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HERFORD. ROM. Ad introitum missae postquam Sacerdos paratus* cum ingredisacerdos induerit se amictum et tur ad altare, facta illi debita

et albam,” that the Chasuble (for example) was not also necessary, he might as well attempt to prove from the York rubric, that in that Church the Celebrant was not vested at all, and was simply to wash his hands. The following is a Canon of an early Council. ** Nullus Presbyter sine amictu, alba, et stola, et fanone, et casula ullatenus Missam celebrare præsumat. Et hæc sacra vestimenta mundissima sint, et in nitido loco intra Ecclesiam collocentur. Nec Presbyter, cum his induitur, extra Ecclesiam exeat: quia hoc lex divina prohibet.” Regino Prumiensis. De Ecc. Discip. Lib.i. p. 57. * (Lavat manus suas. Ebor.) I cannot decide whether the rite of washing the hands was peculiar to the Church of York, as the other English Uses omit all mention of it: nor, whether in that and in the Church of Hereford the Hymn Veni Creator, and prayers were said at the putting on of the Vestments. It is not probable that the washing would be omitted: an observance so universal and one which, although a mere ceremony, almost the light of nature would suggest. Euclio says (as cited by Cardinal Bona) “ Nunc lavabo ut rem divinam faciam.” Apud Plautum, in Aulularia, iv. 2. The Christian Church has observed it from the earliest ages. S. Paul alludes to it in his Epistle to Timothy : “ I will therefore that men pray every where, lifting up holy hands.” Ep. 1. c. ii. ^ This, we must remember, just after he has been speaking of the Blessed Eucharist. Tertulliam asks: ** Quæ ratio est, manibus quidem ablutis, spiritu vero sordente orationem obire?” de orat. cap. xi. S. Augustin also: “ Si erubescimus, ac timemus Eucharistiam manibus sordibus tangere, plus timere debemus ipsam Eucharistiam intus in anima polluta suscipere.” Ser. 244. * (Sacerdos paratus. Rom.) ** Sacerdos celebraturus Missam, prævia confessione sacramentali, quando opus est, et saltem Matutino cum Laudibus absoluto, orationi aliquantulum vacet, et orationes pro temporis opportunitate dicat. Deinde accedit ad locum in sacristia, vel alibi præparatum, ubi paramenta, aliaque ad celebrationem necessaria habentur: accipit Missale, perquirit Missam, perlegit, et signacula ordinat ad ea quæ dicturus est. Postea lavat manus, dicens orationem. * Da, Domine, virtutem manibus meis ad abstergendam omnem maculam: ut sine pollutione mentis et corporis valeam tibi servire.'” The Roman Missal can be procured by any one: I shall therefore refer he reader to it, and recommemd him to read carefully, if he wishes to understand the subject, the ** Ritus servandus in Celebratione Missæ,” at the beginning of the book, from which the above is extracted.

SARUM. BANGOR. EBoR. sacris vestibus dicat cutor officii missam dicat hanc orahymnum : cum suis mi- tionem : - nistris se indu

ant.* I)um induit se sacerdos vestibus dicat hunc hymnum : ENI Creator spiritus: mentes tuorum visita: imple superna gratia, quæ tu creasti pectora. etc. V. Emitte spiritum tuum et creabuntur. R. Et renovabis faciem terræ.

Oratio. EUS cui omne cor patet et omnis ARGIRE sensivoluntas loquitur, et quem nullum bus nostris omni

latet secretum: purifica per infusionem potens Pater: ut sicut sancti Spiritus cogitationes cordis nos- hic abluuntur inquinatri: ut perfecte te diligere et digne menta manuum, ita a HERFORD. IRoM. albam: stans ante altare incipiat reverentia signat se signo CruAntiphonamn : cis* a fronte ad pectus, et clara

* ** Et si episcopus celebraverit tres habeat diaconos et tres subdiaconos ad minus in omni festo ix. lec. et in omnibus dominicis quando ipse exequitur officium divinum. In die vero Pentecostes et in die coenæ, vij. diaconos habeat, et vij. subdiaconos et tres acolytos. In aliis vero duplicibus festis per annum quinque habeat diaconos tantum, et quinque subdiaconos, et tres acolytos. In die vero parasceves unum solum habeat diaconum.” Rubr. Miss. Bangor.

* (Signat se signo Crucis. Rom.) Ante omnem actum manus pingat Crucem. S. Hieron. Epist. 22. ad Eust. c. 16. et manu dextera, eae Justino Martyre ad Orthod. resp. ad. quæst. 118. et manu plena, hoc est, quinque digitis ad quinque vulnera Christi significanda: Durand. lib. ii. cap. 46. sed tribus digitis signum Crucis exprimendum esse, quia sub invocatione Trinitatis imprimitur, aiebat Innoc. III. lib. ii. cap. 45. et memorat Leo IV. Epist. ad Episcopos: ita ut manus a superiori descendat in inferius, et a dextera transeat ad sinistram : quia Christus de Coelo descendit in Terram, et a Judæis transivit ad Gentiles. Quidam tamen, subdit ille, a sinistra producunt in dexteram, quia de miseria transire debemus ad gloriam, sicut et Christus de morte transivit ad vitam. Gavanti Thes. Sac. Rituum, tom. i. p. 170. And so S. Ambrose has said ; that we make the sign of the Cross upon our forehead, that we may always be bold to confess: upon our breast, that we may remember to love: upon our arm, that we may be ready at all times to work.

voce dicit :

N nomine Patris, et Filii, et
Spiritus sancti. Amen.

Venerable Bede insists strongly upon the necessity of teachingthe people to use this Sign : he is writing to Archbishop Egbert. ** Eorum quoque, qui in populari adhuc vita continentur, solicitam te necesse est curam gerere, ut—sufficientes eis doctores vitæ salutaris adhibere memineris, et hoc eos inter alia discere facias, quibus operibus maxime Deo placere, a quibus se debeant, qui Deo placere desiderant, abstinere peccatis,—qua divinam clementiam supplicantes debeant devotione precari, quam frequenti diligentia signaculo se dominicæ crucis, suaque omnia adversum continuas immundorum spirituum insidias, necesse habeant munire, &c.” Bedae. Op. Hist. Minora, p. 221. We must not forget that Bede lived in an age which had not experienced the abuse, and knew only the proper use of this Holy Sign. As we go on, the reader will observe too many evidences of its superstitious repetition. It is now removed altogether from the Liturgy of the Church of England, and far better is it that it should be so, than that it should be a means by which people might ignorantly be led to stumble and to take offence. The proper use of the sign of the Cross may well be defended upon many grounds, but not an improper excess.

Speaking in another place, upon this sign of the Cross, Merati says in his additions to Gavantus, tom. ii. p. 108. ** Aliqui illud tribus digitis dextræ manus efformant sub invocatione Sanctissimæ Trinitatis, alii vero duobus, ad duas Christi naturas et voluntates contra Monophysitas et Monothelitas indicandas.”

SARUM. BANGoR. Ebor. laudare mereamur. te mundentur pollutioPer Christum. Per Domi- nes mentium,” et cres

num. In uni- cat in nobis augmentate ejusdem. tum sanctarum virtu

tum. Per. Deinde sequatur Antiph. An.

NTROIBO 8 ad al- NTROIBO ad altare. - tare. Deinde seq.

Ps. Judicameo Deus, Ps. Judica. Ps. Judica me Deus. et discerne. et discerne. Totus psalmus dicatur Gloria patri: Cum Gloria patri. cum Gloria patri. sicut erat. Deinde dicitur ant. Amt.

NTROIBO ad al- NTROItare Dei, ad Deum BO. qui laetificat juventutem mean.

" (Mentium. Ebor.) My edition has, by a plain typographical error, 771471M247m.

.." (Junctis manibus. Rom.) “In Missa semperita persistit, nisiquidpiam agendum impediat.” Le Brun. Explicatio Missae. tom. i. p. 51.

* (Introibo. Sarum.) This very ancient commencement of the Service was most appropriate. Some writers have said that S. Ambrose alludes to it, as being used in his time in the Church of Milan: but, as others, Bona and Gavantus, &c. have pointed out, that Father in the place cited, is not treating of the Communion, but of the Newly-baptized, of Baptism, and Confirmation. “His abluta plebs” are his words, “dives insignibus ad Christi contendit Altaria dicens, Introibo, &c.” There is no doubt however that it was very anciently used in this place, for Micrologus speaks of it, cap. 23. “Paratus, sacerdos venit ad Altare dicens Antiphonam.” It is remarkable that it is not appointed to be said in the Bangor Use.

* (Judica me. Sar.) Up to the earliest ages of which any record remains, we find examples of commencing the Liturgy with a Psalm : but it was not universal; and for the four first Centuries at least there was a variety of practice. It is not possible to decide what Psalms in particular were appointed, or even whether in the first ages the later practice of a fixed Psalm was observed. Durand says, lib. iv. cap. 7. that Pope Coelestin I. originally appointed this particular psalm. This would have been about the year 430. But it would seem, from an old Ordo Romanus, that this Pope merely ratified the custom of saying a Psalm. A French Ritualist of little or no authority, Claude de Vert, (of some considerable learning, but excessive prejudice towards many peculiar conceits of his own,) has laid it down that the custom of saying this psalm Judica is not older than the XIVth Century. In which he is confuted by innumerable examples to the contrary: and we may conclude that, (though we cannot fix it either to the time of Pope Coelestine or of S. Ambrose, to whom also the institution of it has been attributed, yet) for more than 500 years, it had been so used in this part of the Liturgy. The Mozarabic Liturgy appoints the Antiphon, but omits the Psalm. This the Church of Rome now follows, in Masses for the dead, and during the days between Passion Sunday and Easter Eve: at which season the question would be inappropriate, “Quare tristises, anima mea: et quare conturbas me?” But the Antiphon is not omitted: which is said to be, because though the signs of joy are not allowed at such times, yet the reason and the motive may nevertheless be spoken of: and therefore the Priest may still say: “Introibo ad altare Dei, ad Deum qui laetificat juventutem mean.”

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