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SARUM. BANGor. Ebor.
Deinde ponat diaconus thus in thuribulum et dicat prius sacerdoti:
OMINUS. Ab ipso benedicatur:
nomine Patris. etc.
which also prevailed: viz. of placing the Corporals under Altars: “ Vetera vero corporalia, quæ non fuerint idonea in altaribus, quando consecrantur, loco reliquiarum reponantur, vel in praesentia archidiaconi comburantur.” VVilkins. tom. i. p. 587. Upon this statute Lyndwood says, ** Loco reliquiarum. Sine quibus Altaria consecrari non debent.” Lib. iii. Tit. 26. But he goes on to say that they are not of the substance of the Consecration. ** Unde licet Reliquiæ non sint de substantia Consecrationis Altaris, ubi tamen non habentur Reliquiæ, solent aliqui apponere Corpus Christi." This is according to the old decree above, of the Council of Chalcuith. But Lyndwood cites several authorities why such a practice was not to be allowed. “ Non decere corpus Domini recondi in altari.” (Lyndwood does not saythis, but refers to Hostiensis, in summa, and I suppose it to be the place intended. See also Durant, De rit. lib. i. cap. xxv.) ** Alia ratio est, quia Corpus Christi est cibus animæ: item, quia non debet servari, nisi ad opus infirmorum : et non debet poni ad alium usum quam ad eum pro quo institutum est, nam debet comedi.—Quod tamen Corporale vel ejus pars detur in Consecratione altaris loco reliquiarum, non videtur esse absurdum.” From this gloss of Lyndwood, if such was required in the case, we might learn how unfounded is the remark which Johnson (Eccles. Laws, vol. i. 816,) makes upon the Canon of Chalcuith ; that in it, ** the Eucharistic symbols are set on a level with the relics of the Saints, and scarce that neither.” He
HERFORD. - RoM. sunt, et omnium Sanctorum : ut indulgere digneris omnia peccata mea. Amen. In Missa solemni, Celebrans antequam legat introitum, bemedicit incensum, dicens:
B illo bene + dicaris, in cujus honore cremaberis. Amen. Et accepto thuribulo a Diacomo, incensat altare, nihil dicens. Postea Diaconus recepto thuribulo a Celebrante, incenset illum tantum.
Et tunc accedat ad dertrum cornu altaris et dicat:
utterly mistook the object of the Canon : which is to be wondered at in a writer of so great a reputation. " (Thurificet. Sar.) The use of incense, in the public services of the Church, is of the most remote antiquity: and it was among the few offerings which were allowed to be made at the Altar, to be there consumed, as appears from the 2nd of the Apostolical Canons. The object of burning incense seems to be well expressed in the prayer which is found in the Liturgy of S. John Chrysostom, according to the translation in Goar's Collection. “Incensum tibi offerimus Christe Deus in odorem suavitatis spiritualis, quem suscipe Domine in sanctum et supercoeleste ac intellectuale tuum altare, et repende nobis abundantestuas miserationes, et illas largire nobis servis tuis.” Goar. Rituale Graec. p. 62. * In examining the old Uses, the student will find much confusion, if he takes for a guide the modern Roman books, respecting the right and the left corner of the Altar. In the rubric above and in other places of the English Liturgies, the right, means the Epistle side, and the left, the Gospel side. In all the old Roman Orders, such was the custom, up to the end of the XVth Century: taking it to be the right hand and the left of the officiating Priest; as well as of those who were standing by. But in the year 1485 the Roman Pontifical, published at Venice, laid down as a rule, that the right hand and the left were to be taken from the Crucifix upon the
SARUM. BANGOR. . Ebor.
Officium missa’ ” usque adorationem pro- dicat officium.” Et sequatur: vel usque ad Gloria in excel- postea incenset altare. sis: quando dicitur. Et post officium et Repelatur officium et psalmum repetalur officium: et postea di- postea dicitur Gloria citur Gloria patri et sicut erat. Tertio Patri. Sicut erat. repetatur officium : sequatur Kyrie.* Deinde repetatur offici
Altar: by which new arrangement of course the old was entirely reversed. See on this subject especially, Sala's notes to Bona, tom. iii. p. 49, and Le Brun, tom. i. p. 77. Note. Thus, the general rubric of the present Roman Missal, makes an explanation, which since the adoption of the new rule has been indispensable. “Accedit ad cornu ejus sinistrum, id est, Epistolae : ubi stans, incipit Introitum, &c.” Ritus Celebr. Tit. iv. 2. 20 44 When thou thus has done, Upon thi fete thou stande up sone: For bi this tyme als I gesse, The prist begynnes office of messe : Or ellis he standes turnande his boke, At tho south auter noke.” Museum MS. * (Officium. Ebor.) More commonly called in later years, the Introit, “Introitus:” as in the Roman Use. In the Milan or Ambrosian Missal, it is called Ingressa. For an account of its first Institution and other particulars, the student should consult Bona, tom. ii. p. 48, and Gerbert. de Musica, tom. i. p. 100. These Introits, as is well known, were retained in the first revised Liturgy of K. Edw. VI. They kept their old name of Introit, long after the real reason why they were so called, had ceased: viz. because they were sung at the entrance or approach of the Priest to the Altar. Upon which point all the old writers agree. See Micrologus cap.i. Rupert. de divinis Off, cap. 28, Raban. cap. 23. It was to the Introit that the Tropes were added, when they were introduced. “Tropus proprie est quidam versiculus, qui in praecipuis festivitatibus cantatur immediate ante introitum, quasi quoddam praeambulum, et continuatio ipsius introitus.” Durand. lib. iv. cap. 5. * (Sequatur Kyrie. Sar) “Post repetitionem officii principalis rector chori officium missae a cantore quaerere debet: deinde illud socio suo intimare: et postea simul incipere, et similiter Kyrie: Sequentia: Offertorium: Sanctus: Agnus: et Communio quaerantur, intimentur et incipiantur.” Rubr. Miss. Sar. . In this rubric we have two Officers of the Choir mentioned: the Cantor, and the Rector Chori. There seems to have been two of the last-named :
who probably answer to the precentor and succentor of S. Isidore: “ Cantor vocatur, quia vocem modulatur in cantu. Hujus duo genera dicuntur' in arte musica; praecentor et succentor: præcentor scilicet, qui vocem præmittit in cantu, succentor autem qui subsequenter canendo respondet.” Apud Gratiam. Dist. xxi. e. 1. If there were then two of these, they probably stood each at the end of his own side of the choir, and having received the necessary information from the Cantor, who as we shall see, stood in the centre, passed it on to his companions. Amalarius speaks of one Præcentor as opposed to the Succentores. ** Præcentor in primo ordine finit responsorium. Succentores vero eodem modo respondent. Dein præcentor canit versum, &c.” De ord. Antiph. cap. 18. Bibl. Patrum Auct. tom. i. p. 527. The name ** Reetor Chori'' appears to have been, if not peculiar to England, yet chiefly adopted in her Churches. Du Cange cites but one authority for it, from a Sarum Breviary : and explains it to be the same as ** Cantor:” in which I cannot but believe him to be in error, though I speak with Hesitation against so great a writer. But the Rubric at the head of this note, seems to put the matter beyond a doubt : and to it I shall add the following account of the duties of the Cantor. First, from the Statutes of Archbishop Lanfranc: cap. v. with which agrees almost in word a statute of Evesham Monastery : Dugdale. Monast. vol. ii. p. 39. “ De Cantore. Quicunque lecturus aut cantaturus est aliquid, si necesse habet ab eo priusquam incipiat debet auscultare.—Si quis obliviosus mon incoeperit, cum incipere debet responsorium, aut antiphonam, aut aliud hujusmodi, ipse debet esse provisus, atque paratus, ut sine mora, quod incipiendum erat, incipiat, vel eum, qui fallendo deviaverat, in viam reducat: ad ipsius arbitrium cantus incipitur, elevatur, remittitur ; nulli licet cantum levare, nisi ipse prius incipiat.—Cantor vero, in medio eorum debet esse in choro:—et in dextro choro semper sit.” Lanfranci Opera, p. 279. Again, from the Consuetudinary of the Church of Lichfield, A. d. 1294. ** Cantoris officium est chorum in cantuum elevatione et depressione regere, et in omni duplici festo lectionis legendas canonicis præsentibus injungere, chronica paschalia singulis annis mutare, cantores, lectores, et ministros altaris, in tabula or
SARU M. . BANGor. Ebor.
His finitis et officio missae inchoato, cum post officium, Gloria Patri, incipitur : tunc acce
dinare.—Praeterea in majoribus duplicibus festis teneter interesse regimini chori ad missam cum caeteris rectoribus chori. Item in omnibus duplicibus festis rectores choride cantibus injungendis et incipiendis tenetur instruere.” Wilkins. Concilia. tom. i. p. 498. The Cantor was in this sense the same as the Praecentor, properly so called; and not (as I have suggested above) as Isidore uses the word, for a Rector chori: in which sense there might be more than one Precentor, as we find in an Epistle of Hincmar, cited by Du Cange, verb. Pracentor. “Praecentores, qui chorum utrinque regunt, sunt duces, &c.” But the Praecentor strictly was “Primus Cantorum in Ecclesia; qui Cantoribus praeest.” The Bishop of Salisbury is Precentor of the College of Bishops: according to Lyndwood. “Habet namoue Archiepiscopus Cantuariensis in Collegio Episcoporum Episcopos, Londinensem Decanum–Sarisburiensem Praecentorem.” lib. v. tit. 15. Eternae. v. tanquam. Compare also, lib. ii. tit. 3. verb. usum Sarum. It has been supposed that this distinction arose from the fame of the Salisbury Use, and Bp. Osmund. Thomas Archbishop of York, A. D. 1100, is said to have first appointed a Praecentor in that Cathedral. Collier. Ecc. Hist. vol. i. p. 281. A curious collection of signals by which the Cantor made known his will to the Choir, are given by Gerbert, from some foreign Monastic Statutes. These are all to be made by various movements of the hand and fingers. De Musica sacra, tom. i. p. 310, note a. * (Kyrie eleison, iij. Ebor.) From the 6th ch. of the 8th book of the Apostolical Constitutions, (quoted by Le Brun, vol. i. p. 80) it appears that the prayer, “Kyrie eleison,” was used by the faithful in behalf of the Catechumens, “that God would be pleased to illumine them with the light of His Gospel, and fill them with the grace of His Holy Spirit.” This prayer of course occurred before the dismissal of the Catechumens, and the beginning of the solemn part, the Canon. In the Ritualists, (vide especially Durant) may be found many reasons, some sufficiently fanciful, why these Kyrie were retained in the Greek, and not translated into Latin. I shall give the observation of Cardinal Bona upon the point. “Dicunt Latini in Missa Kyrie eleison Graece, dicunt etiam Hebraice Amen, Allelujah, Sabaoth, et Osanna : quia fortassis sic ab initio Ecclesiasticarum precum Institutores voces istas usurparunt, utostenderent unam esse Ecclesiam, quae ex Hebrais, et Graecis primum, deinde ex Latinis