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VERE

ERE dignum et justum est, æquum et salutare, nos tibi

semper, et ubique gratias agere: Domine sancte, Pater omnipotens, æterne Deus: per Christum Dominum nostrum. Per quem Majestatem tuam laudant Angeli, adorant Dominationes, tremunt Potestates. Cæli, cælorumque virtutes, ac beata seraphin, socia exultatione concelebrant. Cum quibus et nostras voces, ut admitti jubeas deprecamur, supplici confessione dicentes : Tunc sacerdos elevans aliquan- Sacerdos inclinatus dicit : Sanctulum brachia junctis manibus tus. Et cum dicit Benedictus dicat: Sanctus, et signet seip- qui venit, signum Crucis sibi

, sum dicens, Benedictus qui ve- producit a fronte ad pectus. nit in nomine Domini.

ANCTUS, Sanctus, Sanctus, Dominus Deus Sabaoth. Pleni

SAME

excelsis. Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini : osanna (Ho-
sanna, Rom.) in excelsis.
Postea sacerdos adorans cruci-
fixum dicat:

DORAMUS te,95 Christe,
et benedicimus tibi, quia

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Sala, in his additions to Bona, remarks that the words, " Osanna - in excelsis,” are added by the authority of the Church to this hymn: as if, quoting Natalis Alexander: “ ostendatur Adventum Domini in carne non solum humani generis in terra, sed et Angelorum in Coelis esse quodam modo salutem : quia dum nos redempti ad superna perducimur, eorum munerus Sathana cadente imminutus impletur.” Micrologus also observes : cap. xj.

Presbyter post finitam secretam orditur Præfationem in Canonem, in qua supernorum Civium Ordines merito connumerantur, quia iisdem mysteriis, quæ ibi conficiuntur, juxta attestationem Sanctorum Patrum, interesse creduntur, unde et Angelicum Trisagium subjungitur.”

93 The rest of this passage “ Dominus Deus Sabaoth- -osanna in excelsis,” omitted in Missal Leofric.

94 In omnibus festis beatæ Mariæ virginis ac etiam commemorationibus ejusdem, dicitur sic: Benedictus Mariæ filius qui venit in nomine Domini, osanna in excelsis.Rubr. Miss. Ebor.

95 There are some other ancient Missals in which may be found interpolated prayers of this kind. The present is cited by Cardinal Bona from “ Petrus ab Opmeer in assertione Missæ. p. 362," but with this addition at

BANGOR.

EBOR.

SARUM. ter: corpore inclinato donec direrit. Ac petimus.

the beginning. “ Domine Jesu Christe Fili Dei vivi adjuva infirmitatem meam, et conforta me nunc in hac hora: quia imperfectum meum vident oculi tui. Adoramus. &c.” Micrologus, cap. xij. attempts to prove that such interpolations are most objectionable (as certainly they are, but not) because such never were allowed to be made without the highest authority, in

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Rom.

HERFORD. per sanctam crucem tuam redemisti mundum. Miserere nobis, qui passus es pro nobis.

the Canon. For certainly the Canon cannot be said to begin until the “ Te igitur.” As I mention presently, the Canon was not only to be said secreto, but was also called secretum: whereas the Prefaces are said “clara voce;" and there is no special direction to the contrary as regards this prayer, in the Hereford Use.

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E igitur, clementissime Pater, per Jesum Christum

Filium tuum Dominum nostrum supplices rogamus ac petimus :

(Hic, Sarum et Bangor.) erigens se (sacerdos, Ebor.) osculetur altare a dextris sacrificii dicens :

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for ex

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(Canon Missæ.) Oratio quæ incipit, Te igitur, quamque sequitur Pater, dicitur Canon, quippe quæ tanquam regula in Sacrificio offerendo servanda, nunquamque mutanda præscripta fuerit. Le Brun. tom. i. p. 197.

The whole Canon of the Mass was sometimes called Secretum : as, ample, in the third decree of the Synod of York, 1195, ich respects the correctness of the Manuscripts used in the public Services, and begins :

Quia secretum missæ frequenter invenitur, aut scriptorum falsitate, aut librorum vetustate corruptum, ita ut legi distincte non possit,” &c. Wilkins. Conc. i. 501.

The title Canon, as applied to this part of the Service, is as old certainly as at least the time of Gregory the Great: who himself speaks of his baving directed the Lord's prayer to be said “ mox post Canonem.” Strictly the Canon ends before the Lord's prayer: and in many Manuscripts a different style of writing begins again.

But it may not be improper to mention some other titles which have been given to this portion of the Liturgy. Precem vocat Innocentius I. in Epist. ad Decentium : et Vigilius P. ad Profuturum, canonicæ precis textum.Gerbert. tom. i. p. 122. Again, the same author, p. 446, quoting Amalarius, “ Ab illo loco, ubi secretam dicit episcopus usque ad AGNUS Dei, totum illud vocat Augustinus Orationes.And Gavantus bas collected several others. Regula ecclesiastica : from S. Ambrose. Legitimum. Optatus. Secretum. S. Basil. Ordo precum. Isidore. Actio, and, Regula, by Walafrid Strabo. (Thesaurus Sacr. Rit. tom. i. 105.) To these I must not omit to add Lyndwood’s explanation.

“ Licet quidam simplices sacerdotes intelligant canonem, quidquid est in secreto missæ: et stricte intelligendo Canonem, puto quod Hostiensis dicit verum. Est namque Canon idem quod regula. Missa vero proprie dicitur Eucharistiæ consecratio. Alia autem omnia, quæ vel sacerdos dicit, vel chorus canit,

Canon Millae.

HERFORD.

Rom. Hic inclinet se sacerdos ad al- Sacerdos extendens et jungens tare junctis manibus dicendo : manus, elevans ad cælum oculos,

et statim demittens, profunde inclinatus ante altare, manibus

super eo positis, dicit : E igitur, clementissime Pater, per Jesum Christum

Filium tuum Dominum nostrum supplices rogamus ac petimus :

Hic osculetur al- Osculatur altare: tare, et erigat se dicendo :

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gratiarum actiones sunt, vel certe obsecrationes. Unde Canon Missæ vere dicitur regula illa, per quam Eucharistia consecratur: large tamen intelligendo Canonem Missæ juxta communem intellectum simplicium sacerdotum, denotat totum secretum missæ post præfationem.” Lib. i. tit. 10. Ut Archidiaconi. verb. Canon.

(Junctis manibus.) In this the English Uses agree, but do not add what has always been the practice of the Roman Church, to repeat the whole Canon, manibus extensis, unless otherwise expressly ordered. It would seem however that very anciently such was the custom, in some parts at least of this country also. For of S. Dunstan we read; “ Eo quippe inter sacrosanctum Missarum solemnia sacras manus extendente, et Deum Patrem omnipotentem, ut ' Ecclesiam suam Catholicam pacificare, custodire &c.'interpellante, nivea columba de coelo descendit.” Vita S. Dunstani. cap. xxxij.

Micrologus says: “Notandum autem, per totum Canonem Dominicæ Passionis commemorationem potissimum actitari, juxta Domini præceptum in Evangelio : Hæc, quotiescunque feceritis &c. Unde et ipse Sacerdos per totum Canonem in expansione manuum, non tam mentis devotionem, quam Christi extensionem in cruce designat, juxta illud : Expandi manus meas tota die.Cap. 16. So also, Radulph. Tungr. Prop. 23. But the later Ritualists take a different view.

3 There is no doubt that for some two or three centuries at least before the Reformation, the Church of England, according to her different Uses, yet agreed in all of them with the rest of the Western Church, in this point: that the whole of the Canon, from the Te Igitur to the Per oninia sæcula culorum was said secreto, or submissa voce. It is a vulgar but not unfrequent error to suppose, that by secreto is meant no utterance at all, or even what is commonly called mumbling: for there are many orders of the English Church, which I shall have occasion to cite presently, which prove that a

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