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PREFACE.

If the reader is already acquainted with the smaller type, that run immediately under St. popular commentators, or with the remarks Matthew's. Let it, then, be observed, that of Universalist writers, on this chapter, we the same discourse which is recorded in this Fould apprize him beforehand that he will twenty-fourth chapter of St. Matthew, is find but little important matter that is new in given also by Mark, in his thirteenth chapter; the following exposition. Still, it has cost us and again by Luke, mostly in his twenty-first much time in ascertaining, as precisely as we chapter, but partly in his seventeenth. Now, could, the detail of particulars alluded to, and it struck us that we might be aided in underin tracing out the current of thought that runs standing Matthew's record, by consulting through the whole, and also in verifying facts that of Mark and Luke, who sometimes exand authorities which others had adduced. press the meaning in plain language, where We had found some inaccuracies of state- Matthew uses figures, and who frequently ment, and soine confusion of arrangement, in employ a different phraseology that offers the notes of Dr. A. Clarke, for instance; and some advantage for determining the leading We hoped, by unwearied vigilance, to avoid idea. We have accordingly placed Mark's such blemishes, and, by strictly following text immediately under Matthew's, and then out the tenor of the prophecy, to place its se- Luke's below Mark's, with figures in the veral parts in a clearer and more thoroughly margin of both, answering to the parallel consistent light.

verses in Matthew's, so that the reader may Our principal motive, however, in attempt- instantly strike on the corresponding pasing a regular exposition of the twenty-fourth sages. The figures denoting the number of chapter, was, to open the way to a similar the verses in Mark and Luke, are raised above exposition of the twenty-fifth. The two the line, like references, in their texts; those chapters belong together, consisting of but denoting the number of the verses in Matthew, che series of remarks; so that we cannot are inserted on the line in his text. We fairly come at the latter, without first going would suggest to the reader, and especially to through with the former, unless, indeed, we the student, the importance of comparing the would begin in the middle of the discourse. texts of Mark and Luke, throughout, with

A few words may be needed to account for that of Matthew. the insertion of the two columns of text, in

INTRODUCTION.

DATE, OCCASION, PRECEDING CONTEXT.

The interview and conversation, related in shed upon the earth. “Verily I say unto the twenty-fourth and twenty-fifth chapters of you,” concluded he, “All these things shall St. Matthew, took place about A. D. 33; come upon this generation. O Jerusalem, which was thirty-seven years before the de- Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and struetion of Jerusalem. Matthew, Mark, and stonest them which are sent unto thee, how Luke agree in representing that Jesus had often would I have gathered thy children tojust been publicly teaching in the temple, gether, even as a hen gathereth her chickens (Matt. xxi. 23 to xxiv. 1; Mark xii. 35 to under her wings, and ye would not! Behold,

, 1; Luke xx. I to xxi. 5;) and according your house is left unto you desolate ; for I say to Matthew, (xxiii. 1,) his disciples, as well unto you, Ye shall not see me henceforth, till as the multitude, were present. He there de ye shall say, Blessed is he that cometh in the nounced the hypocritical scribes and Phari- name of the Lord !" (xxiii. 35–39,) meansees in the most unsparing manner, (Matt. ing, by their “house," either their national trii

. 13–35,) rebuking them for their ex. condition, or, more probably, that house of ciusive spirit, their rapacity under the pretence their pride, the temple, in which he was then of piety, their zeal in proselytizing, their eva- standing. This mention of its speedy desosion of their oaths, their neglect of the iin- lation, and also of his coming in the name of portant matters of the law, their inward cor- the Lord, seems to have struck the disciples, ruption under a fair outside, and their murder- and to have occasioned the conversation reOns hostility. He forewarned them that upon lated in the twenty-fourth chapter, which imthem would come all the righteous blood diately follows, thus:

Matt. xxiv.

MATT. xxiv. 1 And Jesus went out, and departed 3 And as he sat upon the mount of from the temple: and his disciples came Olives, the disciples came unto him prito him, for to show him the buildings of vately, saying, 'Tell us, when shall these the temple. 2 And Jesus said unto them, things be? and what shall be the sign of See ye not all these things ? verily, I say thy coming, and of the end of the world, unto you, There shall not be left here one stone upon another, that shall not be

MARK xij. thrown down.

3 And as he sat upon the mount of Olives, 3 over against the temple, I eter, and James,

and John, and Andrew, asked him privaiely, Mark xii.

4 Tell us, when shall these things be? and 1 And as he went out of the temple, one what shall be the sign when all these things

of his disciples saith unto him, Master, see shall be fulfilled, [literally, ended ?] 5 And 4

what manner of stones, and what buildings Jesus, answering them, began to say, Take 2 are here! 2 And Jesus answering, said unio him, Seest thou these great buildings ? there

LUKE xxi. shall not be left one stone upon another, that ? And they asked him, saying, Master, but 3 shall not be thrown down.

when shall these things be? and what sign

will there be when these things shall come to LUKE xxi. 1 And as some spake of the temple, how it thoroughly laid even with the ground by

was adorned with goodly stones and gifts, he those that dug it up to the foundation, that 2 said, “ As for these things which ye behold, there was left nothing to make those that

the days shall come in which there shall not be lefi one stone upon another, that shall not

came thither believe it had ever been inbe thrown down.

habited.”

Ver. 3.- -on the mount of Olives ;] the sunVer. 1. Having finished the foregoing ad- mit of which was but little more than half a dress to the Jews, Jesus, with his disciples, mile, on an air-line, from the temple, or now leaves the temple, to go towards (ver. 3) eastern wall of the city, and directly east from the mount of Olives. As they depart, the the temple. It was about 700 feet higher disciples point him to the buildings, &c. of than the intervening valley of Jehoshaphat; the temple, which they had just understood overlooked even the temple itself, and comhim to say (xxiii. 38) should be lest desolate. manded a view of every part of the city. The According to the more definite account given disciples came . : privately, saying, &c.;] by Mark, it is but one of them who says, privately, or, by themselves, probably be"Master, see what manner of stones, and cause it was dangerous to speak openly of what buildings !" astonished, perhaps, that the destruction of the temple, (see Matt. 80 magnificent and solid a structure was to be xxvi. 61,) and because they also knew that destroyed. For, Josephus says, that the Christ was wont to speak more plainly with stones of this temple were about 45 feet long, them only, than before the multitude. It by 22 wide, and 14 thick; some of them, in- should be kept in mind, that all which follows deed, nearly twice as long. The temple in this and the next chapter, was a private itself, exclusive of the immense assemblage conversation, beld on the mount of Olives. of courts, cloisters, and walls around it, was -When shall these things (viz. the things about 182 feet long, and 127 wide; and 182 just spoken of) be? and what the sign of bigh, above the lofty foundation-wall. “It thy coming, (parousia,) and of the end of was covered all over with plates of gold of the age,* (lės sunteleias tou aionos ?)] It great weight, and, at the first rising of the sun, reflected back a very fiery splendour, and

* "End of the age:" so this text is translated by Ham made those, who forced themselves to look (fin du sicele, Doddridge, Macknight, and Paulus; besides

mond, Le Clerc, Whitby, Pearce, Beausobre, and Lenfant, pon it, to turn away their eyes, just as they Wakefield, Improved Version, and Kenrick. Dr A. Clarke would have done at the sun's own rays. But iwern it and the common one. Dr. Campbell renders it an. this temple appeared to strangers, when they biguously, conclusion of this state. The usual meaning of were coming to it, at a distance, like a

the original term, uzim, is uge, or great length of time. It is

a woni radically different from those rendered world in other mountain covered with snow; for, as to those verses (14, 21) of this chapter. The Jews were accustomed parts of it that were not gilt, they were very the age before the beginning of the Messiah's reign, and the

to divide the entire duration of time into two great ages, viz. exceeding white,” that is, of white marble. ace after this age, and the are to come ; the present age, J. War, v. c. v. 4, 6. Ant. xv. c. xi. 3.)

and the future. It was understood that the age then

was to end when the Messiah should overthrow his enemies Ver. 2. -not be left here one stone upon and establish his kingdom; and this was probably the idea another, &c.;] a strong, proverbial phrase, that suggested the expression in the text. So St. Paul says, signifying only a complete demolition, (2 were written for our instruction, upon whom the ends og Sain. xvii. 13.) Accordingly, when Titus the world (uges, ta telë tm, ai im m.) are come” (1 Cor 3; took Jerusalem, about thirty-seven years af. :) So, 0w, he says, to the Hebrews, “ now once in the end terwards, he “gave orders," says Josephus, appeared to pui away sin by the sacrifice or himself. " that they should demolish the whole city (Heb. ix, 26.) on the saine principle, we often find the

"the last days " applied, in the New Testament, to and temple,(J. War, vii. c. i. 1;) and he the time then present. adds, that the entire circuit of the city, except sometimes used by the Jews for the material world: as en

Most critics, however, are agreed that the term, aion, was the western wall and three towers, “ was so amples in the New Testament, they quote Heb. i. 2; xi. 3.

present,

MATT. xxiv.

MATT. xxiv. (literally, of the age !) 4 And Jesus ye shall hear of wars and rumours of answered and said unto them, Take heed wars : see that ye be not troubled : for that no man deceive you: 5 For many all these things must come to pass, but shall come in my name, saying, I am the end is not yet. 7 For nation shall Christ; and shall deceive many. 6. And rise against nation, and kingdom against

kingdom: and there shall be famines, and MARK xü. heed lest any man deceive you: 6 For many

MARK xii. 5 shall come in my name, saying, I am Christ; shall hear of wars, and rumours of wars, be 6 and sball deceive many. * And when ye ye not troubled: for such things must needs

be; but the end shall not be yet. For nation 7

shall rise against nation, and kingdom against LUKE xxi.

kingdom; and there shall be earthquakes 4, 5 pass? 8 And he said, Take heed that ye be not deceived: for many shall come in my

LUKE xxi. naine, saying, I am Christ; and the time 9 But when ye shall hear of wars, and com. 6 draweth near: go ye not therefore after them. motions, be not terrified: for these things

must first come to pass; but the end is not is sometimes contended that here are three by and by, (literally, not immediately.) questions: 1. When shall these things (viz.

10 Then said he unto them, Nation shall rise 7 the destruction of the temple, &c.) be? 2. What against nation, and kingdom against king

dom : 11 And great earthquakes shall be in shall be the sign of thy coming (to bring this destruction)? and, 3. What shall be the sign subject of inquiry. Accordingly, we find, in of the end of the world itsclf ?-a very differ- Josephus, that, from A. D. 36 to A. D. 56, ent event! Now there are, at the most, but the country was full of religious impostors, two questions here, or rather but one inquiry who, by pretending to work miracles, and by pot in two forms; first, respecting the time, promising the divine interposition for their and, secondly, respecting the signs thereof,

deliverance, drew multitudes together, only thus: 1. When shall these things be? and, to be dispersed and slain by the Roman 2. What the sign of thy coming and of the

soldiery. Other false prophets arose afterend of the world, or age? --not, What the sign wards; but this seems to have been the period of thy coming? and what the sign also of the of their greatest prevalence. (Ant. xviii. c. end of the world ? as of two separate events. iv. 1, 2. xx.c. v. 1. xx. c. viii. 5, 6. J. War, The very form of the sentence shows that the ii. c. xiii. 4, 5; also, Acts v. 36, 37. viii. 9, disciples supposed that his coming, and what 10. xxi. 38.) they called the end of the world, or age, Ver. 6. -wars and rumours of wars ;) See would make but one event; and that the sign notes on the next verse. —be not troubled,] of the one would be the sign of the other. when ye hear of these wars, &c., as if the Were there any room still left for doubt here, end,” about which you have inquired, were it would be foreclosed by the form in which then to take place;'" for these things must the other Evangelists record the question; first come to pass, but the end is noi immeMark, thus: “.... what the sign when diately,” (Luke.) all these things shall be fulfilled, or ended ?"

Ver. 7. For nation shall rise ..... against (panta tauta sunteleisthai? instead of Mat- kingdom ;] occasioning those "rumours of thew's suntelejas lou qiónos ? the verb ended, wars," ver. 6. The terms, nation and kinginstead of the noun end.) Likewise Luke, dom, were sometimes applied, by the Jews, thos: " ..... what sign when these things to any state, province, or even separate munishall come to pass ?". Accordingly, “these cipal district. In fulfilment of these predicthings," or the throwing down of the stones tions, it appears that from about A. D. 48, of the temple, &c., belonged to the same event onwards, Palestine was in a state of constant with what was called Christ's coming and agitation. First, the Jews were alarmed by the end of the world, or age.

the threatening of war from the emperor CaliVer. 4. Take heed, &c.] not to be deceived

gula, (A. D. 48.) The same year, a tumult by the impostors who were soon to appear, as broke out at Jerusalem, in which the Roman foretold in the next verse.

soldiers were attacked; also, the Galileans Ver. 5. -many shall come in my name, and people of Judea on the one hand, and the &c.] before that end, (ver. 6,) which was the Samaritans on the other, rose against each

other, but were quelled by the Roman troops. Bil should this be admitted, and should we even grant Wher some contend for, that in the text the disciples used The country was filled with bands of robbers, the tim in this rare sense, still it would not materially who openly carried on their murders even 21-ct the interpretazijn of this chapter and the following in the cities; suoh was the public disorder! by the end of the world, or uge, it was s imething which In A. D. 54, a massacre took place between 1517 supread would take place when the temple, &c; the Jews and Syrians, in Cesarea, and a body be directed to the time and circumstances of that event, of Roman troops was sent against them. 20to na nither period. In this sense only, did Mark and Thus the outrages increased, till, in A. D. 66, Chris reply w it throughout the conversation ; and in this an extensive revolt of the Jews broke forth ons only dors he repeat the expression, “ the end :" see throughout Palestine. They slaughtered the per 6, 13, 14, and the corresponding passages in Mark and Roman garrison at Masada; new massacres

A 2

133

Matt. xxiv.

Matt. xxiv. pestilences, and earthquakes in divers another, and shall hate one another. places. 8 All these are the beginning of 11 And many false prophets shall rise, sorrows. 9 Then shall they deliver you and shall deceive many. 12 And because up to be afflicted, and shall kill you: iniquity shall atvund, the love of many and ye shall be hated of all nations for shall wax cold. 13 But he that shall enmy name's sake. 10 And then shall dure unto the enų, the same shall be saved. many be offended, and shall betray one 14 And t'in gospel of the kingdom shall

sorrows.

and

Mark xii.

MARK S. 8 in divers places, and there shall be famines the synagogues ye & all be seate a !nd ye and troubles: these are the beginnings of shall be brought before rulers and kings for

9 But take heed to yourselves : for my sake, for a testimony against [literally, they shall deliver you up to councils; and in to them. 10 And the gospel must first be 14

published among all nations. 1 But when Luke xxi.

they shall lead you, and deliver you up, take divers places, and famines, and pestilences; and fearful sights, and great signs shall there

LUKE xxi. 9 be from heaven. 12 But before all these, they you, delivering you up to the synagogues, shall lay their hands on you, and persecute into prisons, being brought before kings and

rulers for my name's sake. 13 And it shall at Cesarea and Jerusalem were followed by turn to you for a testimony. 14 Settle it their laying waste the province of Perea, and therefore in your hearts, not to meditate the cities of Tyre, Cesarea, Samaria, and Askelon; while, on the other hand, the tament sense, is to be induced to evil; (see Syrians ravaged Scythopolis, &c. (Jos. Ant. Matt. v. 29 ; xiii. 21; xviii. 6.) Many Chrisxviii. c. viii. 1, 2. War, ii. C. X.-c. xviii. tians, when subjected to these persecutions, Ant. xx. c. v. and vi.)—there shall be fumines, would be induced to apostatize, and then to and pestilences, and earthquakes.] According- betray the others. ly, there were, in A. D. 45, and onwards, Ver. 11.-false prophets, &c.] See note on famines in Palestine, (foretold, Acts xi. 28,) ver. 5. Probably, however, false teachers which were so severe, particularly at Jerusa- among professed Christians are here meant; lem, that many perished with hunger, (Jos. of whom we have abundant mention in the Ant. xx. c. ii. 5. c. v. 2.) Of pestilences and Epistles of the New Testament, written just earthquakes in Palestine, at this time, we before the siege of Jerusalem. have no account in history, unless we include

Ver. 12. Many Christians, on seeing the Josephus's notice of an earthquake in A. D. apostasy and treachery of their brethren, (ver. 67, (War, iv. c. iv. 5,) which seems, how- 10,) would grow discouraged, and suspicious ever, too late a period, (see ver. 8.) As of each other. earthquakes, however, are not unfrequent in

Ver. 13. -he that hall endure unto the Palestine, and as pestilences are the usual end ;] neither overcome by persecution, por concomitants of famines, we may suppose deceived by the false teachers, nor discourag. there were some of which no mention has ed by the defections of others, but who shall been preserved.*

continue faithful until the end," concerning Ver. 8. —these are the beginning of sor- which ye inquired, (vor. 3,) &c. —shall be rows;] the earlier and less aggravated evils. saved ;] i. e. preserved, rescued from these Sorrows: an allusion, in the original, to labour- dangers; or, as Luke expresses it, there pains.

shall not a hair of your head perish.” Ac. Ver. 9. Then,] i. e. in those times; partly cordingly, Eusebius says that the people of before, as well as after, according to Luke. the church at Jerusalem, by the command of -shall they deliver you, &c.] All this took a divine revelation given to their principal place, as is well known from the book of men before the war, removed from the city, Acts. -ye shall be hated of all nations, &c.;] and dwelt at a certain town beyond the Jor: not only by the Jews, but by the Gentiles dan, called Pella; so that those who believed also. That this, too, was verified, see Acts

Christ forsook Jerusalem, and boly men and the Epistles.

abandoned the royal city itself, and the whole Ver. 10. To be offended, in the New Tes- land of Judea." (Hist. Eccl. iii. 5.) Thus,

they were saved ; and after the dispersion of I retain the term "earthquakes,” because such is the

their bitter persecutors, the Jews, a period of usual reaning of the original word found here, and in Mark relief and prosperity awaited them: as Christ and Luke; but it might pussibly be rendered commotions. told them, (according to Luke xxi. 28.) to Two remarks mre: 1. I have confined the allusions, in the text, to Palestine: in other countries, this period was “look up," when they should see the end of marked with wars, farines, pestilences, and earthquakes, the Jewish nation, "and lift up your heads; of which many commentators avail themselves. 2. Though for your redemption draweth ni gh." I have applied these predictions thus in minute detail, yet, as a general rule, a prophecy, like a paralle, should be in- Ver. 14. —this gospel of the kingdom :) of terpreted more in the g: , and not by taking every par. Christ's kingdom, or reign. —shall be preachcorrect way, perhaps, would be, to take the wars, ruinours ed in all too world,) before that end come;

wars, nation rising against nation, &c; famines, pesti. (see Mark.) World, in the original, oikou. Pences and pari hquakes, as denoting only in general a time of great public commotion and distress.

menė,—a w rd which was frequently applied,

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