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53 II. The first covenant made with man was a covenant of works b; wherein life was promised to Adam, and in him to his posterity c, upon condition of perfect and personal obedience d.
III, Man by his fall having made himself uncapable of life by that covenant, the Lord was pleafed to make a fecond e, commonly called the covenant of grace: Wherein he freely offereth unto finners life and falvation by Jefus Chrift, requiring of them faith in him, that they may be faved f, and promifing to give unto all thofe that are ordained
may hurt a man as thou art, and thy righteousness may profit the fon of man. Luke 17. 10. So like wife ye, when ye fhall have done all thofe things which are commanded you, fay, We are unprofitable fervants: we have done that which was our duty to do. Acts17. 24. God that made the world, and all things therein, feeing that he is Lord of heaven andearth,dwelleth not in temples made with hands. v. 25. Neither is worshipped with mens hands as though he needed any thing, feeing he giveth to all life, and breath, and all things. II. b Gal. 3. 12, And the law is not of faith, but. the man that doth them fhall live in them,
c Rom, 10, 5. For Moles defcribeth the righteoufnefs which is of the law, that the man which doth these things, fhall live by them Rom. 5. 12. to 20. (See chapter 6. Sect. 3. Letter f.)
d Gen. 2. 17. But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it; for in the day that thou eateft thereof, thou fhalt furely die. Gal. 3. 10. For as many as are of the works of the law, are under the curfe; for it is written, curfed is every one that continueth notin all things which are written in the book of the law to do them.
III. e Gal. 3. 21. Is the law then against the promiles of God? God torbid: for if there had been a law
given,whichcould have given life, verily righteoufnels, thould have been by the law. Rom. 8. 3. For what the law could not do in that it was weak through the flesh,God fending his own fon inthe likeness of finful flefh, and for fin condemned fin in the flesh. Rom. 3. 20. Therefore by the deeds of the law there fhall no fleth be juftified in his fight for by the law is the knowledge of fin. v. 21. But nov the righteoufnefs of God without the law is manifefted, being witneffed by the law and the prophets Gen. 3. 15. And I will put enmity between theeand the woman, and between thy feed and her feed; it fhall bruife thy head,andthon fhalt bruife his heel. Ifa. 42. 6. I the Lordhave called thee in righteoufnefs, and I will hold thine hand, and will keep thee,and give thǝe for a covenant of the people,for a light of the Gentiles.
f Mark 16. 15. And he faid unto them, go ye into all the world, and preach the gofpel to every creature, y. 16. He that believeth and is baptized,fhall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be damned. John 3. 16. For God fo loved the world that he gave his only begotten fon, that whofoever be lievethinhim, fhouldnot perish,but have everlafting life. Rom. 10.6. But the righteoufnels which is of faith, fpeaketh on this wife, fay not in thine heart, who fhafi afD 3
Chap. 7. unto life, his holy fpirit, to make them willing and able to believe g.
IV. This covenant of grace is frequently fet forth in the fcripture by the name of a teftament, in reference to the death of Jefus Chrift the teftator, and to the everlasting inheritance, with all things belonging to it, therein bequeathed h.
V. This covenant was differently adminiftred in the time of the law, and in the time of the gofpel i: Under the law it was adminiftred by promifes, prophefies facrifices, circumcifion, the pafchal lamb, and other types and ordinances delivered to the people of the Jews, all fore-fignifying Chrift to come k, which were for that time fufficient and efficacious,
cend into heaven? (thatisto bring Chrilt down from above.) v. 9. Thatif thou fhalt confefswith thy mouth the Lord Jefus,and fhalt believe in thine heart, that God hath raifed him from the dead, thou fhalt be faved. Gal. 3. 11. But that no man is juftified by the law in the fight of God, it is evident: for, the juft fhall live by faith.
g Ezek. 36. 26. A new heart alfo will I give you, and a new fpirit will I put within you, and I will take away the tony heart out of your fleth, and I will give you an heart of flesh.v. 27. And I will put my fpirit within you,and caufeyou to walk in my ftatutes,and ye fhall keep my judgments,and do them? John. 6.44. No man can come to me, except the Father which hath fent me, draw him; and I will raife him up at the laft day. v. 45. It is written in the prophets, and they fhall be all taught of God. Every man therefore that hath heard,and hath learned of the Father,cometh
IV. h Heb. 9. 15. And for this caufe he is the Mediator of the new Teftament, that by means of death for the redemption of the tranfgreffions that were under the firft teftament, they which are called might receive the promile of eternalinheritance.v.16.Forwhere
a teftament is, there must also of neceffity be the death of the teftator. v. 13. For a testament is of force after men are dead: otherwife it isof no ftrength at all whilst the teftator lieveth. Heb. 7.22. By fo much was Jefus made a furety of a better testament. Luke. 22.20. Likewife alfo the cup after fupper faying, This cup is the new Teftament, in my blood, which is fhed for you. 1 Cor. 11. 25. After the famemanner alfo he took the cup, when he had fupped, faying, This cup is the new teftament in my blood: this do ye, as oit as ye drink it in remembrance of me,
V. i 2 Cor. 3.6. Who alfohath made us able minifters of the new teftament; not of the letter, but of the fpirit: for the letter killeth; but the fpirit giveth life. v. 7. But if the miniftration of death written & engravenin ftones was glorious, fo that the children of Ifrael could not ftedfaftly behold the face of Mofes,for the glory of his countenance, which glory was to be done away; v. 8. How thall not the minitration of the fpirit be rather glorious? v. 9. For if the miniftration of condemnation be glory, much more doth the miniftration of righteoufnels exceed in glory. k (Heb. 8, 9, 10, Chaters.) Rom.
cacious, through the operation of the fpirit, to intruct and build up the elect in faith in the promifed Meffiah 1, by whom they had full remiffion of fins, and eternal falvation; and is called the old teftament m.
VI. Under the gospel, when Chrift the fubftance n was exhibited, the ordinances in which this covenant is difpenfed are the preaching of the word,and the administration of the facraments of baptifm and the Lord's fupper o, which tho'
4. 11. And he received the fignof circumcifion, a feal of the righteoulness of the faith, which he had yet being uncircumcifed; that he might be the Father of all them that believe, though they be not circumcifed; that righteoufnels might be imputed unto them alfo, Col. 2. 11. In whom alfo ye are circumcised with the circumcifion made without hands, in puttingoff the body of the fins of the flesh,by the circumcifion of Chrift: v. 12. Buried with him inbaptifm,wherein alfoye are rifen with him, thro' the faith of the operation of God, who hath raifedhim from the dead. 1 Cor.5.7.Purge out therefore the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye are unleavened. For even Chrift our paffover is facrifiged for us.
II Cor. 10. 1: Moreover, brethren, I would not that ye fhould be ignorant, how that all our Fathers were under the cloud,and all passed through the fea; v. 2. And were all baptized unto Mofes inthe cloud, and in the fea; v. 3. And did all eat the fame fpiritualmeat; 7.4. And did all drink the fame fpiritual drink: (for they drank of that fpiritual Rock that followed them and that Rock was Chrift.) Heb.11.13.Thefe all died infaith, not having received the promifes, but having feen them afar off, and were perfwaded of them,and embraced them, and confelled that they were strangers & pilgrims on the earth. John 8.56. Your father Abraham rejoiced to fee my day:
and be faw it, and was glad,
m Gal. 3. Know ye therefore, that they which are of faith, the famearethe children of Abraham, v.8. And the fcripture foreseeing, that God would justify the heathen through faith, preached before the gofpel unto Abraham, faying, In thee fhall all nations beblelled.v.9. So then, they which be of faith are blessed with faithful Abraham, v. 14. That the blefling of Abra ham might come on the Gentiles through efus Chrift; that we might receive the promile of the Spirit through faith.
VI. n Col, 2. 17. Which are a fhadow of things to come;but the body is of Chrift.
o Mat. 28. 19. Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing themin the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the holy Gholt; v. 20. Teaching them to obferveallthings whatfoever I have commanded you:and lo, I am with you, alway, even unto the end of the world. Amen.1 Cor.11.23. For I have received of the Lord, that which alfo I delivered unto you, thatthe Lord Jefus,the fame night in which he was betrayed, took bread: v. 24. And when he had given thanks, he brake it, and faid, Take, eat; this is my body, which is broken for you: this do in remembrance of me, v, 25. After the fame manner alfo he took the cup, when he had fupped, saying, This cup is the new teltament in my blood: this do ye,as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me. D 4 p Heb.
Chap. 7. fewer in number, and adminiftred with more fimplicity, and Jefs outward glory; yet in them it is held forth in more fulnefs, evidence, and fpiritual efficacy p, to all nations, both Jews and Gentiles q; and is called the new teftament r, There are not therefore two covenants of grace differing in fubftance, but one and the fame under various difpenfations f CHAP mediately foregoing.)Eph. 2.15. Havingabolifhed in hisflefh the enmity, even the law of commandments,containedin ordinances,for to make in himself, of twain, one new, man, fo making peace; v. 16. And that he might reconcile both unto God in one bodyby the cross having flain the enmity thereby v. 17. And came, and preached peace to you which were afar off, and to them that were nigh..18 For through him we both have an accefs by one fpirit unto the Father. 19. Now therefore ye are no more Ítrangers and foreigners, but fellow-citizens with the faints and of the houfhold of God.
p Heb 12. 27. But ye are come unto mount Sion,and unto the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerufalem, and to an innumerable company of angels,7.23. To the general affembly and church of the firit-born, which arewritten in heaven,and to God thejudge of all and to the fpirits of jult men made perfect,. 24. And to Jefus the Mediatorof the new covenant,and to the blood of fprinkling, that 1peaketh better things than that of Abel..25.See that ye refufe not him that speaketh: For if they efcaped not who refuf d him that fpake on earth, much more fhall not we elcape, if we turn away from him that fpeaketh from heaven.v.26.Whofe voice then hook the earth; but now he hath promifed, faying, Yet once more I fhake notthe earth only,but alloheaven. v. 27. And this word, Yet once more fignifieth the removing of thole things that are thaken as of things that are made, that thole things which cannotbefhaken,may remain. Jer. 31.33. But this fhall be the covenant that I will make with the houseof Ifrael,Afterthofe days faith the Lord, I will put my law intheir inward parts,andwrite it in their hearts, and will be their God, and they fhall be my people. v. 24. And they thall teach nomore everyman hisneighbour,andevery man his brother, faying, Know the Lord; for they fhall all know me, from the lealt of them, unto the greatest of them, faith the Lord for I willforgivetheir iniquity,and I will remember their fin nomore. 9 Mat. 28. 19. (See letter o im
r Luke 22.20. Likewife alfo the cup after fupper, laying, this cup is the new Teftament in my blood, which is fhed for you.
fual. 3.14 That the bleffing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jelus Chrift,that we might receive the promife of the fpirit through faith. . 16. Now to Abraham and his feed were the promifes made. He faith not, and to his feeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy feed, which is Chrift. Acts15.11. But we believe that through the grace of the Lord Jefus Chrift, we shall befaved,even as they. Rom. 3.21. But now the righteoufnefs of God without the law is manifeftea,oeing witneffed by the law and the prophets; v.22. Even the righteoufnels of God which isby the faithof Jefus Christ, unto all, and upon all them thathelieve; for there is no difference: V.23.For all have finned,andcome fhort of the glory of God; v. 30.
CHAP. VIII. Of Chrift the Mediator.
T pleafed God,in his eternal purpose, to choose and ordain the LORD JESUS, his only begotten Son, to be the Mediator between God and man a; the prophet b, prieft c, and king d; the head and Saviour of his church e; the heir of all things f, and judge of the world g Unto whom
Seeing it is oneGod whichfhall ju ftifythe circumcifion byfaith, and uncircumcifion thro' faith. Pfal. .Bleffed is he whofe tranfgrefLion is forgiven, whose fin is covered. With Rom, 4.3. For what faith the Scripture? Abraham believed God, and it was counted unto him for righteoufnefs. v.6. Even as David also describeth the bleflednels of the man unto whom God imputeth righteousness with out works v. 6. Therefore it is of Faith, that it might be bygrace, to the end the promise might be fure to all the feed, not to that Only which is of the law, but to that allo which is of the faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all. v. 17. (as it is written, I have made theeafatherof many nations) beforehim whom he believed,even God who quickneth the dead, and calleth thofe things which he not, as though they were. v. 23.Nowit was not written for his fake it alone, thatwasimputed to him ;.24. But for usalfo, to whom it fhall be imputed,if we believe on him that raifed up Jefus our Lord from the dead. Heb. 13. 8. Jefus Chrift the fame yesterday,and to-day,and for
I. a Ifa. 42. 1. Behold my fervant whom I uphold, mine elect, in whom my foul delighteth: I have put my spirit upon him, he fhall bring forth judgment to the Gentiles. Pet. I 19. But with the precious blood of Chrift, as of a lamb without blemishand without
fpot:". 20. Who verily was foreordained before the foundation of the world, butwas manifeft in these laft times for you, john 3.16. For God fo loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whofoever believethin him fhould not perish,buthave everlafting life. 1 Tim. 2. 5. For there is oneCod andoneMediator between God and men, the man Chrift Jefus.
b Acts 3. 22.For Motestruly faid unto the fathers, a prophet fhall the Lord your God raise up unto you of your brethren, like unto me: him, hall ye hear in all things whatfoever he thall fay unto you,
c Heb. 5.5. So also Chrift glori• fied not himself, to be made an high-prieft; but he that faid unto him, Thou art my Son, to day have I begotten thee. v. 6. As he faith alfo in another place, Thou art a prieft for ever, after the order of Melchifedec.
d Pfal. 2. 6. Yet have I fet my King upon my holy hill of Zion, Luke1.33.And he fhall reign over the houfe of Jacob forever, and of his kingdom there fhall be noend.
e Ehp. 5. 23. For the hufband is the head of the wife, even as Chrift is the head of the church; and he is the Saviour of the body.
fHeb. 1. 2. Hath in these laft days fpoken unto us by his Son, whom hehath appointed heir of all things, by whom alfo he made the worlds.
g Acts 17.31. Because he hath appointed a day in the which he wil