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consuetudines Romanis mutasse, et canonicum divinae laudis officium in illas ecclesias invexisse memoratur.”” Certainly Azevedo is speaking of the offices of the canonical Hours, rather than of the liturgy; and so Mabillon also seems at least to do, although he begins with speaking of the “ritus sacrificandi:” but there is so great a connexion between the two in such enquiries as the present, that any information as regards the one, throws some light upon the other. We are left therefore to conjecture: and I think we may agree with Mr. Palmer,” who inclines to the Use of Gaul, that having been the nearest Christian province, and her Bishops the probable ordainers of the British. I would not appeal to the judgment of Bishop Stillingfleet as of much weight in this particular matter, so hastily does he seem in his Origines Britannicae to have settled questions of rituals and liturgies, and so much was he inclined to misrepresent his facts: still, it may not be amiss to add, that with his characteristic boldness, he decides the difficulty in the same way. Speaking of some ancient MSS. still extant, of the Gallican service, he tells us: “From these excellent monuments of antiquity compared together, we may, in great measure understand the true order and method of the communion service of that time, both in the Gallican and British Churches.” Presently the same writer assures us, that we may obtain from those records of the Gallican liturgy “a just and true account of the public service then used in Britain.”” The ancient Gallic Churches used the same order of prayers in the celebration of the Eucharist, although, as appears from three editions published by Thomasius, and

* De Lit. Gall. lib. i. cap.2.xiv. 180. To which l would refer the Compare also Gerbert. Vetus Lit. reader. Aleman. tom. i. p. 75. - * Origines Britannicæ. p. 240. * Origines Liturgica. wol. i. p.

from a fourth by Mabillon, the prayers themselves somewhat differed : a brief description of their arrangement is given by Martene in his excellent work, “De antiquis Ecclesiae ritibus.” He says: The Gallic liturgy began with an antiphon, which was sung by the choir. This was followed by a Preface or sermon to the people, in which the priest exhorted them to come with due reverence to the holy mysteries. Silence being then proclaimed, the priest saluted the people, and after their response, said a collect, which the people heard upon their knees. After the collect the choir sung the Trisagium, which was followed by the canticle, “Benedictus Dominus Deus Israel.” (These, however, were omitted during Lent.) Then came lessons from the Prophets and the Apostolic writings, after which the Hymn of the Three Children was sung. This was followed by the reading of the Gospel; before and after which the Trisagium was again sung, and the people gave the response, (still continued by tradition in the English Church,) “ Glory be to Thee, O Lord.” Afterwards the Bishop either himself preached, or, if he was infirm or ill, ordered a homily to be read by a priest or deacon. Then the appointed prayers were said by a deacon for the Hearers and Catechumens. These latter having been dismissed, and silence enjoined, the bread and wine were brought in, and an oblation of them made, whilst the choir sung an anthem called Sonum, or more properly, Sonus: which according to Martene, who is followed by Gerbert" and Le Brun," upon the authority of S. Germanus, answered to the Offertory of later times. Then the sacred Diptychs were read, the collect post nomina was said, the kiss of peace given, and the collect ad pacem said by the priest, after which the

" Tom. i. p. 98. See also Le ” De Cantu. tom. i. p. 116. Brun. Opera. tom. ii. p. 134. ... " Opera. tom. ii. p. 138.

Canon followed, which was very short. After the Consecration came the prayer post secreta ; “postea fiebat confractio et commixtio corporis Christi.” In the mean time the choir sung an anthem. This was followed by a collect, the Lord's prayer, and another collect. (It appears that the Lord's prayer was said by both the priest and people.) Before communion the blessing was given, if by the priest in this form : “Paw, fides, et caritas, et communicatio corporis et sanguinis Domini sit semper vobiscum.” During communion the Trecanum (it is doubtful what this was") was sung by the choir. Then one, or perhaps two collects were said, and the people Such therefore was the Use which the English Church most probably observed in celebrating the Holy Eucharist until the end of the sixth century. S. Augustine, there can be little doubt, brought with him the liturgy then authorized at Rome; he first landed about the year 597, during the lifetime of Pope Gregory himself. After his return, as Archbishop, he requested the Pope to decide upon some questions, and among them especially, what service was to be used in the Church, as the Gallican and Roman liturgies were not the same.” The answer was, that he might himself choose either; or select the liturgy which he thought most suitable from the various forms in the Catholic Church, provided only that he had regard to the circumstances and prejudices of the country, and the glory of God.

were dismissed.”

* See Martene: Anecd. tom. v. p. 90. And Gerbert. De Cantu. tom. i. p. 126. The latter has some important remarks upon the agreement in this part, as well as in others, of the Mozarabic and Gallican liturgies: a subject which would well repay an accurate examination, although we should not probably after a patient comparison, come to the same conclusion with Dr. Giles, who in a Life of Bede, prefixed to his Biographical Writing, quietly sets them down as the same: “the Gallican or Mozarabic Liturgy.” (P. xxij.) I regret to be obliged to pass the enquiry over, with only this brief remark: sufficient however, it may be, to excite the further interest of the reader. The Trecanum as a title, is not found in the Service of any other Church.

* Compare the account also of this Liturgy given by Mr. Palmer. Orig. Lit. vol. i. p. 158. And the satisfactory argument by which he would prove that it was originally

from the East, and not from Rome. See also Le Brun. Opera. tom. ii. p. 126. . A very curious point, of no little importance and well worth enquiry, is the similarity between the most ancient English and Irish MSS. now extant, and those of the East. Upon this I shall extract the observations of the author of a valuable modern publication, Westwood, Palaeographia sacra. He says, “the collation of many of these MSS. has also furnished additional (although unlooked for) evidence that the ancient church in these islands was independent of Rome, and that it corresponded, on the contrary, with the Eastern churches.” Pref. 1. Again; he alludes to an extraordinary similarity between the ornaments in the ancient Syriac MS. of Rabula, and those in the most ancient Anglo-Saxon MSS. particularly as regards a very peculiar and common pattern formed of several slender spiral lines united in the centre of a circle: and conti

The question of the Archbishop appears to me to be a very strong proof of the identity of the old British and the Gallican liturgies: if on his first coming he had not found any remnant of the earlier Church, or if the liturgy which it still observed was not the same, or nearly the same, as the Gallican, I do not see why any doubt or hesitation should have risen in his mind, as to the immediate introduction of the Roman Use. Had there been no prejudices to remove in the case of the British Churches which still existed in many, even though perhaps remote, parts of the island; prejudices which the holy missionary knew and felt were to be considered, and if possible to be indulged; if, I say, there had been none such, there does not seem any reason whatever to suppose,” but that he would have required everywhere the adoption of the Roman liturgy, to which he had been always accustomed. We learn also from the answer of S. Gregory, that although it differed from the Roman, yet that in his judgment the Gallican or (if we may so conclude it) the British liturgy contained nothing that was objectionable. . . . . . Naturally however the influence of S. Augustine and his successors led to the general adoption, in its main features, of the Roman liturgy: and it has been said, that the few manuscripts which have come down to us of the Anglo-Saxon age, are but transcripts of the sacramentary of S. Gregory.” But this, (as I am convinced a more accurate examination would shew, if my present subject more particularly required it,) is a somewhat loose and incorrect manner of speaking of them. In a general way only, it can be true: in the same way in which, about the middle of the 8th century, Egbert Archbishop of York, must be understood in one of the answers of his Dialogue.” I say must, as even a great upholder of the

nues, “these apparently trifling circumstances seem to me to prove

Respondit Gregorius papa. Novit fraternitas tua Romanae ecclesiae

more forcibly than the most labo-
rious arguments, the connexion be-
tween the early Christians in these
islands, and those of the East, so
strongly insisted upon by various
writers.” Note, upon the Psalter
of K. Athelstan. These remarks
have not the less weight because
they occur only incidentally, in a
work directed towards a totally dif.
ferent object.
* This is of great importance,
and I give the original from Bede.
“Secunda interrogatio Augustini.
Cum una sit fides, sunt ecclesia-
rum diversae consuetudines, et al-
tera consuetudo missarum in sancta
Romana ecclesia, atque altera in
Galliarum teneturf

consuetudinem, in qua se meminit
nutritam. Sed mihi placet, sive in
Romana, sive in Galliarum, seu in
qualibet ecclesia, aliquid invenisti
quod plus omnipotenti Deo possit
placere, sollicite eligas, et in An-
glorum ecclesia, quae adhuc ad fi-
dem nova est, institutione praecipua,
quae de multis ecclesiis colligere
potuisti, infundas. Non enim pro
locis res, sed pro bonis rebus loca
amanda sunt. Ex singulis ergo
quibusque ecclesiis quae pia, quae
religiosa, quae recta sunt, elige; et
haec, quasi in fasciculum collecta,
apud Anglorum mentes in consue-
tudinem depone.” Hist. Eccles.
lib. i. cap. xxvii. 60.

* I do not overlook, but rather into England: and to which I attriwould remind the reader of the bute no weight in this respect. fact, that he might himself consider * Origines Liturgicae. vol. i. p. it, of the Bishop and congregation 186. who accompanied Queen Bertha “ “Nos autem in ecclesia An

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