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De Canâ Domini. Of the Lord's Supper. Cæna Domini
non The Supper of the est tantùm signum mu
Lord is not only a sign tuæ benevolentiæ Chris- of the love that Christianorum inter sese, tians ought to
have verùm potius est Sacra- among themselves one mentum nostræ, per to another, but rather mortem Christi, redemp- it is a Sacrament of our tionis.
redemption by Christ's Atque adeo, ritè, death; insomuch that dignè, et cum fide su- to such as rightly, wormentibus, panis quem thily, and with faith, frangimus est communi- receive the same, the catio Corporis Christi; bread which we break similiter, poculum bene- is a partaking of the dictionis est communi- Body of Christ, and catio Sanguinis Christi. likewise the Cup of
Blessing is a partaking
of the Blood of Christ. Panis et vini transub- Transubstantiation (or stantiatio in Eucharistiâ the change of the subex Sacris Literis probari stance of bread and non potest, sed apertis wine) in the Supper of Scripturæ verbis adver- the Lord, cannot be satur, Sacramenti na- proved by Holy Writ, turam evertit, et multa- but is repugnant to the rum superstitionum dedit plain words of Scripture, occasionem.
overthroweth the nature of a Sacrament, and hath given occasion to
many superstitions. Corpus Christi datur, The Body of Christ is
accipitur, et manducatur given, taken, and eaten, in Cænâ, tantùm cælesti in the Supper, only after et spirituali ratione. a heavenly and spiritual Medium autem,
manner. And the means Corpus Christi accipi- whereby the Body of tur, et manducatur in Christ is received and Cænâ, fides est.
eaten in the Supper is
faith. Sacramentum Eucha. The Sacrament of the ristiæ institutione Lord's Supper was not Christi non servabatur, by Christ's ordinance circumferebatur, eleva- reserved, carried about, batur, nec adorabatur. lifted up, or worshipped.
I. WHAT IT IS NOT.
“Not only,” or not merely, a hollow nut, &c., as home and foreign heretics said then and say
1; but a great deal more.
“ Thus much we must be sure to hold, that in the Supper of the Lord there is no vain (empty) ceremony, no bare sign, no untrue figure of a thing absent." (Hom. on Sacrts., p. 488.)
II. WHAT IT IS. (a) "A Sacrament of our Redemption by Christ's death.” In answer to the question, “ Why was the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper instituted ?” the Catechism says, “For a continual remembrance of the Sacrifice of the death of Christ, &c.,” i.e., a perpetual commemoration or dramatizing of the Crucifixion, which is thus represented both to the Father and His children, by the Priest who “ does this” at the Altar, when he breaks the bread and pours the wine in the act of Consecration. (Prayer of Consecration in Communion Office.)
(6) A “Sacrifice" (Sacrum-Facere) i.e., a "HolyMake,” or sacred offering, made with “ praise and thanksgiving ;" in other words, an offering presented to God“ Eucharistically," as the Latin of the Article twice calls it, from the Greek word as used by S. Paul, Acts xxvii. 35, where the original, compared with S. Luke xxii. 19, 20, and 1 Cor. xi. 23, seems evidently to imply that this was a Celebration of the Holy Eucharist. Similarly, in Acts xxviii. 15, when S. Paul met the brethren from Rome, he “ Eucharisted” with them, and so “took courage," i.e., he derived from the sacred rite that “strengthening and refreshing of the soul” which he so much needed, in anticipation of his coming trials.
(c) “ It is to be observed, that not only the presenting the unconsecrated elements to God was called an Oblation ; but that the Consecration itself was attended with a solemn presentation of the symbols of the Body and Blood of Christ to the Father. Therefore this Holy Memorial was called a Sacrifice, an Oblation, &c., and the Holy Table an Altar.” (Johnson's Apost. Canons. Ed. 1714,
III. SACRIFICIAL WORSHIP TO BE EX
PECTED IN THE CHRISTIAN DIS-
(a) Patriarchal worship was sacrificial.
Job i. 5; Gen. iii. 21; iv. 4; viii. 20 ; xii. 7; xiii. 18; xxii. 2 ; xxvi. 25; xxxi. 54.
(6) Tabernacle worship was sacrificial. Exod.
xx. 24; xxviii.; xxix. ; xxx. ; Lev. i.-ix. ; xvi. ; xxiii.; xxiv. ; Numb. xxviii. ; xxix.
1 2 ;
(c) Temple worship was sacrificial.
1 Kings viii. 63 ; ix. 25; Ezra iii. 2, &c. ; Jer. xxxiii. 18; S. Luke i. 9; ii. 24; S. Matt. v. 23; Acts xxi. 26; xxiv. 17 ; 1 Cor. v. 7.
(d) The Law was a preparation for the Gospel. S. Matt. v. 17 ; Gal. iii. 24; Heb. X. 1-14.
(e) “ Incense and a pure offering” were announced by Malachi i. u.
(f) Heavenly worship will be sacrificial.
viii. 3 ; ix. 13. (8) The various Dissenting Clubs having neither Priesthood, Altar, nor Sacrifice; their meeting houses are in no sense of the word "places of Worship,” or “Houses of Prayer," but merely Houses of Preaching, where people never think of kneeling to pray, but sit to hear one sermon addressed to God, and another addressed to themselves, the former being dignified by the title of
extempore prayer,” though learned by heart and said by rote, over and over again.
IV. CHRISTIAN WORSHIP SACRIFICIAL
(a) The only Rite of Public Worship appointed by Christ in the Gospel was the Holy Eucharist. " This do," i.e., Present this offering to God for My commemoration. (S. Luke xxii. 19; 1 Cor. xi. 24; Bishop Hamilton's Charge, 1867.)
(6) The only detail of his heavenly teaching revealed by S. Paul was this same Eucharistic celebration, where the “Lord's death” is that “Sacrifice of the Death of Christ,” which is to be “shewn” or re-presented to God and man, “often, till He
(1 Cor. xi. 26 ; Ch. Catm.) (c) In reply to those gainsayers who declared
that Christianity was a poor thing compared with Judaism, on account of its having no Altar worship, &c., S. Paul asserts the direct contrary—“We have an Altar," and by implication, Sacrificial Offerings, with Priesthood to present them in due form. (Heh. xiii. 10.)
(d) He repeatedly describes Christ as ‘Iepevs and apxlepevs (Priest and High Priest), and His work as προσφορα, αναφορα, λειτουργια (Offering) : technical words of sacrificial import. (Heb. vii. 15—27 ; viii. 1-3; ix. II, 14; X. 5 -18.)
(e) He applies similar terms to himself: delτουργος, ιερουργων, προσφορα. (Rom. Χν. 16.)
(f) Christ's Priesthood is to abide for ever. (Heb. vii. 17, 26; viii. 3.)
V. OLD AND NEW, CONTRASTED AND
COMPARED. (a) Sacrifices, “ Bloody” and “Unbloody," were offered prospectively, before the Crucifixion, having a constant reference to that Great Event yet to be accomplished in the future. Since that time, Sacrifice (“Unbloody” only, Mal. i. 11) has been offered retrospectively, i.e. with a constant reference to the same Great Event, " Finished” in the past.
(6) “Priest” = TT pocoTwS, Præ-stans, “BeforeStander." Sometimes also derived from " · Presbyter," i.e. an Elder or Older,
such persons being naturally selected for the high honour and important duty of “standing before" the Altar (1 Kings viii. 22) as the people's representative.