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like Tithes, &c., up to the year 855, are naturally initiated by the Church ; and when fully settled thus, are recognized and ratified by the State.
ARTICLES CLASSIFIED. I. to VIII.-The Catholic Faith set forth. IX. to XVIII.- Various Roman and Protestant
heresies condemned. XIX., XX.—The Church and her prerogatives de
fined. XXI. to XXIV.-As IX. to XVIII. XXV. to XXX.—The two "Sacraments of the
Gospel," and five "Sacramentals," elu
cidated. XXXI. to XXXIX.—As IX. to XVIII.
RULE OF INTERPRETATION.
“No man shall put his own sense or comment to be the meaning of the Articles, but shall take them in the literal and grammatical sense;" "in the plain and full meaning thereof;" “ in the true, usual, literal meaning.” — Declaration, and Art. xxxiv.
Of the Sacraments. Sacramenta a Christo Sacraments ordained instituta, tantum of Christ be not only sunt notæ professionis badges or tokens of Christianorum, sed certa Christian men's profesquædam potius testimo- sion, but rather they be nia et efficacia signa certain sure witnesses gratiæ atque bonæ in and effectual signs of nos voluntatis Dei, per grace and God's goodquæ invisibilitèr Ipse will towards us, by the in nobis operatur, nos. which He doth work intram que fidem in Se visibly in us, and doth non solùm excitat, verum not only quicken but also etiam confirmat.
strengthen and confirm
our faith in Him. Duo a Christo Domino There are two Sacranostro in Evangelio in- ments ordained of Christ stituta sunt Sacramenta ; our Lord in the Gospel, scilicet, Baptismus et that is to say, Baptism Cæna Domini.
and the Supper of the
Lord. Quinque illa vulgò Those five commonly nominata Sacramenta, called Sacraments, that scilicet, Confirmatio, is to say, Confirmation, Poenitentia, Ordo, Matri- Penance, Orders, Matrimonium, et Extrema
and Extreme Unctio, pro Sacramentis Unction, are not to be Evangelicis habenda non counted Sacraments of sunt, ut quæ, partim a the Gospel, being such pravà Apostolorum imi- as have grown partly of tatione profluxerunt, par- the corrupt following of tim vitæ status sunt in the Apostles, partly are Scripturis quidem pro- states of life allowed in bati, sed Sacramentorum the Scriptures; but yet eandem cum Baptismo have not like nature of et Conà Domini ration- Sacraments, with Bapem non habentes, ut quæ tism and the Lord's signum aliquod visibile, Supper, for that they seu cæremoniam, a Deo
have not any
visible institutam, non habeant. sign or ceremony orcumferrentur, sed ut ritè carried about, but that illis uteremur; et in his we should duly use them. duntaxat qui dignè per- And in such only as cipiunt, salutarem habent worthily receive the affectum. Qui verò in- same, they have a wholedignè percipiunt, damna- some effect or operation; tionem (ut inquit Paulus) but they that receive sibi ipsis acquirunt.
dained of God. Sacramenta non in hoc The Sacraments were instituta sunt a Christo not ordained of Christ to ut spectarentur, aut cir- be gazed upon, or to be
them unworthily, purchase to themselves damnation, as S. Paul saith.
I. WHAT SACRAMENTS ARE NOT. “Not only” outward signs, or empty nut-shells, as maintained by the Continental Reformers and their modern Dissenting followers, but a great deal
II. WHAT SACRAMENTS ARE. 1. Reliable pledges of God's goodwill to Man.
2. Assuring tokens of grace given at a definite time.
3. Visible media, or channels through which God invisibly pours Divine influence.
4. Quickening” or vitalizing the soul, and lighting the lamp of Faith therein, i.e., when the Divine Life is begun by new birth in Holy Baptism.
5. "Strengthening and confirming" the soul, and trimming the lamp afterwards ; i.e.
, by supply. ing fresh oil of Divine Grace in Confirmation and Holy Communion.
OBS. The Church Catechism corroborates this, by describing a Sacrament as an outward sign of inward grace" then and there given, because of the
promise in S. Matt. xxviii
. 20; and says in effect, that these two parts, like the Blade and Handle which form a Knife, must go together ; since otherwise, there is no “ Sacrament" at all. further, that the outward sign was fixed upon by Christ in person, for two reasons, viz. (1) as a medium or channel whereby the inward grace may How down and be conveyed to us; and (2) a pledge to assure us thereof,” i.e. a tangible something to enable us to feel certain that there is no mistake about the inward grace having really been given, by fixing the time and place, &c., of its actual conveyance or transmission.
III. “SACRAMENT” EXPLAINED BY ILLUS
TRATION. A Sacrament may be aptly compared to a Nut, inasmuch as it involves three things, viz. :
1. Signum, the outward and visible SHELL, or
Species, for inspection. 2. Res, the inward, invisible KERNEL, the
Real Thing, i.e., Divine Presence. 3. Virtus or Damnum, the FLAVOUR, good or
bad ; benefit or injury. Hence the last four questions in Church Catechism. (a) “What is the outward part," i.e. Signum ?
Ans. “Bread and wine,” &c. (6) “What is the inward part," i.e., Res signifi
cata? Ans. “ The Body and Blood of Christ,” &c. (Vid. also Prayer of Consecration, and Words of
Delivery, in Communion Office, for same teaching
of the Real Presence, or Præsentia Rei significata. (C) “What are the benefits," i.e. Virtus ?
Ans. “The strengthening and refreshing," &c.
(Vid. also Prayer of Humble Access, and Post Com.
munion Thanksgiving No. 2, in Communion
Office.) (d) “What is required," &c., i.e., to obtain
Virtus and escape Damnum ? Ans. " To examine themselves,” &c. (Vid. also Invitation in Communion Office, “Ye that
do truly,” &c. IV. SACRAMENTS, NOT TO BE HAD OUT OF
THE CHURCH. A Sacrament requires the conjunction of three essentials, in order that it may be “duly ministered according to Christ's ordinance in all those things that of necessity are requisite to the same." (Art. xix.) viz.
(i) The Priest to consecrate and bless. S. John XX. 21, 3; S. Matt. xxviii. 20.
(2) The Matter to be consecrated. S. John iii. 5; S. Matt. xxvi. 26, 7.
(3) The Words of Institution. S. Matt. xxviii. 19, and xxvi. 26, 8.
For observe. When giving His last command to the Apostles, Christ did not say, as He might, if He had so intended it, “Go everybody and baptize,” but “Go ye." And this deliberate limitation to a select few was ipso facto a designed exclusion of all others. (Num. iii. 10; xvi. 7.) Nor, again, did Christ say, as He so easily might had He chosen, “Lo, I am with Baptism, whosoever may administer it;" but, “ I am with you when baptizing.” Hence it is evident that in Christ's view of a Sacrament, the Minister is as important a feature of the rite as the Matter and the Words.
Now the various Dissenting Bodies not only have not, but do not pretend to have, the Apostolical Succession, through which alone the Sacra