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SARUM. BA NGor. - EBOR.
ter deponat :
in recessu de
cum cereis ad
ris dimittant. 2uando epistola legitur** duo pueri in superpelliciis facta inclinatione ad altare ante gradum chori in pulpitum per medium chori ad Gradale* incipiendum se et canitur Gradale, præparent, et suum versum cantandum. Dum versus gradalis canitur duo de superiori gradu ad Alleluya* cantandum cappas sericas se induant. Et ad pulpitum per medium chori accedant. Sequatur Alleluya. Finito Alleluya, se- et Alleluya vel Tracquatur Sequentia.* tus* vel Tropus*9 se
deat cum ministris
** ** Episcopus tribus horis Missæ sedet, scilicet dum Epistola legitur, dum Graduale, et Alleluya canitur: quia Christus tribus diebus inter doctores sedisse legitur in tempto.” Gemma Animæ. cap. xij.
* (Gradale. Sar. &c.) This was a verse or response which varied with the day, and was so called, not as some have supposed, from the steps of the Altar, but of the Pulpit or Ambo upon which it was sung. Cassander, from an old exposition of am Ordo Romanus, has put this beyond a doubt; ** Responsorium, quod ad Missam dicitur, pro distinctione aliorum Graduale vocatur, quia hoc psallitur in Gradibus, cætera vero ubicunque voluerit Clerus.” Opera. p. 44. Durand says: “ Dicitur graduale, vel gradale, a gradibus scilicet humilitatis. Significans ascensus nostros a virtute in virtutem. pertinet ad opera activæ vitæ, ut notetur nos operibus respondere eis quæ in lectione audivimus : scilicet prædicationem.” Lib. iv. cap. 19. Some authors suppose (see Cavalierus, tom. v. cap. x. 13., and Bellarmine, Controv. lib. vj. 70.) that the Gradual, whose first author is said to have been Pope Celestine, was appointed, ** ne illud tempus, quo Diaconus ab altari recedens, et in suggestum ascendens in silentio elaberetur.” This seems a very likely origin, and serves also to account for its name. * (Alleluya. Sar. &c.) I need scarcely say, that this as well as the Tract, Sequence, &c. not only varied, but was sometimes omitted. There is an order in the Penitential of Archbishop Theodore, which is important, as regards this. “Laicus in ecclesia juxta altare non debet lectionem recitare admissam, nec in pulpito Alleluia cantare, sed psalmos tantum aut responsoria, sine Alleluia.” Thorpe. Ancient Laws and Institutes. vol. ii. p. 58. In the 8th Century, the second Council of Cloveshro in its 27th Canon, gave some allowance to the same effect. Vide. Wilkins. Concilia. tom. i. p. 99. Gerbert de Musica, should be especially consulted : tom. i. p. 56. * (Sequentia. Sar.) Du Cange, says, “Canticum exultationis, quae et Prosa dicitur :” and there seems to be no doubt, that, at least anciently, these terms were applied to the same thing. Compare Bona, tom. iii. p. 141, and Georgius. Lit. Rom. Pontif. tom. 2. ccvij. They, as the Tropes, were introduced about the 10th Century, and in many Churches vast numbers
Finita epistola dicatur Gradale Graduale,
et Alleluya vel Tractus secun- Tractus vel Alleluia cum Versu dum quod tempus evigit. aut Sequentia ut tempus postulat.
SARUM. BANGoR. - Ebor. In fine alleluia, vel sequentiae, vel tractus diacomus” antequam accedat ad evan- usque ad e
were used, so that in some even every day had its proper Sequence. The Church of Rome never admitted them to so great an extent into her Liturgy, nor does it appear that they were in such excess at any time in the Church of England. The most common opinion as to their author, or rather first introducer of them, (for as time went on, they had many authors) is, that the earliest was composed by Notker, abbot of S. Gall, in the diocese of Constance, about A. D. 900. There have not been wanting writers who have not hesitated, though without a shadow of authority, to attribute to them so high an antiquity as the age of Gelasius, and S. Gregory. At the revision of the Roman Liturgy, in the 16th Century, all the sequences were removed, except four: these are: Victima Paschali, at Easter: Veni Sancte Spiritus, at Whitsuntide: and Lauda Sion Salvatorem, upon Corpus Christi day. The fourth which was retained, is the very famous Dies irae, dies illa, in the Missa defunctorum. Strictly speaking this last is improperly called, a sequence: because in that service in which it occurs, there ought not to be,
neither is there, any hymn peculiarly of joy. It may very rightly be called, a Prose, a name given as I have said to the sequences, because though written in a species of rythm, they are not limited by any of the common rules of metre. I may add, these sequences are said to have been so called, because they followed the Epistle. I must again refer the reader to the Dissertation on Service Books, Monumenta Rit. vol. i. and if he wishes to examine the subject fully, he will find an admirable treatise upon it in Georgius. tom. 2. ccv. &c.
* (Tractus. Ebor.) “Cantus Ecclesiastici species.” Du Cange. Durand says, “Dicitur Tractus a trahendo: quia tractim et cum asperitate vocum, et prolixitate verborum canitur.” Lib. iv. cap. 21. It was opposed to the Alleluia: the one being for the seasons of joy and triumph, the other of sorrow and abasement. Almost all the Ritualists agree with Durand and the . earlier writers from whom he derived his authorities, as to the origin of the name: Merati adds in his note to Gavantus: “Vere dicitur a trahendo: quia revera continuata serie modulationis unius Cantoris non interrupta responsionibus aliorum intercinentium peragebatur. Hoc autem est discrimen inter Responsorium et Tractum, quod primo Chorus respondet, Tractui vero nemo. Tractus totus dicebatur ab uno solo Cantore, qui erat diversus ab illo, qui cantabat Graduale, sive Responsorium.” Tom. i. p. 93.
The custom of saying some response, either gradual, or tract, or sequence, after the Epistle, seems to be as old at least as the time of S. Augustine. He says, “Apostolum audivimus, psalmum audivimus, evangelium audivimus.” Serm. 8. But it would appear that then an entire psalm was sung, a remnant of which ancient practice was preserved in the Salisbury, York, Hereford, and Bangor Missals, upon the first Sunday in Lent, and on Passion Sunday. Probably the new mode of a verse or two only, became general about the end of the 5th Century: because Leo the Great
HERFORD. - Rom. His finitis diaconus antequam His finitis Diacomus depomit liprocedat ad pronuntiandum brum Evangeliorum super me
speaks of the whole psalm, (A.D. 450), but in the Sacramentary of S. Gregory (A.D. 600) the shorter gradual or response is found. See, Romsée. Opera. tom. iv. p. 121.
* (Tropus. Ebor.) Est quidam versiculus, qui praecipuis festivitatibus cantatur; et continet tria, videlicet Antiphonam, Versum, et Gloriam. Ita Durandus. Ration. lib. iv. c. 5. qui haec subdit lib. vi. c. 114. “Hi autem versus Tropi vocantur, quasi laudes ad antiphonas convertibiles: Tpóroc enim Graece, conversio dicitur Latine.” Du Cange. Gloss. It is not easy to say what is meant by the use of the term Trope in this place; possibly the sequence is intended, for the true Tropi were attached to the Introit. Even so used they were of late introduction, and did not obtain universal acceptance. No example of one has occurred before the xjth. Century. Certainly the Monastic Uses were more full of them, than the Diocesan: and we find prayers with such interpolations in some of their Missals: in one sense the addition to the Gloria in excelsis of which I have already spoken, may be called a Trope. In such a way, the Trope here spoken of may be an addition to the Tract, or Sequence. See more upon this, in the Dissertation upon the Service Books: verb. Troparium. Monumenta Ritualia. vol. i.
* (Diaconus. Sar.) “Antiquitus etiam evangelium legebatura Lectore, ut colligitur ex Epistola sancti Cypriani 33. et ex Concilio Toletano 1. cap. 2. Hoc postea munus majoris erga Evangelium honoris gratia Diaconis demandatum fuit, ut habetur ex Epistola S. Hieronymi ad Sabinianum. Evangelium Christi quasi Diaconus lectitabas. Et ex Epistola sancti Bonifacii Episcopi Moguntini ad Zachariam Pontificem, ubi conqueritur quosdam Diaconos, quamvis plures concubinas haberent, adhuc Evangelium legere. Apud Graecos etiamnum mos viget, ut Evangelium a Lectoribus publice legatur, uti refert Smithius in Epistola de praesenti Ecclesiae Graecae statu. pag. 155.” Cavalieri. Opera. tom. v. p. 30. This opens an important and interesting enquiry, which this is not the place to pursue, nor can I afford space. One thing seems certain: that the Gospel was read only by Deacons, long before the reading of the Epistle was in like manner removed from the office of the Lector: of which latter duty as attached to the Sub-deacon, we find no trace earlier than about the 7th Century.
It was to meet this that an alteration was made in the sixteenth Century in the Form of Ordination of Sub-deacons: “Accipe librum Epistolarum, et habe potestatem legendi eas in Ecclesia sancta Dei :” this was added. Amalarius in the 9th Century expresses his wonder at the new practice which was then gaining ground; “ut Subdiaconus frequentissime legat Lectionem ad Missam, cum hoc non reperiatur ex ministerio sibi dato in consecratione commissum, neque ex nomine suo.” Lib. 2. cap. xj. Micrologus speaks much in the same way. And even Durand in the 13th Cent. enquires, “Quare subdiaconus legit Lectionem ad Missam, cum non reperia
SARUM. BANGoR. Ebor. gelium pronuntiandum thurificet medium vangelium legendum. altaris tantum. Nunquam enim thurificetur lectrinum ante pronuntiationem evangelii.
tur hoc sibi competere, vel exeo nomine, vel ex ministerio sibi concesso 2° Lib. ii. cap. 8. The Canons and the Pastoral Epistle of Archbishop Ælfric, supply sufficient information as to the practice in his time, of the Anglo-Saxon Church. In the first of these, Can. 10, he lays down that, “Seven degrees are established in the Church : one is ostiarius, the second is lector, the third exorcista, the fourth acoluthus, the fifth subdiaconus, the sixth diaconus, the seventh presbyter.” In the succeeding Canons he explains the offices proper to each. “12. Lector is the reader, who reads in God's Church, and is ordained for the purpose of preaching of God's word.—15. Subdiaconus is truly underdeacon, who bears forth the vessels to the deacon, and humbly ministers under the deacon at the holy altar, with the housel vessels. 16. Diaconus is the minister who ministers to the mass-priest, and sets the offerings upon the altar, and also reads the Gospels at God's ministries.” Thorpe. Ancient Laws and Institutes. vol. ii. p. 349. The Pastoral Epistle is to the same purpose, p. 379, and clearly attaches the reading to the lector, and not to the sub-deacon. And not only the Canons and Epistle of Ælfric, but other very ancient writers attribute the Gospel-lection solely to the Deacon. Isidore in his 2nd Book of Divine Offices, “inter officia Diaconi,” includes “evangelizare.” Cap. 8. But, in short, as in another place I have spoken, Monumenta Rit. vol. i. upon the great reverence with which our fathers treated the book of the Gospels, whether the entire Gospels, or the selections to be read in the Liturgy, the Evangelisterium, lavishing upon it all kinds of outward ornament, and inside decorations of the pencil—so also, began the practice from the same feelings of pious gratitude and devotion, that the reading of the Gospel should be committed to none of less degree and order in the Church, than Deacons: “Diaconis tantum, qui ad sacerdotalem dignitatem proxime accedunt.” During the reading of it, the laity showed also greater signs of reverence: staffs were laid aside: Amalarius. lib. iii. 18. Gemma Anima. lib. i. 24. Durand. lib. iv. 24. &c. All rose, Constit. Apostol, lib. ii. cap. 57; and in some Churches listened to it, halfkneeling in a stooping posture. How high was the estimation in which the Gospels were held in the middle ages, is proved most clearly by the fact that some writers in the 8th Century did not hesitate to say, that in a remote sense the Gospel is the Body of Christ. “Et corpus Christi quod manducatur non solum panis et vini, quod super Altare offertur, sed et ipsum Evangelium Christi est; et cum Evangelium legimus et intelligimus, filii in circuitu mensae in una