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The points of the Compass are often marked simply by the letters N. S. E. W.

(rt.) right, (1.) left,--applied to the banks of a river. The right bank is that which lies on the right hand of a person whose back is turned towards the source, or the quarter from which the current descends.

Miles.- Distances are always reduced to English miles, except when foreign miles are expressly mentioned.

The names of Inns precede the description of every place, (often in a parenthesis,) because the first information needed by a traveller is where to lodge.

Instead of designating a town by the vague words “large” or “small,” the amount of the population, according to the latest census, is almost invariably stated, as presenting a more exact scale of the importance and size of the place.

In order to avoid repetition, the Routes are preceded by a chapter of preliminary information; and, to facilitate reference to it, each division or paragraph is separately numbered.

Each Route is numbered with Arabic figures, corresponding with the figures attached to the Route on the Map, which thus serves as an Index to the Book; at the same time that it presents a tolerably exact view of the great high-roads of Europe, and of the course of public conveyances.

The Map is to be placed at the end of the Book.
The View of the Bernese Alps to face page 1.

* The Coats of Arms on the cover are those of the 22 Cantons forming the Swiss Confederation.


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laug-place for the night, which l body was removed to St. Blaize


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they quit as soon as they are fur

nished with horses; yet its situation BASLE TO BIENNE AND BERN BY THE on high, sloping banks, overlooking VAL MOUTIERS (Miinster THAI.), the Rhine, which rushes past in a

full broad flood of a clear, light green, bounded by the hills of the Black

Forest on the one side, of the Jura BASLE, or Bâle. (Germ. Basel, on the other — but, above all, its Ital. Basilea.)— Inns : Drei Könige Minster, and its Gallery of the Works (Three Kings), well situated, over- of Holbein, deserve some attention, looking the Rhine, which washes its It must be remembered that Basle, walls—a good inn, but expensive; though politically a portion of the dinner at the table d’hôte, 3 fr. at 1 Swiss Confederation, is yet, historio'clock-4 fr. at 5 o'clock-in pri- | cally, a part of Suabia, and that it vate, 6 fr. ;—the Stork (Cigogne), retains many of the characteristics of good;-Krone (Crown); Kopf (Tête an imperial free town more distinctly d'Or).

than many of those which have conBasle, capital of the now subdi- tinued German, and have become invided canton called Basle-town, is corporated in modern sovereignties. situated on the Rhine, and the larger The Cathedral, or Münster, on the portion lies on the l. bank, which is high bank on the l. of the Rhine, connected with the rt. by a bridge of above the bridge, distinguished by wood, partly supported on stone piers. its two spires, and the deep-red The territory of the town extends for colour of the sandstone of which it is about 4 miles on the rt. side of the built, is an interesting and picturesque river. It has 21,240 inhab., and it edifice, though not of beautiful archienjoys considerable prosperity from tecture. It was begun by the emperor the residence of many rich merchants, Henry II. in 1010, and consecrated bankers, and families of ancient de- 1019: the choir, the lower part of scent, and from its position in an the E. end, and the crypt beneath, angle on the frontiers of France, are of this period, and exhibit a style Germany, and Switzerland, about a of ornament widely different from mile below the spot where the Rhine what is usually termed Saxon or first becomes navigable. It has some Norman. The 4 columns, formed manufactures, of which the most of groups of detached pillars, with important are those of ribands and singular and grotesque capitals; the paper.

English travellers have tomb of the empress Anne, wife of hitherto been too much in the habit Rudolph of Habsburg, and mother of considering Basle merely as a of the line of Austrian princes, whose halting-place for the night, which body was removed to St. Blaize in



Route 1.-Basle-Minster-Holbein.

1770; a stone font, date 1465; are worth notice in this part of the building. So likewise is the portal of St. Gallus, leading into the N. transept, and decorated with statues of Christ and St. Peter, and of the wise and foolish virgins. In the W. front are groups of statues: St. George and the Dragon, and St. Martin and the Beggar, stand forth with great boldness. The church is used now for the Protestant service, and the altar stands between the choir and nave, nearly underneath a rich Gothic gallery or rood-loft (date 1381). On the l. of the altar, against a pillar, is the red marble tombstone of Erasmus, who died here in 1536. A staircase, leading out of the choir, conducts into a small apartmentthe Chapter House, or Conciliums Saal-in which some of the meet. ings of the Council of Basle, or rather of its committees, were held between 1436 and 1444. It is a low room, with four Gothic windows-distin. guished not only in an historical point of view, but also as being quite unaltered since the day of the Council. On the S. side of the choir are situated the very extensive and picturesque Cloisters—a succession of quadrangles and open hallswhich, with the space they inclose, still serve, as they have done for centuries, as a burial-place, and are filled with tombs. Within them are the monuments of the 3 Reformers, Ecolampadius, Grynæus, and Meyer. They were constructed in the 14th century, and extend to the


of the hill overlooking the river. It is not unlikely they may have been the favourite resort of Erasmus.

Behind the Minster is a Terrace, called Die Pfalz, nearly 60 ft. above the river, planted with 10 chesnut trees, and commanding a beautiful view over the Rhine, the town, and the Black Forest hills. Close to it is the Club called Cassino, containing a reading-room, &c.

The Minster is situated in a square of considerable size-in one corner

of which, in a recess, stands the Public Library, containing 50,000 volumes-among them, the Acts of the Council of Bâle, 3 vols., with chains attached to the binding, many very important MSS., of which there is a good catalogue, and a few of the books of Erasmus ; also, a copy of his “ Praise of Folly,” with marginal illustrations by the pen of Holbein. There are autographs of Luther, Melancthon, Erasmus, and Zuinglius. On the ground-floor is the Gallery of Paintings and Drawings by the younger Holbein-a highly interesting collection of the works of that master, including the Passion of Christ, in 8 compartments ; a dead Christ—both formerly in the Minster; Holbein’s Wife and Children, with countenances full of grief and misery ; portraits of Erasmus, of Froben the printer-excellent; of a Mlle. von Offenburg-twice repeated; two representations of a School, painted by the artist at the age of 14, and hung up as a sign over a schoolmaster's door in the town of Basle. Among the drawings are Holbein's own portrait-a work of the highest excellence; heads of the family Meyer, sketched for the celebrated picture now in the Dresden. Gallery ; origiual sketch for the famous picture of the family of Sir Thomas More-the names of the different personages are written on. their dresses ; 5 sketches for the frescoes which formerly decorated the Kathhaus in Basle, with one or two fragments of the frescoes them. selves ; sketches in ink for glass win. dows, for the sheaths of daggers, for the organ in the Minster; the Costumes of Basle, &c. &c. Here. are also preserved some fresco fragments of the original Dance of Death, which once adorned the walls of the Dominican Church in Basle, and a. set of coloured drawings of the whole series of figures.

The Dance of Death has been attributed without cause to Holbein, since it existed at the time of the Council of Basle, at

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