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i.e., the words of Institution pronounced by the Officiant, “In the name of the Father,” &c.
5. This “ Prevenient Grace," having done its work in disposing the heart of the adult or of the child's parents to come to the Font, is exchanged for and succeeded by the GRACE OF REGENERATION, or New Birth, which brings the candidate out of Satan's Kingdom into God's, and places him in a “state of salvation," i.e., a condition of safety, by putting him into the right road, and giving him a good start, so that if he "continues in the same unto his life's end,” he is sure to be finally saved. (S. Matt. v. 8; X. 22 ; 2nd Homily on Alms-deeds, p. 422.)
6. S. Paul mentions one Grace more, viz., “ Illumination” (Heb. x. 32); by which is understood the kindling of the Lamp of Divine Life within the soul, which is to be trimmed and supplied with fresh oil in Holy Communion and the five " Sacramentals."
Obs. This is plainly alluded to in the hymn from the Ancient Baptismal Office quoted by S. Paul (Eph. v. 14.) “Awake thou that sleepest, (Burial in Baptism,) “ And arise from the dead, (Rising from the water,) “And Christ shall give thee Light.” (Illumination.)
(Rom. vi. 4; Col. ii. 12.)
BAPTISM: WHAT IT IS. The means of conveying six special benefits : 1. A state of salvation. 2. Death unto sin (Rom. vi. 4). 3. New Birth unto righteousness. 4. Member of Christ. 5. Child of God. 6. Inheritor of the Kingdom of Heaven.
N.B. State of Salvation = Position or condition of safety. e.g., Noah and his family were in a state of salvation from the Flood, when they had gone inside the Ark, but safe only while they stayed there ; so that they would still have to pray that God would give them His grace and help to continue in the same, with persevering patience and resolute well-doing, unto the Flood's end.
Hence Baptism may be illustrated by a Railway Ticket : which is an assurance, not of getting safe to the journey's end, but of being in the right way to a prosperous conclusion, if the rest of the journey be accomplished according to this beginning
This Death, Burial, and Resurrection, are strikingly illustrated when the Rubric can be carried out, and instead of "pouring," the child is “dipped."
The practice of “sprinkling,” which is only too common, is quite un-rubrical, very slovenly, and an utterly misleading piece of ritual. The very object and purpose of Baptism is to wash away Birth-sin altogether, which is symbolized by either
dipping” or “ pouring ;” whereas “sprinkling" gives the false idea, of sin, like dust, being merely “laid," and left there.
VI. SUMMARY OF STATEMENTS. (a) BEFORE, (b) At, and (c) AFTER, Baptism. (a) BEFORE BAPTISM.
Being “born in sin," and therefore a child of wrath,” under God's displeasure, the child or adult
cannot turn or prepare himself to good works ;" so that Preventing or Prevenient Grace is necessary. (Catechism and Art. X.)
(6) AT BAPTISM.
The condemnation due to “Peccatum Originis” or Birth-sin (Job. xiv. 4,) is done away (Art. ix.); “the Holy Ghost is received” (Art. xvi.); the “ child of wrath,” with whom God was angry, becomes a "child of grace,” with whom God is pleased, and all the benefits named above are secured. (C) AFTER BAPTISM.
The “ infection of nature” (Depravatio), i.e., its tendency to sin, doth remain (Art. ix.) and the Regenerate (Renati) may “depart from grace given," (Art. xvi.) e.g., S. Paul's “ earthen vessel, ” (2 Cor. iv. 7,) being cracked and dirty, may be washed. The present uncleanness is thus removed ; but the crack remains, as well as its tendency to get dirty again. VII. CONSEQUENCES OF THIS BAPTIS
MAL TEACHING. (a) The Church teaches all baptized persons, while thanking God heartily for the assurance of their election into His Kingdom of the Church, to pray for the grace of Perseverance, “that they may continue in the same unto their life's end."(Catechism.)
(6) Hence the value of the “ Sacrament of Penance" and the peculiar "benefit of Absolution,' for those who,“ having departed from grace given and fallen into sin,” desire to “rise again and amend their lives." (Arts. xvi., xxv., and 2nd Exhortation in Holy Communion Office.)
How this “benefit" is to be assured to the Penitent, over whom the Priest pronounces Abso
lution in his “ministry of God's Holy Word” (S. John xx. 23,) is explained in the Commination Office, where three points are insisted on, viz., (1) Contrition of heart, (2) Confession with the mouth, and (3) Worthy fruits of Penance (Josh. vii. 19 ; 2 Sam. xii. 13).
VIII. INFANT V. ADULT BAPTISM.
Adult Baptism, like Adult Circumcision, must evidently be the exception, not the rule, when once the Church is founded and duly organized. (Gen. xvii. 9-12; S. Mark X. 13–16; S. Luke xviii. 15, 16; Acts ii. 39; i Cor. vii. 14.
IX. BAPTISMAL JUSTIFICATION. (a) “Our office is, not to pass the time of this present life unfruitfully or idly, after that we are Baptized or Justified.” (3rd Homily of Salvation, page 32).
(6) "Justification (Justus, Facio) is the judicial act of one who takes cognizance of a doubtful or disputed matter (Acts xiii. 39).
(c) When it is said that a person is “justified " by Baptism, Faith, Works, Words, &c., it is simply meant, that when arraigned before the Judgment Seat of Christ, these various points having been adduced as evidence in his favour, the Judge “makes him just," i.e., pronounces him acquitted.
(d) People justify themselves, as wise men justify wisdom, and the publicans justified God, by shewing that the conduct, &c., which is under consideration, is in strict accordance with right and justice. (S. Matt. xi. 19; S. Luke vii. 29).
(e) “ By faith the walls of Jericho fell down" (Heb. xi. 30). The Israelites believed what God said, and did what He told them. Accordingly the result “justified ” their confidence, and their faith was reckoned unto them for righteousness, i.e., was received as evidence, and procured a favourable verdict from the Justifying Judge.
(f) In S. Matt. 25, Christ "justifies” or pronounces just those who have fed the hungry, &c., and “condemns” or pronounces not just the unmerciful; without saying a word about Faith, Baptism, &c., in either case, though evidently Faith and the want of Faith are at the bottom of good and bad deeds respectively. (2nd Homily on Alms-deeds, page 422.)
(8). “Faith the root; Works the fruit.” Faith leads to Baptism in every case, and so, to Baptismal Justification, as based upon the Remission of Sins and Sanctification by the Holy Ghost. (S. Luke vii. 29; Acts xix. 5; ii. 41, 7; V. 14; viii, 12, 37 ; ix. 18; X. 48; xvi. 33).
(h) “Faith alone maketh Christ's satisfaction ours; howbeit, that Faith alone, which after sin maketh us by Conversion His.” (Hooker, Book vi. 5, § 2 ; and South. Serm. 28.)
(i) “Where Justification is ascribed to Faith alone, in Scripture, there the word Faith is still used by a metonymy of the antecedent for the consequent, and does not signify abstractedly a mere persuasion (for the Devils have that), but the obedience of a holy life performed in the strength and virtue of such a persuasion." (South. Serm. 28.)