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[Magnanimity in Humble Life.]
In the obscurity of retirement, amid the squalid poverty and revolting privations of a cottage, it has often been my lot to witness scenes of magnanimity and self-denial, as much beyond the belief as the practice of the great; a heroism borrowing no support, either from the gaze of the many, or the admiration of the few, yet flourishing amidst ruins, and on the confines of the grave; a spectacle as stupendous in the moral world, as the falls of the Missouri in the natural; and, like that mighty cataract, doomed to display its grandeur only where there are no eyes to appreciate its magnificence.
Avarice begets more vices than Priam did children, and, like Priam, survives them all. It starves its keeper to surfeit those who wish him dead; and makes him submit to more mortifications to lose heaven, than the martyr undergoes to gain it. Avarice is a passion full of paradox, a madness full of method; for although the miser is the most mercenary of all beings, yet he serves the worst master more faithfully than some Christians do the best, and will take nothing for it. He falls down and worships the god of this world, but will have neither its pomps, its vanities, nor its pleasures, for his trouble. He begins to accumulate treasure as a mean to happiness, and by a common but morbid association, he continues to accumulate it as an end. He lives poor, to die rich, and is the mere jailer of his house, and the turnkey of his wealth. Impoverished by his gold, he slaves harder to imprison it in his chest, than his brother-slave to liberate it from the mine. The avarice of the miser may be termed the grand sepulchre of all
his other passions, as they successively decay. But,
unlike other tombs, it is enlarged by repletion, and strengthened by age. This latter paradox, so peculiar to this passion, must be ascribed to that love of power so inseparable from the human mind. There are three kinds of power—wealth, strength, and talent; but as old age always weakens, often destroys the two latter, the aged are induced to cling with the greater avidity to the former. And the attachment of the aged to wealth must be a growing and a progressive attachment, since such are not slow in discovering that those same ruthless years which detract so sensibly from the strength of their bodies and of their minds, serve only to augment and to consolidate the strength of their purse.
WILLIAM ELLERY CHANNING.
WILLIAM ELLERY CHANNING (1780–1842) is one of the most popular of the American prose writers. He was pastor of a Unitarian congregation, but ‘more nearly related, as he himself said, ‘to Fenelon than to Priestley. He was the earnest advocate of peace, and the decided enemy of that great social evil of the United States, slavery. His best works are a series of essays, the first appearing in 1823, on National Literature, on The Character and Writings of Milton, on The Life and Character of Napoleon Bonaparte, and on Self-culture and the Elevation of the Labouring-classes. These essays are distinguished by purity and elevation of thought, and though rather too measured and diffuse in style and expression, cannot be read without delight as well as instruction. The expansive benevolence and Christian ardour of the writer shine through the whole.
[The Intellectual and Moral Character of Napoleon . Bonaparte.]
His intellect was distinguished by rapidity of thought. He understood by a glance what most men, and superior
men, could learn only by study. He darted to a conclusion rather by intuition than reasoning. In war, which was the only subject of which he was master, he seized in an instant on the great points of his own and his enemy's positions; and combined at once the movements by which an overpowering force might be thrown with unexpected fury on a vulnerable part of the hostile line; and the fate of an army be decided in a day. He understood war as a science; but his mind was too bold, rapid, and irrepressible, to be enslaved by the technics of his profession. He found the old armies fighting by rule, and he discovered the true characteristic of genius, which, without despising rules, knows when and how to break them. He understood thoroughly the immense moral power which is gained by originality and rapidity of operation. He astonished and paralysed his enemies by his unforeseen and impetuous assaults, by the suddenness with which the storm of battle burst upon them; and whilst giving to his soldiers the advantages of modern discipline, breathed into them, by his quick and decisive movements, the enthusiasm of ruder ages. The power of disheartening the foe, and of spreading through his own ranks a confidence and exhilarating courage, which made war a pastime, and seemed to make victory sure, distinguished Napoleon in an age of uncommon military talent, and was one main instrument of his future power. The wonderful effects of that rapidity of thought by which Bonaparte was marked, the signal success of his new mode of warfare, and the almost incredible speed with which his fame was spread through nations, had no small agency in fixing his character, and determining for a period the fate of empires. These stirring influences infused a new consciousness of his own might. They gave intensity and audacity to his ambition; gave form and substance to his indefinite visions of glory, and raised his fiery hopes to empire. The burst of admiration which his early career called forth, must in particular have had an influence in imparting to his ambition that modification by which it was characterised, and which contributed alike to its success and to its fall. He began with astonishing the world, with producing a sudden and universal sensation, such as modern times had not witnessed. To astonish as well as to sway by his energies, became the great end of his life. Henceforth to rule was not enough for Bonaparte. He wanted to amaze, to dazzle, to overpower men's souls, by striking, bold, magnificent, and unanticipated results. To govern ever so absolutely would not have satisfied him, if he must have governed silently. He wanted to reign through wonder and awe, by the grandeur and terror of his name, by displays of power which would rivet on him every eye, and make him the theme of every tongue. Power was his supreme object; but a power which should be gazed at as well as felt, which should strike men as a prodigy, which should shake old thrones as an earthquake, and by the suddenness of its new creations, should awaken something of the submissive wonder which miraculous agency inspires. His history shews a spirit of self-exaggeration, unrivalled in enlightened ages, and which reminds us of an oriental king to whom incense had been burned from his birth as to a deity. This was the chief source of his crimes. He wanted the sentiment of a common nature with his fellow-beings. He had no sympathies with his race. That feeling of brotherhood, which is developed in truly great souls with peculiar energy, and through which they give up themselves willing victims, joyful sacrifices, to the interests of mankind, was wholly unknown to him. His heart, amidst all its wild beatings, never had one throb of disinterested love. The ties which bind man to man he broke asunder. The proper happiness of a man, which consists in the victory of moral energy and social affection over the selfish passions, he cast away for the lonely joy of a despot. With powers which might have made him a #" 55
representative and minister of the beneficent Divinity, and with natural sensibilities which might have been exalted into sublime virtues, he chose to separate himself from his kind, to forego their love, esteem, and gratitude, that he might become their gaze, their fear, their wonder, and, for this selfish solitary good, parted with peace and imperishable renown.” The spirit of self-exaggeration wrought its own misery, and drew down upon him terrible punishments; and this it did by vitiating and perverting his high powers. First, it diseased his fine intellect, gave imagination the ascendency over judgment, turned the inventiveness and fruitfulness of his mind into rash, impatient, restless energies, and thus precipitated him into projects which, as the wisdom of his counsellors pronounced, were fraught with ruin. To a man whose vanity took him out of the rank of human beings, no foundation for reasoning was left. All things seemed possible. His genius and his fortune were not to be bounded by the barriers which experience had assigned to human powers. Ordinary rules did not apply to him. His imagination, disordered by his egotism, and by unbounded flattery, leaped over appalling obstacles to the prize which inflamed his ambition.
What is needed to elevate the soul is, not that a man should know all that has been thought and written in regard to the spiritual nature—not that a man should become an encyclopaedia; but that the great ideas, in which all discoveries terminate, which sum up all sciences, which the philosopher extracts from infinite details, may be comprehended and felt. It is not the quantity, but the quality of knowledge, which determines the mind's dignity. A man of immense information may, through the want of large and comprehensive ideas, be far inferior in intellect to a labourer, who, with little knowledge, has yet seized on great truths. For example, I do not expect the labourer to study theology in the ancient languages, in the writings of the Fathers, in the history of sects, &c.; nor is this needful. All theology, scattered as it is through countless volumes, is summed up in the idea of God; and let this idea shine bright and clear in the labourer's soul, and he has the essence of theological libraries, and a far higher light than has visited thousands of renowned divines. A great mind is formed by a few great ideas, not by an infinity of loose details. I have known very learned men, who seemed to me very poor in intellect, because they had no grand thoughts. What avails it that a man has studied ever so minutely the histories of Greece and Rome, if the great ideas of freedom, and beauty, and valour, and spiritual energy, have not been kindled by those records into living fires in his soul? The illumination of an age does not consist in the amount
* We may illustrate Channing's argument by quoting part of Coleridge's criticism on Milton's Satan: ‘The character of Satan is pride and sensual indulgence, finding in itself the motive of action. It is the character so often seen in little on the political stage. It exhibits all the restlessness, temerity, and cunning which have marked the mighty hunters of mankind from Nimrod to Napoleon. The common fascination of man is, that these great men, as they are called, must act from some great motive. Milton has carefully marked in his Satan the intense selfishness, the alcohol of egotism, which would rather reign in hell than serve in heaven. To place this lust of self in opposition to denial of self or duty, and to shew what exertions it would make, and what pains endure to accomplish its end, is Milton's particular object in the character of Satan. But around this character he has thrown a singularity of daring, a grandeur of sufferance, and a ruined splendour, which constitute the very height of poetic sublimity.” The career of Napoleon certainly exemplifies the principle here so finely cnunciated.
One of the most industrious of literary collectors and editors was JoHN NICHOLs (1745–1826), who for nearly half a century conducted the Gentleman's Magazine. Mr Nichols was early put apprentice to WILLIAM Bowy ER, an eminent London printer (1699–1778), who, with scholarship that reflected honour on himself and his craft, edited an edition of the New Testament, with notes, and was author of several philological tracts. On the death of Bowyer, Mr Nichols carried on the printing business—in which he had previously been a partner—and became associated with David Henry, the brotherin-law of Cave, the original proprietor of the Gentleman's Magazine. Henry died in 1792, and the whole labours of the magazine and business devolved on Mr Nichols, whose industry was never relaxed. The most important of his numerous labours are his Anecdotes, Literary and Biographical, of William Bowyer, 1782; The History and Antiquities of Leicester, 1795–1811; Literary Anecdotes of the Eighteenth Century, eight volumes, 1812–14; and Illustrations of the Literature of the Eighteenth Century —supplementary to the Anecdotes—three volumes octavo. Additions have from time to time been made to these works by Mr Nichols's son and successor, so that the Anecdotes form nine large volumes, and the Illustrations eight volumes, the seventeenth—completing the series—having been issued in 1859. Mr Nichols edited the correspondence of Atterbury and Steele, Fuller's Worthies, Swift's works, &c., and compiled accounts of the Royal Progresses and Processions of Queen Elizabeth and James I., each in three volumes quarto.
ARTHUR YoUNG (1721–1820) was eminent for his writings and services in the promotion of agriculture. He was one of the first who succeeded in elevating this great national interest to the dignity of a science, and rendering it popular among the higher classes of the country. He was for many years an unsuccessful theorist and experimenter on a small paternal estate in Suffolk to which he succeeded, but the knowledge thus acquired, he turned to good account. In 1770 he commenced a periodical, entitled The Farmer's Calendar, and he afterwards edited another periodical, The Annals of Agriculture, to which King George III. was an occasional contributor. A list of his published letters, pamphlets, &c., on subjects of rural economy, would fill one of our pages; but the most important of Young's works are a Tour in Ireland, 1776–79, and Travels in France, 1787–89. These journeys were undertaken by the recommendation and assistance of government, with a view of ascertaining the cultivation, wealth, resources, and prosperity of Ireland and France. He was author also of surveys of the counties of Suffolk, Norfolk, Lincoln, Hertford, Essex, and Oxford; with reports on waste lands, enclosures, &c. The French Revolution alarmed Young with respect to its probable effects on the English lower classes, and he wrote several warning treatises and political tracts. Sir John Sinclair—another devoted and patriotic agriculturist—having prevailed on Pitt to establish a Board of Agriculture, Arthur Young was appointed its secretary, with a salary of £400 per annum, and he was indefatigable in his exertions to carry out the views of the association. To the end of his long life, even after he was afflicted with blindness, the attention of Mr Young was devoted to pursuits of practical utility. Some of his theories as to the system of large farms—for which he was a strenuous advocate—and other branches of agricultural labour, may be questioned, but he was a valuable pioneer, who cleared the way for many improvements since accomplished.
A series of light descriptive and gossiping tours, by SIR JoHN CARR (1772–1832), made considerable noise in their day. The first and best was The Stranger in France, 1803. This was followed by Travels Round the Baltic, 1804–5; The Stranger in Ireland, 1806; Tour through Holland, 1807; Caledonian Sketches, 1809; Travels in Spain, 1811. Sir John was also author of some indifferent poems and dramas. This indefatigable tourist had been an attorney in Dorsetshire, but the success of his first work on France, induced him to continue a series of similar publications. In Ireland he was knighted by the lord-lieutenant (the Duke of Bedford), and his Irish tour was ridiculed in a witty jeu d'esprit, My Pocket Book, written by Mr E. Dubois of the Temple. Sir John prosecuted the publishers of this satire, but was non-suited. His Caledonian Sketches were happily ridiculed by Sir Walter Scott in the Quarterly Review, and Byron—who had met the knight-errant at Cadiz, and implored ‘not to be put down in black and white’—introduced him into some suppressed stanzas of Childe Harold, in which he is styled “Green Erin's knight and Europe's wandering star.”
A humorous work, in the form of dialogues, entitled The Miseries of Human Life, 1806-7, had great success and found numerous imitators. It went through nine editions in a twelvemonth— partly, perhaps, because it formed the subject of a very amusing critique in the Edinburgh Review, from the pen of Sir Walter Scott. “It is the English only, as Scott remarks, “who submit to the same tyranny, from all the incidental annoyances and petty vexations of the day, as from the serious calamities of life;’ and it is these petty miseries which in this work form the subject of dialogues between the imaginary interlocutors, Timothy Testy and Samuel Sensitive. The jokes are occasionally heavy, and the classical quotations forced, but the object of the author was attained—the book sold, and its readers laughed. We subjoin two short ‘groans.”
After having left a company in which you have been galled by the raillery of some wag by profession, thinking at your leisure of a repartee, which, if discharged at the proper moment, would have blown him to atoms.
Rashly confessing that you have a slight cold in the hearing of certain elderly ladies ‘of the faculty, who instantly form themselves into a consultation upon your case, and assail you with a volley of nostrums, all of which, if you would have a moment's peace, you must solemnly promise to take off before night—though well satisfied that they would retaliate by “taking you off’ before morning.
In the style of popular literary illustration, with imagination and poetical susceptibility, may be mentioned SIR EGERTON BRYDGEs, who published the Censura Literaria, 1805–9, in ten volumes; the British Bibliographer, in three volumes; an enlarged edition of Collins's British Peerage; Letters on the Genius of Lord Byron, &c. As principal editor of the Retrospective Review, Sir Egerton Brydges drew public attention to the beauties of many old writers, and extended the feeling of admiration which Charles Lamb, Hazlitt, and others, had awakened for the early masters of the English lyre. In 1835 this veteran author edited an edition of Milton's poetical works in six volumes. A tone of querulous egotism and complaint pervades most of the original works of this author, but his taste and exertions in English literature entitle him to high respect.
The Illustrations of Shakspeare, published in 1807, by MR FRANCIs Douce, and the British Monachism, 1802, and Encyclopaedia of Antiquities, 1824, by the REv. T. D. FosBRooKE, are works of great research and value as repositories of curious information. Works of this kind illustrate the pages of our poets and historians, besides conveying pictures of national manners now faded into oblivion.
A record of English customs is preserved in Brand's Popular Antiquities, published, with additions, by SIR HENRY ELLIS, in two volumes quarto, in 1808; and in 1842 in two cheap portable volumes. The work relates to the customs at country-wakes, sheep-shearings, and other rural practices, and is an admirable delineation of olden life and manners.
RoBERT MUDIE (1777–1842), an indefatigable writer, self-educated, was a native of Forfarshire, and for some time connected with the London press. He wrote and compiled altogether about ninety volumes, including Babylon the Great, a Picture of Men and Things in London; Modern Athens, a sketch of Edinburgh society; The British Naturalist; The Feathered Tribes of Great Britain; A Popular Guide to the Observation of Nature; two series of four volumes each, entitled The Heavens, the Earth, the Sea, and the Air; and Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter: and next, Man; Physical, Moral, Social, and Intellectual; The World Described, &c. He furnished the letter-press to Gilbert's Modern Atlas, the natural history to the British Cyclopaedia, and numerous other contributions to periodical works. Mudie was a nervous and able writer, deficient in taste in works of light literature and satire, but an acute and philosophical observer of nature, and peculiarly happy in his geographical dissertations and works on natural history. His imagination could lighten up the driest details; but it was often too excursive and unbridled. His works were also hastily produced, “to provide for the day that Was passing over him; but, considering these disadvantages, his intellectual energy and acquirements were wonderful.
There were in this period several writers on the science of political economy, ‘treating of the formation, the distribution, and the consumption of wealth; the causes which promote or Pre: its increase, and their influence on the happiness or misery of society. Adam Smith laid the foundations of this science; and as our population and commerce went on increasing, thereby augmenting the power of the democratical part of our constitution, and the number of those who take an interest in the affairs of government, political economy became a more important and popular study. It now forms one of the subjects for lectures in the universities of Cambridge and Oxford. A singular but eminent writer in this department and in the kindred studies of jurisprudence and morals, MR JEREMY BENTHAM (1748–1832), was for
more than half a century distinguished as an author and utilitarian philosopher. He lived in intercourse with the leading men of several generations and of various countries, and was unceasingly active in the propagation of his opinions. Mr Bentham was the son of a wealthy London solicitor, and was educated at Westminster School and Queen's College, Oxford. He was only thirteen when he entered college, but even then he was known by the name of ‘the philosopher. He took his degree of B.A. in 1763, and afterwards studying the law in Lincoln's Inn, was called to the bar. He had a strong dislike to the legal profession, and never pleaded in public. His first literary performance was an examination of a passage in Blackstone's Commentaries, and was entitled, A Fragment on Government, 1776. The work was prompted, as he afterwards stated, by “a passion for improvement in those shapes in which the lot of mankind is meliorated by it. His zeal was increased by a pamphlet which had been issued by Priestley. “In the phrase, “the greatest happiness of the greatest number,” I then saw delineated,’ says Bentham, “for the first time, a plain as well as a true standard for whatever is right or wrong, useful, useless, or mischievous in human conduct, whether in the field of morals or of politics. The phrase is a good one, whether invented by Priestley or Bentham; but it still leaves the means by which happiness is to be extended as undecided as ever, to be determined by the judgment and opinions of men. To insure it, Bentham considered it necessary to reconstruct the laws and government—to have annual parliaments and universal suffrage, secret voting, and a return to the ancient practice of paying wages to parliamentary representatives. In a's political writings this doctrine of utility,
so understood, is the leading and pervading principle. In 1778 he published a pamphlet on The Hard Labour Bill, recommending an improvement in the mode of criminal punishment; Letters on Usury, 1787; Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Politics, 1789; Discourses on Civil and Penal Legislation, 1802; A Theory of Punishments and Rewards, 1811; A Treatise on Judicial Evidence, 1813; Paper relative to Codification and Public Instruction, 1817; The Book of Fallacies, 1824, &c. By the death of his father in 1792, Bentham succeeded to property in London, and to farms in Essex, yielding from £500 to £600 a year. He lived frugally, but with elegance, in one of his London houses—kept young men as secretaries-corresponded and wrote daily—and by a life of temperance and industry, with great self-complacency, and the society of a few devoted friends, the eccentric philosopher attained to the age of eighty-four. His various productions have been collected and edited by Dr (now Sir) John Bowring and Mr John Hill Burton, advocate, and published in eleven volumes. In his latter works Bentham adopted a peculiar uncouth style or nomenclature, which deters ordinary readers, and indeed has rendered his works almost a dead-letter. Fortunately, however, part of them were arranged and translated into French by M. Dumont. Another disciple, Mr Mill, made known his principles at home; Sir Samuel Romilly criticised them in the Edinburgh Review, and Sir James Mackintosh in the ethical dissertation which he wrote for the Encyclopaedia Britannica. In the science of legislation, Bentham evinced a profound capacity and extensive knowledge: the error imputed to his speculations is that of not sufficiently ‘weighing the various circumstances which require his rules to be modified in different countries and times, in order to render them either more useful, more easily introduced, more generally respected, or more certainly executed. As an ethical philosopher, he carried his doctrine of utility to an extent which would be practically dangerous, if it were possible to make the bulk of mankind act upon a speculative theory. One of the most celebrated of the political economists was the REv. T. R. MALTHUs, an English clergyman, and Fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge. Mr Malthus was born of a good family in 1766, at his father's estate in Surrey. In 1798 appeared his celebrated work, an Essay on the Principle of Population as it affects the Future Improvement of Society. The principle here laid down is, that population has a tendency to increase faster than the means of subsistence. “Population not only rises to the level of the present supply of food, but if you go on every year increasing the quantity of food, population goes on increasing at the same time, and so fast that the food is commonly still too small for the people.’ After the publication of this work, Mr Malthus went abroad with Dr Clarke and some other friends; and in the course of a tour through Sweden, Norway, Finland, and part of Russia, he collected facts in illustration of his theory. These he embodied in a second and greatly improved edition of his work, which was published in 1803. The most important of his other works are, An Inquiry into the Nature and Progress of Rent, 1815; and Principles of Political Economy, 1820. Several pamphlets on the corn-laws, the currency, and the poor-laws, proceeded from his pen. Mr Malthus was in 1805 appointed professor of modern history and political economy in Haileybury College, and he held the situation till his death in 1836. MR DAVID RICARDo (1772–1823) was author of several original and powerful treatises connected with political economy. His first was on the High Price of Bullion, 1809; and he published successively Proposals for an Economical and Secure Currency, 1816; and Principles of Political Economy and Taxation, 1817. The latter work is considered the most important treatise on that science, with the single exception of Smith's Wealth of Nations. Mr Ricardo afterwards wrote pamphlets on the Funding System, and on Protection to Agriculture. He had amassed great wealth as a stockbroker, and retiring from business, he entered into parliament as representative for the small borough of Portarlington. He seldom spoke in the House, and only on subjects connected with his favourite studies. He died, much regretted by his friends, at his seat, Gatcomb Park, in Gloucestershire, on the 11th of September 1823. The Elements of Political Economy, by MR JAMEs MILL, the historian of India, 1821, were designed by the author as a school-book of the science, as modelled or improved by Ricardo. DR WHATELY (afterwards archbishop of Dublin) published two introductory lectures, which, as professor of political economy, he had delivered to the university of Oxford in 1831. This eminent person is also author of a highly valued work, Elements of Logic, which has attained an extensive utility among young students; Thoughts on Secondary Punishments, and other works, all displaying marks of a powerful intellect. A good elementary work, Conversations on Political Economy, by MRS MARCET, was published in 1827. The REv. DR CHALMERs on various occasions supported the views of Malthus, particularly in his work On Political Economy in Connection with the Moral Prospects of Society, 1832. He maintains that no human skill or labour could make the produce of the soil increase at the rate at which population would increase, and therefore he urges the expediency of a restraint upon marriage, successfully inculcated upon the people as the very essence of morality and religion by every pastor. and instructor in the kingdom. Few clergymen would venture on such a task! Another zealous commentator is MR J. RAMSAY M'CULLoCH, author of Elements of Political Economy, and of various contributions to the Edinburgh Review, which have spread more widely a knowledge of the subject. Mr M’Culloch has also edited an edition of Adam Smith, and compiled several useful and able statistical works, the most important of which are a Dictionary of Commerce, a Statistical Account of the British Empire, and a Geographical Dictionary. This gentleman is a native of Galloway, born about the year 1790. He enjoys a pension of £200 per annum, and holds a government appointment in the Stationery Office. The opponents of Malthus and the economists, though not numerous, have been determined and active. Cobbett never ceased for years to inveigh against them. Coleridge also joined in the cry. MR GoDw1N came forward in 1821, with an Inquiry Concerning the Power of Increase in the Numbers of Mankind, a treatise very unworthy the author of Caleb Williams. In 1830 MICHAEL THOMAS SADLER published The Law of Population: a Treatise in JDisproof of the Superfecundity of Hunan Beings, and Developing the Real Principle of their Increase. A third volume to this work was in preparation by the author when he died. Mr Sadler (1780–1835) was a mercantile man, partner in an establishment at Leeds. In 1829 he became representative in parliament for the borough of Newark, and distinguished himself by his speeches against the remoyal of the
Catholic disabilities and the Reform Bill. He also wrote a work on the condition of Ireland. Mr Sadler was an ardent benevolent man, an impracticable politician, and a florid speaker. His literary pursuits and oratorical talents were honourable and graceful additions to his character as a man of business, but in knowledge and argument he was greatly inferior to Malthus and Ricardo. On the same subject we may notice—though anticipating the chronological order—An Essay on the Distribution of Wealth, and the Sources of Taxation, 1831, by the REv. RICHARD JoNEs. This work is chiefly confined to the consideration of rent, as to which the author differs from Ricardo. . MR NAssAU WILLIAM SENIOR, professor of political economy in the university of Oxford in 1831, published Two Lectures on Population, and has also written pamphlets on the poorlaws, the commutation of tithes, &c. He was the ablest of all the opponents of Malthus.
To explore the interior of Africa continued still to be an object of adventurous ambition. Mungo Park had conjectured that the Niger and Congo were one river; and in 1816 a double expedition was planned, one part of which was destined to ascend the Congo, and the other to descend the Niger, hopes being entertained that a meeting would take place at some point of the mighty stream. The command of this expedition was given to CAPTAINTUCKEY, an experienced naval officer, and he was accompanied by Mr Smith, a botanist, Mr Cranch, a zoologist, and by Mr Galway, an intelligent friend. The expedition was unfortunate—all died but Captain Tuckey, and he was compelled to abandon the enterprise from fever and exhaustion. In the narrative of this expedition, there is an interesting account of the country of Congo, which appears to be an undefined tract of territory, hemmed in between Loango on the north and Angola on the south, and stretching far inland. The military part of this expedition, under Major Peddie, was equally unfortunate. He did not ascend the Gambia, but pursued the route by the Rio Nunez and the country of the Foulahs. Peddie died at Kacundy, at the head of the Rio Nunez, and Captain Campbell, on whom the command then devolved, also sunk under the pressure of disease and distress. In 1819 two other travellers, MR RITCHIE and LIEUTENANT LYoN, proceeded from Tripoli to Fezzan, with the view of penetrating southward as far as Soudan. The climate soon extinguished all hopes from this expedition; Mr Ritchie sank beneath it, and Lieutenant Lyon was so reduced as to be able to extend his journey only to the southern frontiers of Fezzan.