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A. D. cir. 45.

A. D. cir. 45.

A. M. cir.4019. the Holy Ghost said, •Separate me 4 So they, being

sent forth by A. M. cir.4019. An. Olymp.

Barnabas and Saul for the work the Holy Ghost, departed unto Se- An. Olymp. cir. CCVI. 1. whereunto I have called them. leucia; and from thence they sailed to

3 And when they had fasted and prayed, and Cyprus. laid their hands on them, they sent them away. 5 And when they were at Salamis, they

cir. CCVI. I.



· Numb. 8. 14. ch. 9. 15. & 99. 21. Rom. 1. 1. Gal. 1. 15. & 2. 9. || Eph. 3. 7, 8. 1 Tim. 2. 7. 2 Tim. 1. 11. Hebr. 5. 4.• Matt. 9. 58. ch. 14. 26. Rom. 10. 15.

d ch. 4. 36.-_ver. 46.

-> ch. 6. 6.

Verse 2. Separate me Barnabas and Saul Consecra'e, || called them. Sach persons will consider themselves account. or set them apart, for the particular work whereunto I able to GOD and his church; and should take care how they use have called them. How this was done, we find in the next the gist and authority received from both. Is it not being wise Terse.

above what is written, to say, “ When God has called and Verse 3. And when they had fasted and prayed, and luid given authority, there is no need of ordination or appointtheir hands on them] 1. They fusted: this was probably ment from man.” I would just ask the objector, Why then, done by the whole church. 2. They prayed, that God || when God had called Barnabas and Saul to the work, did he might bless and prosper them in their work. 3. They buid command the church to separate them to him for that very hands upon them; thus solemnly appointing them to that par- work? And why did they in obedience, fast, pray, and lay ticular work. But was it by this fasting, praying, and im- || hands upon them? I shall dispute with no man about the suposition of hands that these men were qualified for this perior excellence of the episcopal or presbyterian form in or. work? No. God had already called them to it, ver. 2. and | dination : if all the preliminaries be right, they may be both he who called them, had qualified them. Both their call and equally good, for all that I have ever been able to learn to their qualification came from God; but he chose that they the contrary; but that there should be some proper scriptural should have also the sanction of that church of which they || form attended to, I am fully satisfied. Besides, if the plan of had been members ; and therefore he said, Separate me, &c. the church at Antioch were regularly and faithfully followed, The ordination of elders among the Jews was by three per- in sending forth the ministers of the gospel, no man can prove sons; and here we find three, Simeon, Lucius, and Menaen, I that God would not own them in an especial manner, and ordaining two others, Barnabas and Saul. But how did the more particularly prosper their work. But O! ye rulers of Jews ordain? Not by imposition of hands: this is strictly the church, be careful as ye shall answer it to God, never to forbidden, see Maimon. Sanh. chap. 4. “ After what man- || lay hands on the head of a man, whom ye have not just reason ner is the ordaining of elders for ever? Not that they should to believe God has called to the work; and whose eye is lay their hands on the head of an elder; but only that they single, and whose heart is pure. Let none be sent to teach should call him Rabbi, and say to him, Behold thou art or. Christianity, who have not experienced it to be the power of dained, and hast power of judging, &c.” It is remarkable God to the salvation of their own souls. If ye do, though they that the imposition of hands in the ordaining of elders was have your authority, they never can have the blessing nor the not used among the ancient Jews, probably never under the approbation of God. “ I sent them not : therefore they shall first temple ; and rarely, if ever, under the second. See not profit this people at all, saith the Lord.Jer. xxiii. 32. Lightfoot on this place. The church at Antioch, however, Verse 4. Being sent forth by the Holy Ghost] By his did depart from this custom : they put their hands on the influence, authority, and under his continual direction. Withheads of Barnabas and Saul; thus designating them to be out the first, they were not qualified to go : without the sethe persons whom they, under the direction of the Holy cond, they had no authority to go: and without the third, Spirit, sent to preach the gospel of Christ to the heathen. they could not know where to go.

When the Holy Spirit said, Separate me Barnabas and Departed unto Seleucia] This is generally understood to Saul for the work whereunto I have called them; and the el- | be Seleucia of Pierid, the first city on the coast of Syria, ders of the church, in consequence, prayed, fasted and laid | coming from Cilicia ; near the place where the river Orontes their hands upon them; they certainly understood that by act. pours itself into the sea. ing thus, they fulfilled the mind of the Spirit. Hence, is it They sailed to Cyprus.] A well known island in the Me. not evident, that when the elders of the church of God have diterranean sea. See on chap. iv. 36. good reason to believe that He has called certain persons to Verse 5. Salamis] The capital of the island of Cy, the work of the ministry, and qualified them for that work, prus; afterwards called Constantia ; and now Salina, situated that they should proceed as the elders of the church of An- on the eastern part of the island tioch did ; and by fasting, prayer, and imposition of hands, They preached the word of God] 'Tav novov, the doc. separate those persons for the work whereunto God has II trine of God, the Christian religion emphatically so called,

+ M

They preach to the Roman deputy


in Paplios, where they are opposed

A. D. cir. 45.

A. D. cir. 45.

cir. CCVI. 1.

A. M. cir.4049. preached the word of God in the sy- || Sergius Paulus, a prudent man;

A. M.cir. 4010, An. Olymp. nagogues of the Jews : and they had who called for Barnabas and Saul, An. Olymp. cir. CCVI.1. also John to their minister. and desired to hear the word of

1 6 ? And when they had gone through the isle God. unto Paphos, they found a certain sorcerer, 8 But ° Elymas, the sorcerer, (for so is his a false prophet, a Jew, whose name was Bar-name by interpretation,) withstood them, seekJesus:

ing to turn away the deputy from the faith. 7 Which was with the deputy of the country, 9 Then Saul, (who also is called Paul,) "filled

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They had also John to their minister.] This was John days, the Romans sent two different kinds of governors into Mark, of whom we heard, chap. xii. 25.--for their minister, the provinces. Some of the provinces were Cæsarean or im. ŠTYPĚTYV, to assist them in minor offices, as deacon or servant ;| perial, and into those they sent proprætors: others belonged that they might give themselves wholly to the doctrine of the to the senate and people of Rome, and into those they sent Lord.

proconsuls. Cyprus had formerly been an imperial province; Verse 6. Gone through the isle] '027,9, the whole isle, but Augustus, who made the distinction, had given it to the is added here by ABCDE. several others, both the Syriac, | people, whence it was governed by a proconsul. See Dio Coptic, Æthiopic, Armenian, Vulgate, and Itala : and also | Cass. Hist. Rom. lib. iv. p. 523. [Edit. Leunclav.] by several of the Greek fathers : and this must be the true Sergius Paulus] . This proconsul is not mentioned any reading; for it is evident they ran through the whole island || where else: he became a Christian; had his name written from East to West.

in the book of life; and probably on that very account, Unto Paphos] This town, next in importance to Salamis, blotted out of the Fasti Consulares. was situated on the western part of the isle; and having A prudent man] Ayagı GUVET", a man of good sense, of a gone from Salamis to this place, is a proof that they had gone sound understanding, and therefore wished to hear the docthrough the whole island from East to West, according to trine taught by these apostles, he did not persecute the men the reading noticed above. There was probably no town in for their preaching ; but sent for them that he might hear the universe more dissolute than Paphos. Here Venus had | for himself. å superb temple: here she was worshipped with all her rites; Verse 8. But Elymas, the sorcerer, (for so is his name and from this place she was named the Paphion Venus, the by interpretation)] That is, Elymas is the interpretation of queen of Paphos, &c. This temple and whole city were de- | the word uayos, or sorcerer; not of the word Bar-Jesus, as stroyed by an earthquake; so that a vestige of either does not | some have imagined ; and to support which they have been led bow remain. There are two islands which go by this name, into strange etymologies on the word Bap-Ingous, Bar-Jesus. both adjoining, and on the west side of the island of Cyprus. But how is Elymas, Eluas, the interpretation of the word One is called Old Paphos, the other New Paphos ; the latter | ayos, magician or sorcerer? Ans. Both names are Asiatic; is probably the island here mentioned, though they are often but neither Hebrew nor Greek. I have already observed in confounded. On this island there is a Christian church, de- || the note on Matt. ii. 1. that mogh in Persian means dicated to St. George, in which, service is performed by the an idolater, a worshipper of fire, and sometimes what we Greek ministérs. It is a bishop's see, suffragan to the Abp | term a magician. Elymas is from the Arabic pls ilm, of Nicosia. : A certain sorcerer] Tiva Mayov, a magician, one who | knowledge, science, doctrine, art; from álama, he was wise,

hence used magical arts, and pretended to have commerce with su

skilled, &c.

alcem or alymon, a doctor or pernatural agents. A person who dealt in sleight of hand, or learned man, and with'the Greek termination saunas, Elyleger-de-main. Such as I have supposed Simon Magus to be.mas, the interpretation of er mogh, Greek waves, magos, See the note on chap. viii. 9.

a magician, a wise man, doctor, &c. A false prophet] A deceiver, one who pretended to have Verse 9. Saul, who also is-Paul This is the first a divine commission; a fortune-teller.

time the name Paul occurs, and the last time in which this Bar-Jesus] i. e. the son of Jesus or Joshua; as Bar-Jona apostle is called Saul; as his common, or general name. is the son of Jonah ; Bar-tholomew, the son of Thalmi, &c. Saul, 1980 Shaül, was the name of the first Israelitish

Verse 7: The deputy of the country] AvAUTOTW, the king, and signifies asked, sought ; from Sau shaal, he asked, proconsib. Roseninuller and others remark, that in those ll enquired, &c.


bay the Sorcerer Elymas, aginst


whom Paul denounces God's judgments.

A. D. cir. 45.

A. D. cir. 45.

A. M. cir.2049. with the Holy Ghost, set his eyes on and all mischief, thou child of A.M.cir. 4049. An. Olymp. him,

the devil, thou enemy of all righ: An. Olymp. 10 And said, O full of all subtilty teousness, wilt thou not cease to

cir. CCVI. I.

cir. CCVI.1.

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Paul, Paulus, if derived from the Latin, signifies little, lently well defines a juggler, one who is expert at sleight of darfish: but if from the llebrem, no pala, it signifies er- hand; though it is often employed to signify an abandoned traordinary, wonderful; and this appears to have been the and accomplished villain. derivation assigned to it by St. Jerome, com. in Ep. Pauli ad Child of the devil] Toe diaco.01, son of the devil, possessPhilem. who translates it mirabilis, wonderful: and Ilesy-ing his nature; filled with his cunning; and, in consequence, chius must have had the same in view, for he defines it thus, practising deceit. Παυλος, θαυμασος, η εκλεκτος, συμβουλος, Paul, wonderful, Enemy of all righteousness] Εχθρε πασης δικαιοσυνης; or elect, counsellor. The lexicographer had probably here opposed in thy heart to all that is just, truc, and good. in view, Isai. ix. 6. his name shall be called (10% ma pelé Wilt thou not cease to pervert, 8c.] OU TE QUOY, 0125 pequv, yoêts) wonderful, counsellor; which he might corrupt into wilt thou not cease perverting. He had probably laboured paulus, and thus make his 6:28505 OUL SOU AOs out of it by in this bad work, from the beginning of Paul's ministry in the way of explanation. Triller however, supposes the ovubou- place; and God in his mercy had borne with him ; and no Baş of Hesychius to be corrupted from ourdoulos fellow-ser-doubt the apostle had warned him, for thus much seems imvant, which is a term not unfrequently applied to apostles, | plied in the reproof. What a terrible character is given of &c. in the New Testament: who are called the servants of this bad man! He no doubt passed among the people for God: and it is used by Paul himself, Coloss. i. 7. and iv. 7. / what we call a clever fellox ; and he was so clever as to hide The Latin original is the most probable. It is well known himself under a pretty dense mask; but God who searches that the Jews in the apostolic age, had frequently two names; the heart, plucked it off, and tells him, and those who were one Hebrew, the other Greek or Roman. Saul was born of perverted by him, what an accomplished deceiver and knave Jewish parents, a Hebrew of the Hebrews; ho had therefore he was. his first name from that language, Soxu Shaul, asked or beg- The right ways of the Lord] Tas occus Kupkou Tas El 38125, ged; as it is possible, he might have been a child for whom the ways of the Lord, the straight ways. This saying is very his parents had addressed their fervent petitions to God. The emphatical. The ways of Elymas were crooked and percase of Samuel is one in point. See 1 Sam. i. 9—18. As ho verse; the ways of the Lord, the doctrine taught by him, was born in Tarsus in Cilicia, he was consequently born a plain and straight. What is here said of the conduct and free Roman citizen; and hence his parents would naturally teaching of Elymas, for he was a false prophet, is true of all give him for cognomen, some name borrowed from the Latin false doctrine : it is complex, derious, and tortunus : while the tongue; and Paulus, which signifies little, might indicate doctrine of God is simple, plain, and straight ; directing in that he was at his birth a small or diminutive child. And it the way, the sure way that leads to present peace, and everis very likely that he was low in stature all his days; and lasting happiness. From the phraseology which the apostle that it is to this he refers himself, 2 Cor. x. 10. for his bodily employs in this terrible address to Elymas, we may learn, as presence is weak, and his speech contemptible. If he were

well as from his name Bar-Jesus, that he was by birth and small in stature, his voice would be naturally low and feeble; \ education a Jew. On this account he was the greater eneand the Greeks, who were fond of a thundering eboquence, || my to Christianity; and on this same account, he was the less would despise him on this very account.

lexcusable. Filled with the Holy Ghost] Therefore the sentence he Verse 11. The hand of the Lord is upon thee] The power pronounced was not from himself, but from God. And in- of God is now about to deal with thee in the way of justice. deed had be not been under a divine influence, it is not likely Thou shalt be blind Every word here proves the immethat he would have ventured thus to accost this sorcerer in diate inspiration of Paul. He was full of the Holy Ghost the presence of the governor, who, no doubt, had greatly ad- when he began this address : by the light of that Spirit he mired him.

discerned the state of Elymas, and exposed his real characVerse 10. O full of all subtilty] Agnou deceit, pretend ter ; and by the prophetic influence of that same Spirit, he ing to supernatural powers, without possessing any; and hav- predicted the calamity that was about to fall upon him, while ing only cunning and deceit as their substitutes.

as yet there was no sign of his blindness! Mark this ! And-mischief] Padloupyias, from abos easy, and spyor Not seeing the sun for a season.] In the midst of judgment a work; one who is ready at his work ; a word which excel-/ God remembers mercy. This blinduess was not to be perpe

Elymas is struck blind, and the


deputy confirmed in the faith,

pervert the

A. D. cir. 45.

A.D. cir. 45.

An. Olymp cir. CCVI. 1.

the right

right ways of the 12 Then the deputy, when he saw A.M.cir. 4049. Lord ?

what was done, believed, being as- An. Olymp. 11 And now, behold, the hand of tonished at the doctrine of the Lord. cir. CCVI. 1. the Lord is upon thee, and thou shalt be 13 I Now when Paul and his company loosed blind, not seeing the sun for a season. And from Paphos, they came to Perga in Pamphyimmediately there fell on him a mist and a dark- || lia : and "John departing from them, returned to ness; and he went about seeking some to lead Jerusalem. him by the hand.

14 But when they departed from Perga, they

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tual: it was intended to be the means of awakenivg and soft- Verse 13. Paul and his company loosed from Paphos] ening the hard heart of this poor sinner. There is an ancient They sailed away from this island, leaving, it may be pretradition, and it is mentioned both by Origen and Chrysostom, sumed, Elymas a sincere and deeply humbled penitent; and that Elymas, in consequence of this, became a sincere con- | Sergius Paul, a thorough and happy believer in the doctrine vert to the religion of Christ. Origen says, " And Paul by of Christ. a word, striking him blind, who was with the proconsul Previously to this time, St. Luke always mentions Barnabas Sergius Paul, 81% TWY TOWY, ET45PEPEL QUTOV Eiç bestabelar, before Paul ; but after this he mentions Paul always first; by anguish converted him to godliness.” And commenting probably after seeing how God had distinguished him in the on Thou shalt be blind, not seeing the sun ayet x2100v, for a late proceedings at Cyprus; as much of the Holy Spirit now season, asks, “ And why for a season? That being smitten rested upon him. on account of his transgressions, and brought to re; entance, They cume to Perga in Pamphylia) As Perga was not a he might at last be deemed worthy to see the sun, not only maritime towil, it is conjectured that the apostles sailed up with his body, but with his mind; that the divine virtue the river Cestrus, in order to come to this place, which, ac. might be proclaimed in restoring him to sight, and his soul | cording to Strabo, was situated about sixty leagues up this believing, might receive godliness.” Com. in Exod. Vol. I. river, and near to which was a famous temple, dedicated to p. 117. edit. de la Rue, Par. 1733.

Diana. For Pamphylia, see chap. ii. 10. There fell on him a mist and darkness] Agnus achlus, And John departing from them] Why John Mark left his is a disordered state of the eye, in which the patient sees brethren at this place, we are not informed; probably he went only as through a thick mist. This thick mist, or perturbed to visit his pious mother Mary at Jerusalem, and to see Peter, state of the eye, took place first : it increased, and oxOTOS, to whom he is supposed to have been much attached. It certhick, positive darkness was the issue.

tainly was not with the approbation of Paul that he left them He went about] Ieprawy. Not knowing how to take a at this place, as we learn from chap. xv. 38, yet his deparright step, he groped about in great uncertainty; and not be- ture does not seem to have merited the displeasure of Baring able to find his way, he sought for some persons to lead nabas; for John Mark having met these apostles at Antioch, him by the hand. This state of Elymas is inimitably express when Paul purposed to revisit the various places where they had ed in one of the cartons of Raphael, now at Hampton-court, planted the word of God, Barnabas was willing to take him (and lately engraved in the true spirit of the original, by Mr. | with them; but Paul would not consent, because he had deThomas Holloway,) in which his whole figure expresses the parted from them, from Pamphylia, and went not with them to depth of distress, concern, uncertainty, and confusion ; and, to the work, ch. xv.35_39. and this occasioned a separation beuse a word common in exhibiting this matchless piece of paint-tween Barnabas and Paul. It does not appear that John Mark ing, he is blind from head to foot. In this manner, the text au- was under any obligation to accompany them any longer or any thorized the painter to express the state of this miserable culprit. farther than he pleased. He seems to have been little else than

Verse 12. The deputy-believed] This was a proof that their servant, and certainly was not divinely appointed to this the doctrine was true ; and that the power of God, from work, as they were ; and consequently might leave them inwhich nothing could be concealed, and which nothing could nocently, though not kindly, if they could not readily supply resist, was with these preachers.

his place.

In this respect John Mark might be to blame; Being astonished] Ext2.7,00QUEVOS; being struck with but Barnabas, whose nephew he was, could look over this astonishment, as Elymas was struck with blindness. Thus fault more easily than Paul, who could not find those mothe word of God is a two-edged sword; it smites the sinner tives to pass by what was reprehensible in his conduct, which with judgment or compunction; and the sincere enquirer after natural affection might furnish to his brother apostle. truth, with conviction of its own worth and excellence. Verse 14. They came to Antioch in Pisidia] This place Paul preaches to the Jews


at Antioch in Pisidia.

A. D. cir.15.

cir. CCVI.1.

cir. CCVI. 1.

came to Antioch in Pisidia, and went 16 Then Paul stood up, and beck- A. M. cir.4049. An. Olymp. into the synagogue on the sabbath-oning with his hand said, Men of An. Olymp. day, and sat down.

Israel, and oye that fear God, give 15 And after the reading of the law and the audience. prophets, the rulers of the synagogue sent unto 17 The God of this people of Israel 'chose them, saying, Ye men and brethren, if ye|our fathers, and exalted the people 5 when they have any word of exhortation for the people, || dwelt as strangers in the land of Egypt, and

with a high arm brought he them out of it.

say on.

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is mentioned thus to distinguish it from Antioch in Syria, Sent unto them] Seeing them to be Jews, they wished them with which it had nothing in common but the name. There to give some suitable address to the people, i. e. to the Jews were several cities and towns in various districts of these who were there engaged in the divine worship; for the whole countries called Antioch: some have reckoned up not less than of the following discourse, which greatly resembles that of twelve. Pisidia, in which this was situated, was a province St. Stephen, chap. vii. is directed to the Jews alone; and of Asia Minor, near to Pamphylia, having Phrygia on the this was probably spoken, either in Hebrew or Greek. North, and Pamphylia on the South. The position of all Ye men and brethren] Ardes adenpon, men brethren, a these places may be seen on the Mup.

Hebraism for, “ Ye men who are our brethren," i. e. Jews, Into the syrugogne on the sabbath-day] Though Paul was as we ourselves are ; but avoces is often an expletive, as we now on a special mission to the Gentiles, yet he availed have already seen. See the note on chap. vii. 2. himself of every opportunity, in every place, of making the If ye have any word of exhortation] E150 hoyos ay up. first offer of salvation to the Jews.

Trapax.yoews If ye have any subject of consolation ; any Verse 15. After the reading of the lawo and the prophets] word of comfort to us, who are sojourners in this strange A certain portion of the law, and another of the prophets, land, speak it. The Consolation of Israel was an epithet of was read every sabbath ; and the law was so divided as to the Messiah among the Jews; and it is probable that it was be read over once every year. In the notes at the conclu- in reference to him that the rulers of the synagogue spoke. sion of Deuteronomy, I have considered this subject at That Tapanayois is to be understood here, as meaning conlarge, and given a complete table of the Purashoth, sections solation, and this in reference to the Messiah, the whole of of the law; and Haphtaroth, sections of the prophets, which the following discourse will prove to the attentive reader; are read every sabbath in the year in the Jewish synagogues. in which Paul shews the care and protection of God towards To have an exact view of every part of the Jewish ecclesi- his people Israel, and the abundant provision he had made astical æconomy, the Reader will do well to consult the for their salvation by Jesus Christ. They wished for consoabove mentioned Table, and those which follow it: they 'lation, and he declared unto them glad tidings; and many have been drawn up with great care, attention, and inde felt the power and comfort of the doctrine of the cross. scribable labour.

Verse 16. Men of Israel] Ye that are Jews by birth, and It has been a question, in what language were the law'ye that fear God; ye that are proselytes to the Jewish reliand prophets read in a synagogue of Pisidia, for in that dis- gion. In this discourse Paul proves that Jesus Christ is the trict Strabo informs us, that your languages were spoken, viz. Messiah, sent from God, not only for the salvation of the the Pisidian, the Solyman, the Greek, and the Lydian Jews, but of the whole human race. And this he does, not Dr. Lightfoot conjectures, with great probability, that the with the rhetorician's arts, but in a plain, simple detail of Seriptures were read in the original Hebrew; and that an the history of Christ, and the most remarkable transactions interpreter rendered the reading to the people in their mother of the people of God, which referred to his manifestation in tongue. There is no doubt that the Jews and proselytes un

the flesh. Rosenmuller. derstood the Greek tongue well; and they certainly had the

Verse 17. The God of-our fathers] The apostle begins Septuagint Version-among them.

his discourse with the Egyptian bondage, and their deliver· The rulers of the synagogue] These were the persons, ance from it, as points the most remarkable and striking in whose business it was to read the appointed sections ; and to their history; in which the providence and mighty power of take care of the synagogue and its concerns; and to see that God, exerted so frequently in their behalf, were peculiarly all was done decently and in order.


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