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the original in a fine hand, with running musical notation, or neumes, of the character which may be seen in tropers.
The Form for Ordination in this volume is (as Dr. Henderson has kindly informed me) identical with one in the British Museum, Cotton, MS. Claud. A. iii. (Dr. Henderson's Pontifical, No. VII. 2), excepting in two of the Rubrics, as will be seen in the Notes below.
In the Sidney MS. the symbol '&' is frequently used in such words as habet, debetis, and twice in letificet. The variations from singular to plural are written above the lines, with the crossed for vel. They are not introduced into the Rubrics (as well as into the Prayers), as they appear to be in Egbert's Pontifical, pp. 14, 18, 19, 21.
The MS. is especially valuable on account of the Order of Confirmation, which, unlike that in other Pontificals which have been published, contains the primitive ceremony of Imposition of Hands-which has been revived in the Church of England, and recently among Spanish Old-Catholics. aa We will, therefore, give this Office from the Sidney MS. in extenso, as well as the Mass of Saint Cuthbert, whence, possibly, the MS. derives its title.
The Forms of Ordination appear (though in a somewhat different order) in the Surtees Society's edition of the early 10th century MS. of the Pontifical of Egbert (Archbishop of York, A.D. 732-766). It will be sufficient, therefore, to give a comparison of the larger portion of the Sidney MS. with Mr. Greenwell's edition of Egbert.
The last-named volume consists of two parts:-(1) a Pontifical, pp. 1-58, 100-124; (2) a Benedictional, pp. 58-100, 124-136.
With the former only we are here concerned.
The Pontificals of the middle ages (as may be seen in the case of these smaller books with which we are concerned in this volume) were as different from the full Pontificals now printed for the use of Roman Catholic Bishops, as theBooks for the Communion,' or the more comprehensive Books of Offices'published by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowlege—are from the full 'Books of Common Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments.' Moreover, the old Pontificals differed one from another, somewhat as do the Books for the Communion' from the Books of Offices;' or, more nearly, as the various little books of occasional Orders' (which are familiar to those who have attended
aa Officios divinos de la Iglesia Española, p. 272. the Rubric is 'Ad consignandum imponit eis manum Jesu Christi qui regenerasti famulos,' &c., as p. 66. given by Daniel, Codex Liturgicus I., p. 200 n.
Madrid, 1881. In the Gelasian Sacramentary in his verbis Omnipotens Pater Domini nostri See the quotations from Cyprian and others,
b The Exeter Pontifical includes a Benedictional. So also did the Roman Pontifical of 1520 (Junta). See Maskell, Mon. Rit. I. p. cxlvi. ed. 1882.
Church or Churchyard Consecrations, Admissions of Lay-Readers, Ordinations, Inductions, Institutions, Installations, &c.) differ from one another.
No complete Pontifical of English Use has ever been printed for contemporaneous usage. C But these various pamphlets-whether preserved singly, or bound in small volumes for the use of Bishops or others-represent traditionally the old universal custom. Such vernacular Offices (which some may live to see improved, augmented, and codified) have served to keep alive the remembrance of the Bishop's indefeasible right to authorize the needful Forms and Orders for his Diocese: and they have supplied in every age the necessary gloss upon the exception in the Canonical Subscription, which reserves such cases where it 'shall be ordered by lawful authority.'
It will be seen that whereas De Bernham's Pontifical contains only Forms for Consecration (and Reconciliation) of Churches and Churchyards, Crosses and Altars; and the Sidney Sussex College Book of Saint Cuthbert had (originally) only the Ordination and Confirmation Services, -the Pontificale Ecgberhti contains:
Ordo de sacris ordinibus qualiter in Romana aecclesia presbyteri
Ad Subdiaconum ordinandum,
Benedictio ad Stolas vel planetas
Orationes ad vestimenta sacerdotalia seu laeuitica,
Sermo Innocenti Papæ de vij. gradibus Eccl. ordinandis,
Ad ordinandum Diaconum,
Ad ordinandos Presbiteros,
(Vacat.) C. 11
(Vacat.) C. 8 C. 9
We are speaking of course of the Church of England in England. The daughter Church of South Africa can boast of 'A Manual of Offices for Several Occasions, sanctioned for use in the Diocese of Bloemfontein. Bloemfontein: Church Mission Press, S. Cyprian's College, 1880.' This contains 20 Offices (pp. 1-144), without repeating any which is already provided in the Book of Common Prayer. Some reserve was exercised in the Church of Rome with regard to the Papal Ceremonial for some time after the invention of Printing. The Pontificale Romanum itself, however, was printed in the 15th century (ed. 1, 1485; ed. 2, 1497-not 1487 as Brunet). And by a Bull of 10th Feb., 1596, Clement VIII. enjoined that the Roman Pontifical then revised should take the place of all others.
Then after the Benedictiones Episcopales (pp. 58-100) follow:
Consecratio Abbatis sive Abbatisse.
Benedictio et Consecratio Virginis Monialis.
Ordo ad Sanctimonialem Virginem vel Viduam Benedicendam.
C. 10 (Vacat.)
Then Benedictiones variæ (pp. 115-117). Signi Ecclesiæ, &c.
Then Benedictiones variæ (pp. 124-136). Sponsalia (pp. 125, 132). Pro regnantibus (p. 131). Palmarum et Ignis (pp. 128, 129, 132, 135). And several others.
The initialC.' or B.' with numerals placed in the right hand margin is intended to show whereabouts in the Saint Cuthbert or the De Bernham MS. a corresponding Form occurs. Where the parallel passage differs materially, it is noted by printing the initial in a different type.
It will be seen at a glance that, roughly speaking, if De Bernham's book were bound as an Appendix to the Sidney-Sussex MS., we should have a volume substantially the same as the main portion of Egbert's Pontifical (pp. 1-26, 26-58); but lacking the first section, the Ordinatio Episcopi.
It will be observed that Bishop de Bernham must have needed a second volume of Offices, somewhat similar to the Liber Sancti Cuthberti; while the possessor of that volume must have required another book-somewhat similar in its Contents to the other—at least, if he was a Bishop. A further Supplement
or Supplements might occasionally be needed for Forms relating to personages of Royal or Episcopal dignity; for members of religious communities, hermits, penitents, for the Holy Oils, and occasional Benedictions.
As the Manuale (ed. Henderson, pp. 96*-103*) included certain 'benedictiones episcoporum et suffraganeorum,' so in some Pontificalia are found certain Offices which, as a general rule, would fall under the province of the Parish Priest.
Thus, in Edmund Lacy's Pontifical (A.D. 1421-1456, ed. Barnes, pp. 242275) there are the Officium Peregrinorum, ad faciendum Cathecumenum, ad facienda Sponsalia, and ad sepeliendum Mortuos. a
In these the title' sacerdos,' and not 'episcopus,' occurs in the Rubrics.
Similarly in Mr. Maskell's account of the Pontifical of Anianus of Bangor (A.D. 1270, Mon. Rit. I. cxxxiv-v.) we may observe Forms for Baptism, e for Marriage, for Communion [and Unction] of the Sick, and the Commendations [and Burial Service]; h as well as the Benediction of Bread, Blessing of Candles and of Palms, which come naturally in the Processional, besides a set of votive Masses (with Prefaces and Canon) somewhat similar to that in Sarum Breviaries, and in Breviaries of some other Uses about the years 1495-1516.
The Pontifical of Archbishop Chichele contains the Form for the Churching of Women. i
The Contents of the Sidney-Sussex MS. (which we will call A.') i correspond so closely with the Egbert Pontifical (or E.'), that it will be sufficient for the most part to give simply the opening words of each Prayer, with a reference to the pages of Mr. Greenwell's edition. Surtees Society's vol. XXVII. (1853.)
But the very first thing in the MS. is worthy of notice; for, in a Rubric imported verbatim from the Canons of the IVth Council of Carthage (A.D. 398), it assigns to the Parish Priest the sole authority of admission to the Choir, without mentioning the examination by the Archdeacon:—
a The first and the two last of these Services, or one variety of them, appear also in the Hereford Missal and Breviary.
e Printed by Dr. Henderson in an Appendix to the Manuale, p. 150*, where there are Forms for Clinical Baptism taken from several other Pontificals.
Libid. p. 162*.
g ibid. p. 194*.
h ibid. pp. 196*, 201*. The Burial Service commences on p. 199*.
i ibid. p. 213*.
j When it is necessary to distinguish between them we will denote the first hand in the Sidney College MS. (Liber Sancti Cuthberti) by ▲*, and a correction by aa. The letter'H' used below in Notes on pp. 64, 65, and elsewhere, refers to Dr. Henderson's edition of 'the York Pontifical,' sometimes called 'Bainbridge's,' after one of its possessors.
[DE SACRIS ORDINIBUS.]
*Ordo en inchoat de Sacris ordinibus benedicendis. *
* LIBER SANCTI CUTHBERTI.
Psalmista, id est cantor, potest absque scientia episcopi,1 sola iussione sacerdotis, officium suscipere cantandi, dicente sibi praesbitero.
Quod ore cantas (vel cantatis), corde credas (vel credatis) et quod corde credis (vel credatis) operibus probes (vel probetis).
Hostiarius cum ordinatur postquam ab archidiacono... dicens. E. 11.
Post hæc tradat ei diaconus ad hostium aecclesiae. *
Deum Patrem Omnipotentem suppliciter . . . in unitate Spiritus Sancti per omnia secula seculorum. Amen. E. 11, 12.
Domine Sancti Pater, . . . habêre mercedis, per. E. 12.
Lector cum ordinatur. . . ingenium. * E. 12.
Post haec spectante . . . dicens (E. 12) ad eum.
Accipe et esto... augeat tibi (vel vobis) gratiam (E. 12) quod ipse praestare dignetur, qui cum Patre.
Domine Sancte Pater. . . consulat (vel consulant). Per Dominum. E. 12.°
non habet Egbert.
1'cantor, posteaquam ab archidiacono instructus fuerit, potest absque conscientia episcopi.' E. 10.
'presbiteri. E, 10.
'Vide ut quod.' E. 10. cum canone Concilii Karthag. IV. (ed. Bruns, p. 143.)
• omissa priore Benedictione, scil. Oremus dilectissimi.
P'scripti.' E, cum Concil. Karth.
* Fol. I.
* Fol. ib.
* Fol. 2.
* Fol. 2b.