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that seem to accompany its mention and by its recurrence among the reminiscences of the poet's own life in the Epistles. That a mere literary reminiscence, an echo of his amatory poems rather than of his feelings, is intended seems unlikely in the absence of the name from all his early poems. The exception, however, tells rather against than for the reality of the personages who are not similarly recalled; and Buttmann draws attention to the fact that this one unknown person who seems more than a shadow is the subject only of allusion, not of a substantive poem.

What has been said will obviously not apply with equal force to the Epodes, where, in idea at least, personality is the essence of the poem. The introduction of Horace's own name, as in Epod. 15, and the pursuance of his attack upon Canidia through three Epodes and three Satires seem to indicate more real and definite objects. But the use of poetical names for characters who have no existence save at the moment begins doubtless in the Epodes, as do other features of the Odes.



1. With Verbs.

A COMPLEMENTARY, or, as Dr. Kennedy prefers to call it, 'prolative,' infinitive seems properly to have been allowed only to verbs whose idea was not complete without such a definition of their scope; whether the simple verbs that express power, duty, inclination, purpose, effort, beginning, etc., and the negation of any of these ('possum,' 'debeo,' 'volo,' 'conor,' 'incipio,' 'nequeo,' 'nolo '); or again the simple verbs which express the allowing another, or influencing him, to do or abstain from doing something (sino,' 'patior,' 'iubeo,' 'doceo,' 'cogo,' 'veto,' prohibeo,' etc.). There is a tendency, however, even in the most classical prose writers to extend the first at least of these two classes by including verbs which do not properly require any such complement, and which therefore, if any further definition of their scope or purpose were needed, would in strictness have found it rather by means either of some subordinate clause or of one of those substantival forms of the verb which could indicate its

special relation more exactly than is possible with the caseless infinitive. Thus we find with the infinitive, 'studeo,' Cic.; 'nitor,' Nep.; 'quaero,' Cic.; 'tendo,' Liv.; 'pergo,' Cic.; 'persevero,' Cic. Many verbs hesitate between the two constructions, 'statuo facere' or 'ut faciam,' 'prohibeo facere' or 'quominus facias.' The poets go beyond the prose writers in this extension, greatly because their diction substitutes more highly-coloured and metaphorical verbs for the simpler ones of prose, gaudeo,' 'gestio,' ' amo,' 'ardeo,' for 'volo,' etc.; but Livy and Sallust anticipate some of the boldest poetical applications of this liberty.

It seems useless to seek a full explanation of each case in the doctrine that the infinitive was truly a substantive, which involves the further difficulty that we must explain in what relation (or 'case') it stands to the leading verb (see Conington's note on Virg. G. 1. 213). A Roman poet felt at once the influence of Greek usage, in which the infinitive never lost its substantival character, and of Latin precedents, which, if they may be traced ultimately to a similar source, had yet ceased to be coloured by any consciousness of it. That the infinitive is treated at times by Horace as a substantive is clear from such sentences as 'dulce et decorum est pro patria mori,' and from its conjunction with a substantive in the instances quoted below from Od. 2. 16. 39, Epp. 1. 19. 9.

The leading instances in Horace are, besides such common verbs as 'valeo,' 'mitto,' 'parco,' 'fugio,'

'certat tollere,' Od. 1. 1. 6 (cp. Virg. Aen. 2. 64 certant illudere '). furit reperire,' Od. 1. 15. 27.

'trepidavit claudere,' Od. 2. 4. 23.

'laborat trepidare,' Od. 2. 3. 11 (cp. S. 1. 1. 112, 2. 3. 269, 2.8. 19, E. 1. 3. 2, 1. 20. 16, 2. 2. 196, A. P. 25, 168, 192, 435). 'occupat rapere,' Od. 2. 12. 28 (so 'occupat in agrum Sabinum transire,' Liv. 1. 30).

'urges summovere,' Od. 2. 18. 21.

'coniurata rumpere,' Od. 1. 15. 7 (cp. Sall. Cat. 52 'coniuravere cives patriam incendere ').

'dolens vinci,' Od. 4. 4. 62.

'invidens deduci,' Od. 1. 37. 30.

' dedit spernere,' Od. 2. 16. 39 (cp. Epp. 1. 16. 61, etc.).

'adimam cantare,' Epp. 1. 19. 9.

'fingit equum ire,' Epp. 1. 2. 64.
' vocatus levare,' Od. 2. 18. 40.
'imperor procurare,' Epp. 1. 5. 21.

'interpellet durare,' S. 1. 6. 128.

In the following instances the leading verb seems to be still more complete in itself, and the sense of 'purpose' (which in prose would have been expressed by means of a gerundive or supine or final clause) to be thrown more entirely upon the infinitive :

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te persequor frangere,' Od. 1. 23. 10.

'pecus egit visere montes,' Od. 1. 2. 8.

'quem virum sumis celebrare,' Od. 1. 123 (cp. 'res gestas sumis scribere,' Epp. 1. 3. 7).

'tradam ventis portare,' Od. 1. 26. 3 (cp. Virg. Aen. 1. 319 ‘dederatque comam diffundere ventis ').

'me expetit urere,' Epod. 11. 5.

2. With Adjectives.

It is this use which, though by no means confined to Horace among the poets (cp. Virg. E. 5. 1 'boni inflare,' Aen. 6. 164 'praestantior ciere,' etc.), and not without precedent even in the best Latin prose (for Cicero uses 'paratus' (cp. Hor. Epod. 1. 3) with an infinitive), is yet sufficiently frequent with him to form a noticeable feature of his style. The easiest cases are those of a participle (which passes into a verbal adjective) from a simple verb which would require or readily admit a complementary infinitive. Such are

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'sciens flectere,' Od. 3. 7. 25, compared with 'nescius cedere,' Od. 1. 6. 6.

'metuens tangere,' Od. 3. 19. 16, with ' timidus perire,' Od. 4. 9. 52 ; cp. audax perpeti,' Od. 1. 3. 25.

'doctus,' as a participle, Od. 3. 6. 27 (' institutus,' Od. 3. 8. 11); as

an adj. in 'docta psallere,' Od. 4. 13. 7, ‘ludere doctior,' Od. 3. 24. 56. Then we have indoctus ferre,' Od. 2. 6. 2, ‘indocilis pati,' Od. 1. 1. 18.

dignus' (=‘qui meret'), with an active infinitive, Epp. 1. 10. 48, with a passive, Od. 3. 21. 6, Sat. 1. 3. 24, I. 4. 3, 25, 1. 10. 72, A. P. 183, 283; 'indigna,' A. P. 231.

'idoneus dare,' Epp. 1. 16. 12. 'Fruges consumere nati' (Epp. 1. 2) is a step beyond this. 'Leviora tolli,' Od. 2. 4. II, and 'cereus flecti,' A. P. 163, also belong here, the adjectives being only more or less coloured forms of 'facilis,' and the construction arising from the conversion of the impersonal 'facile est hunc flectere' into a personal 'hic facilis est flecti.' We may add, perhaps, 'vultus nimium lubricus aspici,' Od. 1. 19. 8,='quem lubricum est aspicere.'

The following are the chief remaining instances :-
'callidus condere,' Od. 1. 10. 7; 'resonare,' 3. II. 4.

'cautus dignos assumere,' Sat. 1. 6. 51.

'catus iaculari,' Od. 3. 12. 10.

'prudens dissipare,' Epod. 17. 47.

'sollers ponere,' Od. 4. 8. 8.

'pertinax ludere,' Od. 3. 29. 53.

'efficax eluere,' Od. 4. 12. 20.

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'celer sequi,' Od. 1. 18. 18; 'volvere,' Od. 4. 6. 59; 'irasci,' Epp.

I. 20. 25.

'fortis tractare,' Od. 1. 37. 27; 'fortior spernere,' Od. 3. 3. 50.

'firmus pascere,' Epp. 1. 17. 47.

'piger ferre,' Sat. 1. 4. 12 (impiger vexare,' Od. 4. 14. 23).

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segnis solvere,' Od. 3. 21. 22.

'dolosus ferre,' Od. 1. 35. 28.

durus componere,' Sat. 1. 4. 8. veraces cecinisse,' Carm. Sec. 25. 'blandus ducere,' Od. 1. 12. 10. 'largus donare,' Od. 4. 12. 19.

'lenis recludere,' Od. 1. 24. 17; 'aperire,' Carm. Sec. 13.

'saevus fingere,' Epp. 1. 15. 30.

'impotens quidlibet sperare,' Od. 1. 37. 10.

'nobilis superare,' Od. 1. 12. 26.

'ridiculus absorbere,' Sat. 2. 8. 24.

'utilis aspirare,' A. P. 204.

The broad resemblance holds between all these that the infinitive names the action in relation to which the adjective is applicable. There is room, however, for considerable difference in the closeness of the relation between them, and even in its character.

On the first point we may compare 'celer irasci' or 'praesens tollere' with 'blandum quercus ducere.' In either of the first two cases the adjective and the infinitive are essential to one another-it is a mere accident of language that the 'irascibility' or the 'power of lifting' is not expressed in a single word-but in the third case the idea of each is complete the infinitive adds an illustration, almost a result, of the quality named by the adjective, it is almost='tam blandus ut ducat.'

On the second point we may notice the change in the relation of the infinitive (a) when the adjective to which it is appended is negative in sense. This is clear in such cases as 'indoctus ferre,'' timidus

perire,' 'piger ferre': it may cause some ambiguity when the negative character of the adjective is less clear, or where it would have been equally open to the poet to regard it from its positive side, and to make the infinitive the complement of the whole, not merely of the positive part, viz. the attribute denied or disparaged. Contrast, e. g. 'ferre iugum pariter dolosi' with 'cautum dignos assumere,' 'callidum condere,' etc.; (b) in such cases as the last three given above, where the adjective and the infinitive seem to have changed places, where it is no longer an internal quality of the subject leading to some action, but an action which is the cause or ground of the attribute, no longer brave so as to conquer,' but 'famous because he conquers.' 'Niveus videri,' Od. 4. 2. 59 (like 'nefas videre,' Epod. 16. 14), seems to be more purely an imitation of a Greek idiom (Xeûkos ópâσðaɩ, ἀθέμιτον ἰδεῖν).



§ 1. Asclepiads.

Under this system are included five systems, composed of the following verses singly or in various combinations :

a. The lesser Asclepiad―

Maecenas atavis edite regibus.

B. The greater Asclepiad—

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Tu ne quaesieris scire nefas quem mihi quem tibi.

In these two verses the caesura is carefully kept, in a after the first, in B after the second choriambus. The only exception in Horace's writings is Od. 4. 8. 17 'Non incendia Carthaginis impiae.' In 1. 18. 16 and 2. 12. 25, the preposition gives a quasi-caesura.

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