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sooner by wounding their buds with a; straw or feather dipped in olive oil; and plums and also pears are found to ripen soonest when wounded by insects; and it is remarkable, that, in the last named fruits, that part of the pulp which borders on the wound made by the insect is always the most delicious.
APRIL is derived from Aprilis, of aperio, I open, because the earth, in this month, begins to open her bosom for the production of vegetables. The Saxons called this month oster-monat, from the goddess Goster, or because the winds were found to blow generally from the east in this month.
In APRIL 1819.
1.- ALL FOOLS' DAY. On this day every body strives to make as many fools as he can: the wit chiefly consists in sending persons on what are called sleeveless errands, for the history of Eve's mother, for pigeon's milk, stirrup oil, and similar ridiculous absurdities.
The making of April fools, after all the conjectures which have been formed touching its origin, is probably borrowed by us from the French, who .call them April Fish (Poissons d'Avril), i. e. simpletons, or, in other words, silly mackerel, who suffer themselves to be caught in this month. But as, with us, April is not the season of that fish, we have very properly substituted the word FOOLS.' On the custom of keeping fools at court, and the dress of the domestic fool in Shakspeare's time, consult T.T. for 1815, p. 118, et seq. *3. A. D. 33.-CRUCIFIXION OF OUR SAVIOUR.
3.-RICHARD, Bishop. Richard, surnamed de Wiche, from a place in Worcestershire where he was born, was educated at the Universities of Oxford and Paris. He afterwards travelled to Bononia, where he studied the canon law for seven years. On his return home he was nominated to the see of Chichester by the chapter; but his appointment being opposed by the king, Richard appealed to Rome, and had his election confirmed by the pope, who consecrated him also at Lyons in the year 1245. He was as remarkable for his learning and diligence in preaching, as he was for integrity. Richard was canonized by Pope Urban.
4.-PALM SUNDAY. In the missals, this day is denominated Dominica in ramis Palmarum, or Palm Sunday, and was so called from the palm branches and green boughs formerly distributed on that day, in commemoration of our Lord's riding to Jerusalem. Sprigs of box-wood are still used as a substitute for palms in Roman Catholic countries. See also T.T. for 1815, p. 84.
4.-SAINT AMBROSE. Our saint was born about the year 340, and was educated in his father's palace, who was Prætorian Præfect of Gaul. He ruled over the see of Milan with great piety and vigilance for more than twenty years; during which time, he gave all his money to pious uses, and settled the reversion of his estate upon the church. He converted the celebrated St.
Augustine to the faith, and, at his baptism, composed that divine hymn, so well known in the church by the name of Te Deum. He died aged fifty-seven, A.D. 396.
*5. A.D. 33.-OUR LORD'S RESURRECTION,
Burst are the gates of death; blunted the sting
*6. 1804.-RBY. W. GILPIN DIED, So well known for his elegant writings on the Picturesque, his Lives of the Reformers,' Sermons to Country Congregations, and various other works. Mr. Gilpin drew with the pencil of an artist, and he made his amusement subservient to the best interests of mankind. With the produce of his picturesque works he established two schools in his parish, one for boys and another for girls; and from the sale of his original drawings and manuscripts a sufficient sum was raised permanently to endow them. An excellent little tract of his, called An Explanation of the Duties of Religion,' was drawn up for the use of these schools.
8.-MAUNDY THURSDAY. This day is called, in Latin, dies Mandati, the day of the command, being the day on which our Lord washed the feet of his disciples, as recorded in the second lesson. This practice was long kept up in the monasteries. After the ceremony, liberal donations were made to the poor, of clothing and of silver money, and refreshment was given them to mitigate the severity of the fast. On the 15th April, 1731 (Maundy Thursday), the Archbishop of York washed the feet of a certain number of poor persons. James II was the last king who performed this in person. A relic of this custom is still preserved in the donations dispensed at St. James's on this day; the ceremonies of which, as also those at Rome and Moscow on
this day, are described at length in T.T. for 1815,
An account of the washing of feet on this day, on a recent occasion, at Vienna, is given by Dr. Bright in his entertaining travels :-On the Thursday of this week, which was the 24th of March, a singular religious ceremony was celebrated by the court. It is known in German Catholic countries by the name of the Fusswaschung, or the
washing of the feet.' The large saloon, in which public court entertainments are given, was fitted up for the purpose; elevated benches and galleries were constructed round the room for the reception of the court and strangers; and in the area, upon two platforms, tables were spread, at one of which sat twelve men, and at the other twelve women. They had been selected from the oldest and most deserving paupers, and were suitably clothed in black, with handkerchiefs and square collars of white muslin, and girdles round their waists.
« The emperor and empress, with the archdukes and archduchesses, Leopoldine and Clementine, and their suites, having all previously attended mass in the royal chapel, entered and approached the table to the sound of solemn music. The Hungarian guard followed in their most splendid uniform, with their leopard-skin jackets falling from their shoulders, and bearing trays of different meats, which the emperor, empress, archdukes, and attendants, placed on the table, in three successive courses, before the poor men and women, who tasted a little, drank each a glass of wine, and answered a few questions put to them by their sovereigns. The tables were then removed, and the empress and her daughters the archduchesses, dressed in black, with pages bearing their trains, approached. Silver bowls were placed beneath the bare feet of the aged women.
The grand chamberlain, in a humble posture, poured water upon the feet of each in succession, from a golden urn, and the empress wiped them with a fine napkin she held in her hand. The emperor performed the same ceremony on the feet of the men, and the rite concluded amidst the sounds of sacred music.'
9.-GOOD FRIDAY. This day commemorates the sufferings of Christ, as a propitiation for our sins. Holy Friday, or the Friday in Holy Week, was its more antient and general appellation; the name Good Friday is peculiar to the English church. It was observed as a day of extraordinary devotion. Buns, with crosses upon them, are usually eaten in London and some other places on this day, at breakfast, -For an account of ceremonies in various places, consult T.T. for 1815, p. 88, and T.T. for 1817,
10,-EASTER EVE. Particular mortifications were enjoined to the earliest Christians on this day. From the third century, the fast was indispensable and rigid, being protracted always to midnight, sometimes to the cock-crowing, and sometimes to the dawn of Easter-day; and the whole of the day and night was employed in religious affairs.
11.-EASTER DAY, or EASTER SUNDAY. Much difference of opinion prevailed in the Eastern and Western churches respecting the precise time of observing Easter; till, in 325, the Council of Nice declared that the feast should be kept by all churches on the same day. Easter is styled by the fathers the highest of all festivals, the feast of feasts, the queen of festivals, and Dominica Gaudii, the joyous Sunday. Masters granted freedom to their slaves at this season, and valuable presents were made to the poor.
The august ceremonies performed at Rome on this day, Whitsunday, and other festivals, are no