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The PONTIFICAL OF DAVID DE BERNHAM, now presented to the reader, was thus described by Dr. Henderson in 1875 (as No. XXI. in his list, which was printed at Burntisland; pp. xxxiv. xxxv.):

"It is described in the printed Catalogue [of the Paris Library] merely as 'Pontificale Anglicanum,' and its identification is due to the sagacity of M. Delisle, now the Administrateur General of that noble Library, who observed at the beginning a list of churches consecrated or reconciled by the Scottish primate.* It is a small quarto, well and correctly written,

and with musical notation.

"The Offices contained are those for the Consecration of a Church, Altar, and Cemetery, Crucifix, for the Reconciliation of a Church. They are very similar to the corresponding Forms in the six MSS. last described―[viz., 12th century Pontificals belonging to Bishops of Ely (two), Hereford, Canterbury, Exeter, and Glasgow, respectively. The five first of these are said by Dr. Henderson to 'represent the arrangement of Bishop Osmund.']

"Among the Saints invoked in the Litanies are Alban, Edmund, Kentegern, Cuthbert, Dunstan, and Patrick.

"This Pontifical will shortly be published by the Rev. G. H. FORBES, of Burntisland."

Mr. Forbes had prepared six sheets of the Text of our Pontifical for the Press, but he does not appear to have left any Notes or collections for introductory or explanatory matter.

It is to be regretted that he did not live to do for the S. Andrew's Pontifical what was done by his brother, the Bishop of Brechin, for the "Missale de Arbuthnott," and by other scholars for the "Book of Deer" and the "Breviarium Aberdonense." It is fortunate that for the subject in hand we can direct the student to such work of careful and expert

* The Bishops of S. Andrews held a priority in the Church of Scotland. The See was not raised to Archiepiscopal rank till A.D. 1472,

writers on Service Books as the volume by Dr. Henderson, to which reference has just been made, and the remarks on the Pontifical which are contained in Mr. Maskell's "Dissertation on Service Books," prefixed to Monumenta Ritualia, (ed. 1) 1846, vol. I., pp. cxiii.-cxxvi.; vol. III., pp. 368, 369; (ed. 2) 1882, vol. I., pp. cxxix-cxlv.

As I happened to be staying in Paris in the Winter of 1882-3, I inspected the original MS. in the Bibliothèque Nationale, at the suggestion of Mr. Forbes's Literary Executor, the Rev. Walter Bell, Honorary Canon of the Cathedral of The Isles, Cumbrae.

I am happy to be able to present the reader with an interesting Note, which was kindly written for me by Mons. Leopold Delisle, Directeur de la Bibl. Nat., Paris, who has recently done so much for Bibliography in his splendid volumes of Le Cabinet des MSS. de la Bibliothèque Nationale, and has written a learned treatise on the evidence of Liturgical monuments as to remembrance of the Departed, and has quite recently drawn attention to one of the most interesting relics of the antient English Liturgy-the Winton Missal (A.D. 1120) at Havre.

M. Delisle's Note is as follows:

"Le Pontifical MS., No. 1218, fut acquis par la Bibliothèque, en Novembre 1740, avec les manuscrits du marechal de Noailles.

"Ce pontifical se conservait en 1712 dans la bibliothèque du séminaire de Chalons-sur-Marne. où il fut vu par dom Martene et dom Durand. Voyage littéraire de deux religieux bénédictins, I. II. 91.

“La tranche fleurdelisée du volume permet de supposer qu'à une époque ancienne, peut-être, le XVe siècle, ce pontifical se trouvait dans une Chapelle du roi de France."

The MS. (Bibl. Nat., Paris, fonds Latin, 1218) contains 142 folios, vellum, each measuring 64 inches in width by 94 inches in height. There are on each page thirteen lines, in a clear 13th century hand. *

The Rubric "Hæc sunt quæ ad Dedicationem," &c., commences on the top of fol. 4. Fol. I is blank, saving for the Library number "1218,"

While this Introduction was in the Press, Mons. H. Omont has kindly revised the List of Churches dedicated, and the concluding pages of the Pontifical, with the Paris MS. The word 'altare" in the Præfatio, p. 33a, is an interlineation in an old hand. The words "in tuo" in the irst Collect, on p. 46, were repeated by mistake, and afterwards struck out by a red line.

and the 17th century Note, "patet ex inserta SS. Litania esse Anglicanum. Scriptum Ano. circiter [blank].”

Fols. 2 and 3 contain an interesting record of many Churches and Chapels for which the volume was used, by two Bishops of S. Andrews, in the years 1240-1249 and 1276 respectively.

Folio 3 verso contains a short Table of Contents in red letters.

The initials on this page have never been supplied by the illuminator or corrector, although throughout the body of the volume they have been duly inserted. The Table was, of course, written after the Pontifical itself. We print this Table in its proper place at the commencement of the Pontifical.

As a Parish Priest may use the fly-leaf of his Prayer Book to enter temporarily the register of children privately baptized by him in houses or as I have seen names of parishioners written in the waste leaf of a Sarum Breviary, presumably in order that they might be remembered at the Altar; so, it was natural enough to use the fly-leaves of the Office Book itself for registering the Consecration or Reconciliation of Churches.

I should infer from the handwriting that the entries were not made singly, but in batches of several at a time.

A paragraph mark is put in the margin in the places which we have shown in the printed copy, and a numeral ".C." shows that the entries were counted up. The hand in which this list is written is minute and not very clear. It is similar in character to that which I have observed in some of the early Diocesan and Capitular Registers of Lincoln Diocese. After the hundredth entry a fresh hand commences. The two entries relating to the Episcopate of William Wishart are in rather larger and coarser writing.

It is rather surprising that so many as 140 Churches should have been Dedicated by one Bishop in the space of about ten years; and at once I was inclined to suppose that there must have been some special order drawing attention to the neglect of the ceremony in the previous generation.

The following suggestion (which is due to Canon Bell) appears to

supply a satisfactory solution of the difficulty, and to add to the probability of my conjecture:

In the year 1239, Cardinal Otho held a Legatine Council in Edinburgh.* Unfortunately, the records of this Synod are lost; but it seems highly probable that the Cardinal should have issued among others a Constitution, relating to the neglect of Consecration of Churches. We know that this was a subject which had been in Otho's mind, † and that only a year or two before he had promulgated an order dealing with that subject, at the head of his Constitutions for England in 1237.

In that document ‡ the Cardinal complained that he had found many Churches and some Cathedrals not Consecrated with Holy Oil, and he ordered them to be Consecrated within two years.

It is certainly remarkable, and in any case it was creditable to

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* Chalmers's Caledonia, I., p. 684.

Grub's Eccl. Hist., I., p. 313.

"The second Constitution of Otho, made in the year 1236, is De consecratione et reformatione status ecclesiæ."-Maskell, Mon. Rit., I., p. cccxxviii. Even as late as 1377 the Archbishop of York complained that Welsh Churches were standing unconsecrated.

Johnson's English Canons (Anglo-Catholic Library), Part II., p. 151. The following extract from Johnson will give an idea of the nature of the document:

"1. The dedication of royal temples is known to have taken its beginning from the Old Testament; and was observed by the holy fathers in the New Testament, under which it ought to be done with the greater care and dignity, because under the former, sacrifices of dead animals only were offered; but under the latter, the heavenly, lively and true Sacrifice, that is Christ, the onlybegotten Son of God, is offered on the altar for us by the hands of the priest; therefore the holy fathers providently have ordained that so sublime an office should not be celebrated in any place but what is dedicated, except in case of necessity. Now because we have ourselves seen and heard by many that so wholesome a mystery is despised, at least neglected by some, (for we have found many churches and some cathedrals not consecrated with holy oil, though built of old,) we therefore being desirous to obviate so great a neglect, do ordain and give in charge that all cathedral, conventual, and parochial churches, which are ready built, and their walls perfected be consecrated by the diocesan bishops to whom they belong, or others authorized by them within two years: and let it be so done within a like time in all churches hereafter to be built and lest so wholesome a statute grow into contempt, if such like places be not dedicated within two years from the time of their being finished, we decree them to remain interdicted from the solemnization of masses, until they be consecrated, unless they be excused for some reasonable cause. Further by the present statute we strictly forbid abbots and rectors of churches to pull down ancient consecrated churches, without the consent and licence of the bishop of the diocese, under pretence of raising a more ample and fair fabric. Let the diocesan consider whether it be more expedient to grant or deny a licence: if he grant it, let him take care that the work be finished as soon as may be: which we ordain also in relation to such as are already begun. We think not fit to ordain any thing concerning little chapels, leaving the time and manner of their consecrations to the canonical definitions."

Bishop De Bernham, that, in two particular years, not long after his accession to the Episcopal throne, he should have Consecrated no less than eighty-nine Churches or Chapels, besides Reconciling the Church of Holy Trinity, Berwick, "post effusionem sanguinis," as the result of a deadly quarrel there between two Scolocs, Scologs, or clerici scholares.

The only reference to Bishop David De Bernham which I have been able to see in the Regesta Pontificum, is the following, which relates to his nomination :

"Oct. 1, 1239. Glasguensi, Cathanensi et Brechinensi, Episcopis Mandat Gregorius IX., ut si electionem mr. David de Bernham subdiaconi camerarii regis Scotia in epm. S. Andreæ de Scotia canonice celebratam invenerint, eam confirment ac faciant eidem electo munus Consecrationis impendi." †

Keith is singular in asserting that the Bishop of Dumblane (not Brechin) was among the Consecrators.

The Bull for De Bernham's Consecration is as follows:-

Iudicibus, ut de causa electi ecclesiae S. Andreae de Scotia inquirant et referant. Reg. An. XIII. ep. 133.

GREGORIUS EPISCOPUS etc. Venerabilibus fratribus. . . Glasguensi,... Cathanensi et . . . Brechinensi Epis, salutem etc. Postulatione facta pridem de venerabili fratri nostro Dunkeldensi Epo. in vacante ecclesia Sancti Andree de Scotia, que ad nos nullo medio pertinet, non admissa, et dilectis filiis . . . Priori et Conventui eiusdem ecclesie a nobis iterum eligendi potestate concessa, ipsi, prius a Carissimo in Christo filio nostro Illustri Rege Scotie iuxta morem petita et obtenta eligendi licentia, vocatis omnibus, qui debebant et poterant evocari, prefixa electioni die,

* See Stat. Eccl. Scot., II., p. 280, on this case, and similar instances. The form used by Bishop Hacket at the Reconciliation of Lichfield Cathedral in 1669 is given in Hierurgia Anglicana, pp.


+ Regesta Pontificum, ed. Potthast, No. 10794. Theiner, Mon. Hibern. 39, No. 100.

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