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As they are set forth in the Book of Common Prayer

and Illustrated in the following pages.

1. Strict adherence to Catholic Doctrine and Practice; as

maintained in the “earliest, best, and purest times.”

(Art. 24; Canon 30; Notes on Art. 30.)

2. Repudiation of Private Judgment; except as an instru.

ment for weighing and measuring Historical Evidence.

(Arts. 18, 20, 34.)

3. Sacerdotalism :

(a) Apostolic Succession. Episcopacy.

(6) Power of the Keys. Discipline.

(Notes on Arts. 26, 29; and Holy Com. First Exhort.)

4. Sacramental System :

(a) Baptismal Regeneration.

(6) Real Presence in Holy Eucharist.

(Notes on Arts. 27-9; Ditto on Baptism and Holy Com-


5. Devout and Costly Ritual :

(a) “ Chancels as in times past.'

(6) Ornaments of the Church and Clergy, &c.
(Notes on Holy Com. and Ornaments Rubric.)
6. Lay Liberty, to use ; Clerical compulsion to admit;

(a) Auricular Confession.
(6) Prayers for the Dead.

(Notes on Holy Com.)

7. Church and State, conjoined in interest :

(a) Church confirmed in Rights and Property.
(6) State governed by Churchmen only.
(Canons 2-II; 110, 139; 39 Arts. H. M. Declaration.)

8. Church and State, distinct in action :

(a) “The Church hath authority in controversies of


(6) “The Crown restrains evil doers with the Civil

(Arts. 20, 37 ; Canons 122, 139.)

The Thirty-nine Articles.




1536. TEN: " Articles about Religion, set out by

the Convocation, and published by the King's authority; to stablyshe Christen quietnes and unitie amonge us, and to

avoid contentious opinions." [Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury; Henry VIII., King.] 1538. THIRTEEN : Modelled upon the Lutheran

Confession of Augsburgh (A.D. 1530), and therefore in accordance with Saxon or Lutheran, rather than Swiss or Calvinian

theology. [Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury ; Henry VIII., King. ] 1539. “THE BLOODY Six:” “resolved by the Con

vocation for the abolishing of diversity of

opinions" about certain Roman tenets. [Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury; Henry VIII., King.] 1553. FORTY-TWO. Never authorized by Convo

cation. Mainly an expansion of the former
Thirteen, and therefore anti-Calvinistic in
their origin and tendency; e.g. Art. xvii.
is the very language of Melancthon, a
strenuous opponent of Geneva.
[Archbishop Cranmer, King Edward VI.]


1562. THE SAME, brought nearly into their present

shape. “Passed, recorded, and ratified by Convocation, in Latin only.”

[Archbishop Parker, Queen Elizabeth.] 1571. PRESENT THIRTY-NINE. Latin original.

Jewel's English Translation authorized by
Convocation. “ Ratification“ appended.
Subscription of Clergy enforced.

[Archbishop Parker, Queen Elizabeth.] 1603. “ Instruction” upon Arts. xxv.—xxx., in the

shape of Questions on the two “Sacraments of the Gospel," (by Bishop Overal,)-now forming second part of Church Catechism, -added on to the “ Creed, Lord's Prayer, and Ten Commandments," which up to this time had formed the entire Catechism, and constituted the first portion of the Confirmation Office.

[Archbishop Whitgift; King James I.] 1628. Thirty-nine Articles republished, with pre

sent Declaration” prefixed.

[Archbishop Laud; King Charles I.] 1662. Thirty-nine Articles finally received, as we

have them now, at Restoration.
[Archbishop Sheldon ; King Charles II.]

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Vide Hardwicke's History of the Thirty-nine Articles Hardwicke's. Reformation Period ; Bishop_ H. Browne's Exposition of Thirty-nine Articles ; Bishop Forbes' Exposition of Thirty-nine Articles; Palmer's Treatise on the Church, Pt. ii., cap 5.



“ Articles of Religion, i.e. of obligation, (e.g. most religious Queen,') binding under certain circumstances of holding office in the Church ;" and, like the Canons, no part of the Prayer-Book proper, though often bound up with it; being designed for the guidance of the Clergy rather than the Laity (Bishop Forbes, p. vi.)

2. A series of Propositions, treating of various Theological and Ecclesiastical topics much debated at the Reformation period.

3. Statements about Truths, rather than the Truths themselves ;” devised as a basis of union between conflicting parties known to entertain strong and widely-divergent religious opinions.

4. Couched in the technical scholastic phraseology of the day, which needs careful study before the real drift and meaning of many passages can be rightly discerned.

5. Written orginally in Latin, to which constant reference must be made, for elucidation of difficulties occurring in the English Version.

6. Not intended by any means for a complete Body of Divinity, or Standard of Orthodoxy; inasmuch as many important matters are wholly omitted; e.g. The Fall, Angels, Inspiration, &c.

7. Founded on the assumption of an implicit substructure of the old Catholicity, as the true Via Media between Popery and Puritanism, both of which grievously pervert “the Faith once (i.e. once for all) delivered to the Saints ;" the former by addition, the latter by subtraction. [Bramhall's “Schism Guarded,”. Vol. ii., p. 476. Words

worth's Theophilus Anglicanus,” Pt. ii., cap. 4.]

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8. Calvinism, Latitudinarianism, and Private Judgment, as opposed to Church Authority, forcibly condemned in Arts. xvi., xviii., xx., xxxiv., and “ Declaration.

9. “Defender of the Faith,” and “Supreme Governor of the Church,” explained in Declaration and Art. xxxvii. Kingly power strictly limited to

Nursing Father” bound to conserve and maintain the Church."

10. SWORD AND Keys, expressly assigned to State and Church respectively, in Arts. xx., xxxvii., and Declaration. It is “the CHURCH” which “hath power to decree rites and ceremonies, and authority in controversies of Faith.” “The Crown hath only that prerogative which we see to have been given always to all godly princes in Holy Scripture by God Himself; viz., to rule all degrees, and restrain with the civil sword the evil doers.” Again; “ The Clergy in their Convocation are to order and settle Canons," &c.; and then, “The Crown is to approve their said ordinances.”

11. In accordance with this teaching of the Articles, the Clergy in their National Synod or Convocation, which Canon 139 calls “the Church Representative," agreed upon Prayer-Book and Articles; and then the Houses of Parliament and Crown, or “State Representative," consisting of Churchmen only, accepted these, and made them the law of the land by Acts of Uniformity.

12. This is the natural order of things, as witnessed by the popular phrase, “Church and State ;” which is an unconscious recognition of the fact, that the Church was fully constituted; and had an independent existence in England, for several centuries before the State came into being under Egbert. Hence Articles and Canons now,

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