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HERFor D. RoM. evangelium thurificet medium dium altaris et Celebrans bealtaris tantum : nunquam thu- medicit incensum, ut supra : rificetur lectrinum ante pro- Deinde Diaconus genuflerus muntiationem evangelii. ante altare, manibus junctis dicit:
conlatione sedemus, et panem nostrum mandicamus.” Etherius. lib. i. de Incarnat. -
The laying aside of staffs alluded to just above, was not a very early practice: but was introduced about the 8th Century, for Amalarius speaks of it, and lasted through the next three or four. It was then the custom for the people to stand during the whole Service, and, being long, they rested themselves on their staffs. Their use ceased altogether in the Western Church, when seats and settles were introduced. See Sala's note to Bona. tom. iii. p. 153. We learn from S. Chrysostom, Hom. 63, that in the Greek Church, during the Gospel, the Emperor laid aside his crown.
I must add to this note an extract from a very rare book, written by one as it was then called “of the new learning,” about the year 1529: the full title is, “A worke entytled of the olde god and the newe, of the olde faythe and the newe, of the olde doctryne and the newe, or orygynall begynnynge of Idolatrye.” The author is describing some of the ceremonies of the Mass. “But what shall Isaye of the gospell, when it is song? Oh, how goodly ceremonies are then done.—There is borne a banner of sylke and garnyshed with a goodly crosse, in token of the victorious and blessed tryumphe whiche Jesu Chryste made of subduing the worlde vnto hym selfe by the doctryne of the gospell.—Then afterwardes a preest beareth a sencer of siluer makyng a fumigation and sauour of ensence, as long as the gospell is in readynge to sygnyfy our inwarde affection towarde christ.—There is also borne aboute the gospell boke rychely couered with golde and siluer, garnyshyd with precyous stones.—Afterwardes there thundreth a great bell, by which we do sygnyfy our chrysten preestly and apostolycall offyce:—last of all the gospell is borne about to euery person in the quyer, and offered forth to be kyssed:—and we do go aboute to gette glorie in the syght of the lay people, to whome the gospell is not in lyke manner offered to be kyssed.” Sign. M. 4. This is an important volume in such respects, as regards facts: and is written in a lively satirical style, but with very much of that indecent and almost blasphemous ribaldry, which characterizes so many of the books of the Reformers at that time. Its author was, it seems from his own account, a chaplain or minor-canon of some Cathedral, and disappointed at not having obtained better preferment: which accounts for much of his virulence against others of higher dignity. The “Old god and the newe” was strictly prohibited by a Royal Proclamation, in the year 1530: see Wilkins, Concilia, vol. iii. p. 737. I have quoted the above from a copy in my possession.
SARUM. BANGor. - Ebor.
Deinde accipiat tertum, scilicet librum Dum petit diaconus beÆvangeliorum, et humilians se ad sacer- medictionem: dotem stantem coram altari: versa facie
ad meridiem ita dicat:
June domne benedicere.” respondeat sacerdos di
Sacerdos respondeat: Ce??S : OMINUS sit in corde tuo et ore OMINUSaperiat 7 tuo ad pronuntiandum sanctum tibi os ad legenevangelium Dei. In nomine Patris et dum et nobis aures ad Filii et Spiritus sancti. Amen.” intelligendum sanctum
evangelium Dei pacis. In nomine Patris etc.
* (Jube domne benedicere.) This, says Le Brun, was a manner of address formerly much in use, as being a mark of humiliation and respect. So, anciently among the Greeks, the Deacon, when he warned the Faithful who were assembled in their solemn service, either to rise or sit, did not say Rise or Sit, but merely “Jubete,” as if it were, command yourselves to do so and so.
The word Domne is a contraction from Dominus. The latter was appropriated in its strict use to the Deity alone : and Domnus or Domna, in the middle ages, was a title of great respect, and applied only to eminent dead saints, or living people who occupied important offices in the Church: as for example, the officiating Priest during the celebration of the Eucharist. See also Du Cange upon the word.
Upon this request and the reply, Peter Damian has well observed: “Lecturus magnae humilitatis gratia, non a Sacerdote, sed ab eo, cui Sacerdos jusserit, se postulat benedici dicens: Jube Domne benedicere. Sacerdos autem, ut tantae humilitate vicem reddat, non subjecto cuiquam benedicendi delegat officium, nec per semetipsum benedictionem dare praesumit: sed potius, ut a Deo, qui est super omnia benedictus, praerogetur, exposcit.” De Dominus vobiscum. cap. ii.
When the Pope officiates at Matins on the day of the Nativity, before the ninth Lection which he then reads, he does not say Domne, but Jube Domine benedicere : for he is supposed to be addressing not man, but God Himself: and no response is made: for the greater cannot be blessed by the inferior. The Choir answers simply “ Amen.” Some bishops, (and I confess I do not see the object of this rule) in their own Churches at Matins are addressed by an inferior, ** Jube Domne benedicere,'' to which they make the usual reply and benediction, and themselves read the appointed Lection. The Caerimoniale Episc. now orders the same rite to be observed by all Bishops, as by the Bishop of Rome; unless an Archbishop or one of higher rank be present. ** Si vero adesset aliquis Prælatus major se.” Lib. ii. cap. 5.
** ** Si autem sacerdos per semetipsum celebret, dicat privatim: Jube domne benedicere. Et postea dicat ipsemet. Dominus sit in corde meo et in ore meo ad pronuntiandum sanctum evangelium Dei. In nomine Patris. &c.” Rubr. Sar.
Et sic procedat diaconus per medium chori, ipsum textum super sinistram mamum solenniter gestando ad pulpitum* accedat, thuribulario et ceroferario precedentibus. 2uandocumque enim legitur epistola in pulpito, ibidem legatur et evangelium. Et cum ad locum legendi pervenerint: textum ipsum subdiaconus accipiat ; et a sinistris ipsius diaconi quasi oppositus ipsum tertum dum evangelium
EboR. Et diacomus dicat : A mihi Domine SermOnem reCtum et bene sonantem in os meum, ut placeant tibi verba mea et omnibus audientibus propter nomen tuum in vitam æternam. Amen.
legitur teneat : ceroferariis diacono assistentibus: uno a dexteris et reliquo a sinistris ad eum conversis. Thuribularius vero stet post diaconum ad eum conversus. Et semper legatur evangelium versus aquilonem.* Cum autem inceperit evangelium : post Dominus vobis
** This place was in some countries from the benediction which always immediately preceded the advance to it, vulgarly called ** the Jube.” Vide Le Brun. tom. i. p. 110, and Micrologus. cap. ix. It was always a high place. ** Evangelium in alto loco legitur, quia in monte prædicasse perhibetur, ideo etiam in sublimi legitur, quia sublimia sunt Evangelica præcepta.” Gemma Animæ. cap. xvi. ** De Pulpito.” Compare also Alcuin : “ Defertur Evangelium ad analogium, præcedentibus cereis.” De div.
Officiis. Bibl. Patrum. Auct. tom. i. p. 280. And Amalarius, lib. iij. cap. 17. ** Lector et cantor in gradum ascendunt, in more antiquorum :” and, cap. 18. “ Tribunal vocat Cyprianus gradum, super quem ascendit
diaconus ad legendum.** * There is no little difference in the old books, as to the place where, and the quarter towards which the Gospel should be read. When as was very anciently the custom, the men and the women were divided, the Gospel it would seem, was always read towards the south side, where the men sat. Amalarius. De Off. lib. iii. c. 2. distinctly speaks of this arrangement: and an old Ordo Romanus takes it for granted that on entering a Church one would have the men upon the right hand, or south side, and the women on the north. See also Amalarius. Ecloga. cap. xiij. Printed in Georgius. Appendix. tom. iii. p. 350. ** Diaconus vero stat versus ad meridiem, ad quam partem viri solent confluere.” The original reason why the men were addressed especially, appears matural enough : viz. that they are the chief objects of the Church's teaching in her public Offices, and from them the women are to learn at home: as S. Paul admonishes. Other customs gradually crept in, and a mystical reason was given why the Gospel should be read towards the north ; as we have seen (Note 42) was the custom of the Church of Hereford : ** ut per Dei verbum Aquilonis, hoc est, dæmonis, pravi noxiique halitus disjiciantur.” Le Brun. i. 111. And the Gemma Animæ. cap. xvj. ** Nunc autem secundum inolitum morem se (Diaconus) ad Aquilonem vertit, ubi feminæ stant, quæ carnales significant, quia Evangelium carnales a spiritualibus vocat. Per Aquilonem quoque Diabolus designatur, qui per Evangelium impugnatur. Per Aquilonem etiam infidelis populus denotatur, cui Evangelium prædicatur, ut ad Christum convertatur.” This last reason is taken from a very old Sacramentary, which says: “ Diaconus dum legit, sistat versus ad Aquilonem, quia frigidis in fide prædicatur Evangelium.” Sala. Notes to Bona. tom. iii. p. 153. But he does not say what Book. “ Ex quodam libro Sacramentorum :” quoting Marteme. Anecdot. tom. v. 1587.
I shall only further make an extract from the will of Maud, Lady Mauley: dated in 1438. ** My body to be buried in the Church om the south side of the Altar, where the Gospels are usually read.” Testamenta Vetusta. p. 235.
* Sequentia was said when the Gospel was taken from the middle ofone of the four Gospels: Initium, when it happened to be the beginning of either of the four. On the four days of the Great Week, neither Sequentia nor Initium were said, but ** Passio Domini Nostri Jesu Christi.” Thus, in the Rites of the Church of Durham : ** Within the Abbye Church uppon Good Friday, there was marvelous solemne service, in the which service time, after the Passion was sung, two of the eldest Monkes did take a goodly large Crucifix. &c." p. 9.