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“ confidered as parts of a general system, wherein the most minute “ are necessary to make the whole complete, compose an end “ worthy of them.” Bolingbroke, Frag. 49.

“ The seeming imperfection of the parts is necessary to the real “ perfection of the whole.” Frag. 50.

Ver. 53. In human works, tho' labour'd on with pain,

A thousand movements scarce one purpose gain :
In God's, one fingle can its end produce,
Yet ferves to second too fome other use.
So Man, who here seems principal alone,
Perhaps acts second to some sphere unknown,
Touches some wheel, or verges to some goal ;

'Tis but a part we fee, and not a whole.
at We labour hard, we complicate various means to arrive at one
e end ; and several systems of conduct are often employed by us to
“ bring about some one paultry purpose : but God neither contrives,

nor executes like man. His means are simple, his purposes
« various ; and the same fyftem, that answers the greatest, an-
« fwers the leaft.” Bolingbroke, Frag. 43.--Again, in Frag.63.
In the works of men, the most complicated schemes produce,

very hardly and very uncertainly, one single effect : in the works

of God, one single scheme produces a multitude of different effects, and
6 answers an immense variety of purposes."
And in Frag. 43

“ We ought to consider the world we inhabit
no otherwise than as a little wheel in our solar system ; nor our

folar system any otherwise than as a little but larger wheel in
u the immenfe machine of the universe ; and both the one and the
of other necessary, perhaps, to the motion of the whole, and to the
« pre-ordained revolutions in it."
Ver. 267. All are but parts of one ftupendous whole,

Whose body Nature is, and God the soul;
That (chang'd thro' all, and yet in all the same;
Great in the earth, as in th’æthereal frame)
Warms in the fun, refreshes in the breeze,
Glows in the stars, and blossoms in the trees,
Lives thro' all life, extends thro' all extent,

Spreads undivided, operates unspent.
The sentiments of this passage are not original: but such a preg-
nant concentration of them into poetic numbers of the most beau.


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tiful embellishment was not to be achieved but by the powers

of our unrivalled artist.

A passage from Clemens Alexandrinus will not be unseasonable here, Strom. ii. fect. 19. ed. Oxon. « The Stoics affert, that “ Nature, meaning God, extends even to plants, and feeds, and “ trees, and stones.” And our Poet is certainly indebted to the following verses of Mrs. Chandler, on Solitude :

Earth’s verdant scenes, the all-surrounding skies,
Employ my wond'ring thoughts, and feast my eyes;
Nature in ev'ry object points the road,
Whence Contemplation wings my soul to God.
He's all in all : his wisdom, goodness, pow'r,
Spring in each blade, and bloom in ev'ry flow'r;
Smile o'er the meads, and bend in ev'ry hill,
Glide in the stream, and murmur in the rill :
All Nature moves obedient to his will:
Heav'n shakes, earth trembles, and the forests nod,

When awful thunders speak the voice of God. In this passage there are some lines after the very best manner of Popę himself. Dryden, in the State of Innocence, where he imi. tates some well-known lines of the sixth Æneid, was probably also in our Poet's recollection : Act v.

Where'er thou art, he is; th' eternal mind
Acts thro' all places, is to none confin'd;
Fills ocean, earth, and air, and all above,

And thro’ the universal mass does move. These sublime sentiments were derived from the Greek philofophers, and may be found in Cicero, Virgil, Lucan, Apuleius, and


many others.

Ver. 285. Submit.—In this, or any other sphere,

Secure to be as bleft as thou canst bear:
Safe in the hand of one disposing pow'r,

Or in the natal, or the mortal hour. “ If death translate us, we change our state, but we are still the

of the same God. He made us to be happy here; he “ may make us happy in another system of being.” Bolingbroke, Fragm. 51. And again soon after : “ Let the tranquillity 56 of


mind rest on this immoveable rock, that my future, as “ well as my present, state is ordered by an almighty and all-wise

46 Creator."


“ Creator.” And in Fragm. 67. “ Be there two worlds, or « be there twenty, the fame God is the God of all; and, where.

ever we are, we are equally in his power.”


Ver. 3. Plac'd on this isthmus of a middle state ;

A being darkly wise, and rndely great. This is a pleasing variation from the fimilitude of his preceptor; which, however, might probably suggest the former clause of the fecond verfe. “ This is the condition of humanity. We are placed " as it were, in an intellectual twilight, where we discover but few “ things clearly, and none entirely; and yet see just enough to “ tempt us with the hope of making better and more discoveries." Bolingbroke's Letters to Pape. Ver. 23. Go, foar with Plato to th' empyreal sphere,

To the first good, first perfect, and first fair. It was the opinion of Plato and his followers, that every thing excellent or great in man and the universe, and even the universe itself, were but adumbrations of the perfect archetypes of excellence, previously existing in the divine mind, and emanations from it. The reader will find some pleasing illustrations of this doctrine in Spencer's Hymn to Heavenlie Beauty, and in the eighteenth song of Drummond's Poems, part ii. but the passages are too long for quotation in this place. This notion will reflect light on Milton's Par. Loft, vii. 557. where the expression derives it's colouring from that Platonic theory :

Thence to behold this new created world,
Th' addition of his empire ; how it show'd
In prospect from his throne, how good, how fair :
Answering his great idea.


Ver. 45. While man exclaims, “ See all things for my

use !" See man for mine!” exclaims a pamper'd goose. Cowley, in his Plagues of Ægypt, stanza i.

All creatures the Creator said were thine :
No creature but might since say, " Man is mine!"

a passage a passage, which our poet might have in view ; as well as Gay, in fable 49. part i. where the sentiment itself is happily illustrated throughout :

When with huge figs the branches bend,
When clusters from the vine depend,
The Snail looks round on flow'r and tree,

And cries, All these were made for me ! The hypothesis, that assumes the world made for man, and man

solely to be happy, is not founded in reason, and is contradided 6 by experience.Bolingbroke, Fragm. 43.

Ver. 112. On mutual wants built mutual happiness. “ We are designed to be social, not solitary creatures. Mutual 66 wants unite us: and natural benevolence and political order, on “ which our happiness depends, are founded in thein.” Bolingbroke, Fragm. 51. So Gray, very beautifully, in his unfinished Eflay:

66 While mutual wishes, mutual woes, endear;

The social smile, and sympathetic tear.”

Ver. 124. They love themselves, a third time, in their race. " As our parents loved themselves in us, so we love ourselves in our children, and in those to whom we are most nearly related by " blood. Thus far instinct improves self-love. Reafon improves it “ further. We love ourselves in our neighbours and in our “ friends. We love ourselves in loving the political body whose “ members we are ; and we love ourselves, when we extend our “ benevolence to all mankind." Bolingbroke, Fragm. 51. with which compare below, ver. 134.

Ver. 249. She, 'midst the lightning's blaze, and thunder's

When rock'd the mountains, and when groan'd the

She taught the weak to bend, the proud to pray,

To Pow'r unseen, and mightier far than they.
This is exactly Lucretius, v, 1217.

Prætereà, cui non animus formidine Divům
Contrahitur, cui non conrepunt membra pavore,
Fulminis horribili cùm plagâ torrida tellus
Contremit, et magnum percurrunt murmura cælum?
Non populi gentesque tremunt, regesque superbi?
Denique, fub pedibus tellus cùm tota vacillat,


Concussse que cadunt urbes, dubiæque minantur ;
Quid mirum, fi se temnunt mortalia fæcla,
Atque poteftates magnas mirafque relinquunt
In rebus vireis Divům, quæ cuncta gubernent ?
What bosom shrinks not with an awe divine,
Whose flelh with terrour creeps not, when the ground,
Smit with the stroke of thunder, faming, shakes,
And murmurs roll through the long vault of heaven?
Quake not whole nations with their haughty kings?
When Earth's broad surface rocks beneath our feet,
When crashing cities fall, or tottering threat,
What wonder, if frail man himself despise ;
If wond'rous powers, and vast, to Gods he give,
To guide this universe with boundless sway?


Ver. 107. Why drew Marseillcs' good bishop purer breath,

When Nature ficken'd, and each gale was death?
Or why so long (in life if long can be)
Lent Heav'n a parent to the poor

and me? Archbishop Sheldon, and others, must share in this praise of the good bishop of Marseilles ; lee Pennant's London, p. 328. and the two ministers of Tideswell in Derbyshire ; see Dr. Aikin's Environs of Manchester, p. 485. And in the former couplet our poet might profit from fome anonymous verses in Dryden's Mifcellanies, vi. p. 76.

When Nature fickens, and with fainting breath

Struggles beneath the bitter pang3 of death : as the third verse is a palpable imitation of Virgil, Æn. x. 861.

Rhoebe, diu, res fi qua diù mortalibus ulla eft,
O Rhæbus, we have liv'd too long for me,
If life and long were terms that could agree. Dryden.

Ver. 289. In hearts of kings, or arms of queens who lay,

How happy those to ruin, these betray!
Mark by what wretched steps their glory grows,
From dirt and sea-weed as proud Venice rose;
In each how guilt and greatness equal ran,
And all that rais'd the Hero, funk the Man.


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