, Rev. Edward M. Deems, A. M., D. D., and Francis M. Deems, M. D., Ph. D. New York, Chicago, and Toronto: Fleming H. Revell Company. 1897. 8vo, 365 pages. $1.50.

We rise from the reading, from beginning to end, of this fascinating autobiography and memoir refreshed and strengthened and glad. Dr. Deems' whole life was one of such devotion, earnestness, success, and yet simplicity, that we could wish all might read its story and catch something of its spirit. Some little lack of unity in the parts, and of clearness here and there in the details, especially of dates, does not detract from the power which this volume will have. Its story is that of a man who gave a life of rare length and ability to the service of Christ, and who never flinched in the presence of duty or quailed before hardship. By his intense zeal and consecration he made himself felt in a constantly enlarging circle, and he was always on the side of truth and righteousness. In church work he proved himself a master in wisdom and discretion; in wider fields he contributed more largely perhaps than any man of the past two decades to the setting forth and practical propagation of sound Christian philosophy. These two departments centre the one around the Church of the Strangers, in New York-whose pulpit was by his ministry made synonymous with spiritual fervor and scriptural teaching--and the other around the American Institute of Christian Philosophy, which he organized and made efficient, and whose organ, Christian Thought, was the expression of the best that was in him and in the company of able men whom he gathered about him. We trust that the book will have a large circulation, not only among Dr. Deems' friends in the South and in the North, but among all who love the kingdom of our Lord Jesus Christ and the cause of a true Christian philosophy.

The volume is made up, in part, of a life of himself prepared for his children, and in part of a memoir prepared by his sons. In the latter part, however, the father is made to express himself as much as possible through his letters or other writings. As most of our readers already know, Dr. Deems was born in Maryland, but came South almost at the beginning of his youthful ininistry as general agent of the American Bible Society, and remained in the South until after the close of the war between the States, a period of twenty-four years, which he spent as a travelling Methodist preacher, university professor, head of a girls' college, and as an evangelist and orator of wide reputation. After the war he went to New York and established a paper in the interests of peace and reconciliation, and conducted it for about a year, when it failed. He then threw himself into the work of a pastor and preacher to the strangers in the city, and soon gathered around himself the great congregation to which he ministered so long and so well. The generosity of Commodore Vanderbilt provided him with a spacious and eligibly-located church, and here he carried on the great work of his life, making this church the centre of an aggregation of Christian activities which has linked his name with the greatest and best of his com peers in religion and reform. In his busy life, Dr. Deerns found time to travel and write. His most permanent work, perhaps, will be his Jesus. His Gospel of Common Sense, a commentary on the Epistle of James, will also keep his memory green.

STEARNS' EVIDENCE OF CHRISTIAN EXPERIENCE. The EvIDENCE OF CHRISTIAN EXPERIENCE ; being the Ely Lectures for 1890. By

Lewis French Stearns, Professor of Christian Theology in Bangor Theological Seminary. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1893.

If nothing more shall be accomplished by the Ely Lectureship in Union Theological Seminary, New York, than the production of McCosh's Positivism and Christianity and this work of Dr. Stearns, it will have proved of signal service to the cause of Christian truth. Dr. Stearns' Lectures are more interesting, more original, and altogether more valuable than are Dr. McCosh's. He has all the advantage of concentrating his force upon one point, and that the most important in the defence of our faith, the evidence of the personal, spiritual experience of the regenerated heart.

Doubtless the most striking Lecture in the volume is that entitled, “The Verification of the Evidence,” in wbich he shows that the evidence of personal experience meets exactly the demand of this scientific age, in giving us proof by experimentation.

There are some imperfections: a false psychology of the will, an exaggerated natural theology, an underrating of other evidences, and extravagant claims for his own selected proof, but, despite all these, it is the most satisfactory presentation of the claims of Christianity upon our intelligent credence that this writer knows. He recommends it to every thoughtful Christian, as well as to every minister of the gospel and every teacher of apologetics. Lexington, Va.

JAMES A. QUARLES.
HADLEY'S ECONOMICS.
ECONOMICS: An Account of the Relations between Private Property and Public

Wealth. By Arthur Twining Hadley, Professor of Political Economy in Yale
University, etc. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1896.

This is not a comprehensive treatise on economics, designed to present all its principles. Its characteristics are that it limits itself to the discussion of the most important and vexed questions connected with the subject, and that it treats them under their twofold relation to private property and to public wealth. By public wealth is not meant government property, nor the aggregate of private property, but the enjoyments or useful things possessed by the people.

It favors individualism as opposed to socialism, the Malthusian theory, gold monometallism, bank paper money rather than treasury notes, machinery, private property in land, free trade, and national, not state, banks.

One of the most interesting points made is that values are determined by consumers ; that this is the barrier to monopoly and is the chief benefit of increased production to the laborer. The greatest profit to the capitalist is found in so cheapening his product as to bring it within the reach of the largest possible number of consumers.

This is not a work for beginners, but is admirable for those who have a knowledge of the elementary principles of the science. Lexington, Va.

JAMES A. QUARLES. WEBER'S HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY. HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY. By Alfred Weber, Professor of the University of Stras

burg. Authorized Translation by Frank Thilly, A. M., Ph. D., Professor of Philosophy in the University of Missouri. From the Fifth French Edition. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1896.

For the general student of philosophy and for those colleges that desire a short course, this is the most valuable History of Philosophy that I know. It is clearly the work of a mind that has mastered the various systems and that knows how to present them intelligibly to others. He regards the course of philosophy as a stream, with some eddies and islands that temporarily divide or even turn it back, but, on the whole, gathering volume and moving on towards the sea of absolute truth. The translation is remarkably smooth and natural. Lexington, Va.

JAMES A. QUARLES.

X. RECENT PUBLICATIONS.

THE BIBLICAL ILLUSTRATOR; or Anecdotes, Similes, Emblems, Illustrations; Exposi

tory, Scientific, Geographical, Historical, and Homiletic; Gathered from a
Wide Range of Home and Foreign Literature, on the Verses of the Bible. By
Rev. Joseph S. Exell, M. A. SECOND CORINTHIANS. New York, Chicago, and
Toronto: Fleming H. Revell Company. 1896. 8vo, pp. xii., 542. $2.00.

This volume of the Biblical Illustrator series, which we have noticed before, contains first, an Introduction to the Second Epistle, the discussion of the topics usually considered in special introduction being drawn from the writings of well. known scholars, such as Professor Findlay, Dean Stanley, Dr. Charles Hodge, Dean Plumptre, and others. Then follow illustrations of the words of the text, combined with a large amount of homiletic material, especially in the form of analyses of passages or practically outlines of discourses. The value of such a work, properly used, is great, and this series offers about the best that is to be found of its kind, but there is always danger of a misuse of such a publication, especially by those who have not yet learned to think for themselves. Ready-made analyses destroy intellectual vigor and independent thought, and when relied upon or too freely used speedily render one incapable of developing for himself a proper interpretation or enforcement of the word.

pp. 385.

DISCOURSES ON THE EPISTLE OF PAUL TO THE PHILIPPIANS. By Ret. Frederick

A. Noble, D. D., Pastor Union Park Congregational Church, Chicago. New
York, Chicago, and Toronto: Fleming H. Revell Company. 1897. 12mo,

$1.25. In twenty-three discourses Dr. Noble gives us the salient features of the Epistle to the Philippians. The first, entitled “Opening Words,” recounts the circumstances under which the epistle was written, together with the nature of his work in Philippi and some of the characteristics and features of the church and people there, thus preparing the way for the more thorough understanding of the epistle. The succeeding discourses take up the leading topics or thoughts of the epistle, and in a delightful expository method unfold the meaning and spirit of the great apostle in these words of love and encouragement. Dr. Noble is a graceful and forceful writer and full of unction. Among the topics of these admirable discourses are such as these, Living to Serve, Unity Through Love, Fellowship and Sympathy, Christian Aspiration, Our Heavenly Citizenship, High Ideals, Fulness of Supply in God.

THE SOUL WINNER, By Rev. Edward 0. Guerrant, D. D. Lexington, Ky. :

John B. Morton & Co. 1896. 12mo, pp. 252.

All who are familiar with the fervid oratory, deep spirituality, and mental gifts of the author of this little work, and his friends and admirers are found all

over the South, will rejoice in its publication. It consists of two parts. The first, which gives the name to the book, is a series of crisp, practical discussions of such aspects of the preacher's life and work as are not usually discussed in the books which young ministers use in preparation for their calling. They are published at the request of several young men who listened to a series of lectures by Dr. Guerrant on the subject of Evangelistic Work. Among the topics discussed are, Who is the Preacher? How to Preach, What to Preach, The Morning Service, The Evening Service, The Singing, The Inquirer, Punctuality, The Voice, The Ushers, The Sexton, The Weather, When to Close, etc. All these chapters are intensely practical and suggestive, and they should be read by every young man who is about to enter the ministry. Besides being full of common sense and based upon a wide and successful experience, they glow with spiritual warmth and show how the most trivial duties may be invested with the supremest glory when performed as a means of winning souls to Christ. The second part of the book gives an account of Dr. Guerrant's evangelistic work in the mountains of Kentucky. The chapters are thrillingly interesting and inspiring. As a whole, the book is one to be heartily commended, for the good it will do as well as for the encouragement which it gives to Christian workers. The first edition of it is, we hear, about exhausted. We trust that the next edition will be put in a form more worthy of such striking and valuable discussions, in typography, paper, and arrangement.

A MANUAL FOR RULING ELDERS. Containing the Laws and Usages of the Presby

terian Church in the United States of America, in Relation to Ruling Elders and Other Church Officers, Church Sessions, Churches, and Congregations. With Introductory Matter, Notes and Suggestions. By the Rev. Wm. Henry Roberts, D. D., LL. D. Philadelphia: Presbyterian Board of Publication and Sabbath-school Work. 1897. 16mo, 459 pages. $1.00.

This volume ie very fully described in the sub-title. In it the compiler has gathered all the paragraphs in the church Standards relating to the officers of the church, all the decisions of various kinds, or regulations adopted, by the two Assemblies of which the present church is composed, as well as of the reunited Assembly, and the rules adopted for the conduct of judicatories. The Introduction, which contains more original matter than the rest of the book, gives a history of the Standards, an account of the Presbyterian system, in its theology, its views on human duty, its worship, and its government, a statement of its principles of church government and of its organization, a study of the nature and terms and obligation of subscription to the Standards, and an outline of the history of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America. The following chapters are entitled, The Office of the Ruling Elder, The Session, The Church and Congregation, General Rules for Judicatories, and Forms for Sessions. A complete Index, very minute and exhaustive, is a specially useful feature. The whole forms a most valuable reference book for the ruling elder. There is hardly a question which is likely to rise in the session or in the individual elder's experience or duties as an elder that is not here fully answered, in the words of the Standards or in the decisions or deliverances of the church courts. The book, we should add, has been prepared by Dr. Roberts on the recommendation of the Assembly of which he is the Stated Clerk.

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