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burning cottage; the storm, the sack, and the ruin of 40 cities: If we desire to unchain the furious passions of

jealousy and selfishness, of hatred, revenge and ambition, those lions, that now sleep harmless in their den: If we desire, that the lake, the river, the ocean, should blush

with the blood of brothers; that the winds should waft 45 from the land to the sea, from the sea to the land, the

roar and the smoke of battle; that the very mountaintops should become altars for the sacrifice of brothers; if we desire that these, and such as these—the elements

to an incredible extent, of the Literature of the old 50 world--should be the elements of our Literature, then,

but then only, let us hurl from its pedestal the majestic statue of our union, and scatter its fragments over all our land. But, if we covet for our country the noblest,

purest, loveliest Literature, the world has ever seen, such 55 a Literature as shall honor God, and bless Mankind; a

Literature, whose smiles might play upon an Angel's face, whose tears “would not stain an Angel's cheek;' then let us cling to the union of these States, with a pat

riot's love, with a scholar's enthusiasm, with a chris60 tian's hope. In her heavenly character, as a holocaust

self-sacrificed to God; at the height of her glory, as the ornament of a free, educated, peaceful, christian people, American Literature will find that THE INTELLECTUAL


EXERCISE 78. Eulogy on Adams and Jefferson.-Wirt. Such was the state of things under which the Congress of 1776 assembled, when Adams and Jefferson again met. It was, as you know, in this Congress, that

the question of American Independence came, for the 5 first time, to be discussed; and never, certainly, has a

more momentous question been discussed in any age or in any country; for, it was fraught, not only with the destinies of this wide extended continent, but as the

event has shown, and is still showing, with the destinies 10 of man all over the world,

Amid this appalling array that surrounded them, the first to enter the breach, sword in hand, was John Adams—the vision of his youth at his heart, and his coun

try in every nerve. On the sixth of May, he offered, in 15 committee of the whole, the significant resolution, that

the colonies should form governments independent of the crown. This was the harbinger of more important measures, and seems to have been put forward to feel

the pulse of the House. The resolution, after a severe 20 struggle, was adopted on the 15th of May following.

On the 7th of June, by previous concert, Richard Henry Lee moved the great resolution of Independence, and was seconded by John Adams; and “then came

the tug of war.” The debate upon it was continued 25 from the 7th to the 10th, when the further consideration

of it was postponed to the 1st of July, and at the same time a committee of five was appointed to prepare, provisionally, a draught of a Declaration of Independence.

At the head of this important committee, which was then 30 appointed by a vote of the House, although he was proba

bly the youngest member, and one of the youngest men in the House, for he had served only part of the former session, and was but thirty-two years of age, stands the

name of Thomas Jefferson-Mr. Adams stands next. 35 And these two gentlemen, having been deputed a sub

committee to prepare the draught, that draught, at Mr. Adams's earnest importunity, was prepared by his more youthful friend. Of this transaction Mr. Adams is him

self the historian, and the authorship of the Declaration, 40 though once disputed, is thus placed forever beyond the reach of question.

The final debate on the resolution was postponed as we have seen, for nearly a month. In the meantime,

all who are conversant with the course of action of all 45 deliberative bodies, know how much is done by conver

sation among the members. It is not often, indeed, that proselytes are made on great questions by public debate. On such questions, opinions are far more frequently

formed in private, and so formed, that debate is seldom 60 known to change them. Hence the value of the out-of

door talent of chamber consultation, where objections, candidly stated, are candidly, calmly, and mildly discussed; where neither pride, nor shame, nor anger take

part in the discussion, nor stand in the way of a correct 65 conclusion: but where everything being conducted

frankly, delicately, respectfully, and kindly, the better cause and the better reasoner are almost always sure of success. In this kind of service, as well as in all

that depended on the power of composition, Mr. Jefferson 60 was as much a master-magician, as his eloquent friend

Adams was in debate. They were, in truth, hemispheres of the same golden globe, and required only to be brought and put together, to prove that they were parts

of the same heaven-formed whole. 65 On the present occasion, however, much still remain

ed to be effected by debate. The first of July came, and the great debate on the resolution for independence was resumed with fresh spirit. The discussion was

again protracted for two days, which, in addition to the 50 former three, were sufficient, in that age, to call out all the speaking talent of the House. *

Mr. Jefferson has told us that “the Colossus of that Congress—the great pillar of support to the Declaration

of Independence, and its ablest advocate and champion 75 on the floor of the House, was John Adams.”


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The resolution having been carried, the draught of the Declaration came to be examined in detail; and, so

faultless had it issued from the hands of its author, that 80 it was adopted as he had prepared it, pruned only of a

few of its brightest inherent beauties, through a prudent deference to some of the States. It was adopted about noon of the Fourth, and proclaimed to an exulting na

tion, on the evening of the same day. 85 That brave and animated band who signed it—where

are they now? What heart does not sink at the question? One only survives: Charles CARROLL, of Carrollton—a noble specimen of the age that has gone by,

and now the single object of that age, on whom the ven90 eration and prayers of his country are concentrated.


The Greek Revolution.-WEBSTER.
The end and scope of this amalgamated policy is
neither more nor less than this:—to interfere, by force,

for any government, against any people who may resist

it. Be the state of the people what it may, they shall 5 not rise; be the government what it will, it shall not be opposed. The

practical commentary has corresponded with the plain language of the text.

Look at Spain and at Greece. If men may not resist the Spanish

inquisition, and the Turkish scimitar, what is there to 10 which humanity must not submit? Stronger cases can

never arise.--Is it not proper for us, at all times—is it not our duty, at this time, to come forth, and deny, and condemn, these monstrous principles? Where, but here

and in one other place, are they likely to be resisted? 15 They are advancing with equal coolness and boldness;

and they are supported by immense power. The timid will shrink and give way—and many of the brave may be compelled to yield to force. Human liberty may yet,

perhaps, be obliged to repose its principal hopes on the 20 intelligence and the vigour of the Saxon race. As far

as depends on us, at least, I trust those hopes will not be disappointed; and that, to the extent which may consist with our own settled, pacific policy, our opinions and

sentiments may be brought to act on the right side, and 25 to the right end, on an occasion which is, in truth,

nothing less than a momentous question between an intelligent age, full of knowledge, thirsting for improvement, and quickened by a thousand impulses, and the most arbitrary pretensions, sustained by unprecedented

30 power:


In four days, the fire and the sword of the Turk, rendered the beautiful Scio a clotted mass of blood and ashes. The details are too shocking to be recited. Forty

thousand women and children, unhappily saved from the 35 general destruction, were afterwards sold in the market of Smyrna, and sent off into distant and hopeless servi

Even on the wharves of our own cities, it has been said, have been sold the utensils of those hearths

which now exist no longer. Of the whole population 40 which I have mentioned, not above 900 persons were

left living upon the island. I will only repeat, sir, that these tragical scenes were as fully known at the Congress of Verona, as they are now known to us; and it is

not too much to call on the powers that constituted that 45 Congress, in the name of conscience, and in the name



of humanity, to tell us if there be nothing even in these unparalleled excesses of Turkish barbarity, to excite a sentiment of compassion; nothing which they regard as

so objectionable as even the very idea of popular resist50 ance to arbitrary power.

I close, then, sir, with repeating, that the object of this resolution is, to avail ourselves of the interesting occasion of the Greek revolution, to make our protest

against the doctrines of the Allied Powers; both as they 55 are laid down in principle, and as they are applied in


I think it right, too, sir, not to be unseasonable in the expression of our regard, and, as far as that goes, in a

ministration of our consolation to a long oppressed and 80 now struggling people. I am not of those who would in

the hour of utmost peril, withhold such encouragement as might be properly and lawfully given, and when the crisis should be passed, overwhelm the rescued sufferer

with kindness and caresses. The Greeks address the 65 civilized world with a pathos not easy to be resisted

They invoke our favour by more moving considerations than can well belong to the condition of any other

people. They stretch out their arms to the Christian com

munities of the earth, beseeching them, by a generous 70 recollection of their ancestors, by the consideration of

their own desolated and ruined cities and villages, by their wives and children, sold into an accursed slavery, by their own blood, which they seem willing to pour out

like water, by the common faith, and in the Name, which 75 unites all Christians, that they would extend to them,

at least some token of compassionate regard.

EXERCISE 80. Triumph of the Gospel.-Phillip. Whatever may be said scoffingly, or in earnest, about the march of intellect, the age in which we live is more distinguished than perhaps any other, by the

march and triumph of enlightened, religious, and moral 5 principle. Even the world itself seems to have forebod

ings of an approaching change; all creatures sigh to be renewed; the whole creation groaneth and travaileth in

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