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are found on the bushes, palings, and outsides of houses. The iulus terrestris appears, and the deathwatch (termes pulsatorius) beats early in the month. The wood-ant (formica herculanea) now begins to construct its large conical nest. The shell-snail comes out in troops; the stinging-fly (conops calcitrans) and the red-ant (formica rubra) appear. The mole cricket (gryllus gryllotalpa) is the most remarkable of the insect-tribe seen about this time. The black slug ( limax ater) abounds at this season. The blue flesh-fly (musca vomitoria), and the dragonfly (libellula) are frequently observed towards the end of the month. Little maggots, the first state of young ants, are now to be found in their nests. The great variegated libellula (libellula varia of Shaw), which appears, principally, towards the decline of summer, is an animal of singular beauty. The cabbage butterfly also (papilio brassica) now appears.
The following anonymous lines from the Northampton Mercury describe very prettily some of the appearances of nature in this month.
O charming Spring, with what delight I watch
Well pleased he views each wintry trace
On the habits and food of caterpillars consult T.T. for 1816, p. 124, and T.T. for 1818, p. 119. The scenery of a forest at the approach of spring is beautifully described in our last volume, p. 107, in an extract from Mr. Gisborne.
River fish leave their winter retreats, and again become the prey of the angler,
For the various employments of the Fisher Boy' in this month, and some lines descriptive of river fish, see T.T. for 1817, p. 121.
The spring flight of pigeons (columbæ) appears in this month, or early in the next.
Dry weather is still acceptable to the farmer, who is employed in sowing various kinds of grain, and seeds for fodder, as buck-wheat, lucerne, saintfoin, clover, &c. The young corn and springing-grass, however, are materially benefited by occasional showers. The important task of weeding now begins with the farmer, and every thistle cut down, every plant of charlock pulled up, may be said to be not only an advantage to himself, but a national benefit.
Sowe barlie this season in land that is strong,
To hoalsome buthes vse thee,
Sweet hearbs there to chuse thee.
Which dreadlesse slept of slaughtering knyfe,
To butcher's gripes now pawne their lyfe.
DESCRIPTION OF FRUIT TREES.
[Continued from p. 90.] FILBERD TREE. See HAZEL. GOOSEBERRY TREE (ribes grossulariæ).--The name of this fruit, which is so universal in England,
appears to have been derived from its having formerly been eaten as a sauce with young, or, as they are commonly called, green geese. The best judges do not think it to have been originally a native of this country. In its wild state, the gooseberry tree or bush is only a foot or two in height, with a straight stem, and wholly covered with yellowish stiff prickles. This diminutive plant bas, therefore, been greatly improved by cultivation; for in our gardens, when full grown, it generally attains to four feet in height. The smoothness or hairiness of the fruit is purely accidental. It is by no means esteemed in the southern parts of Europe, though so universally eaten in Great Britain. It is almost unknown in the Spanish peninsula. Even in this country it was at first held in but slight estimation; but has been so assiduously cultivated and improved, that it is now become valuable, not only for tarts, pies, and sauces, both fresh and preserved in bottles, but as an early dessert fruit: it is, also, preserved in sugar for culinary purposes during the winter. The varieties best known at present are of the red kind, as the hairy and smooth; the deep red; the damson, or dark bluish red; the red raspberry; the early black red; and the champaigne. The green sorts are the hairy, the smooth, the Gascoigne, the raspberry. The yellow kind are the largest, and are called the great oval, the great amber, the hairy amber, the early amber, and the large tawny or great mogul. The whites, are the common white, the white veined, and the large crystal. Besides all these there is the rumbullion, the large ironmonger, the smooth ironmonger, the hairy globe, and an immense host of others that are annually raised from seeds. Some of these are of an enormous size, so that the boughs would not bear their disproportionate weight, unless effectually propped, which the gardener could not safely omit. In the neighbourhood of London, these bushes have often been seen covered with berries, each of which
weighed from fifteen pennyweights to an ounce; but it must be confessed that the smaller sorts are better tasted. Although these shrubs will thrive in almost any soil and situation, and are often planted under the shade of trees, the fruit is invariably best when they are planted apart from all kinds of trees, and upon a light loamy soil. Although all other poets have passed over this humble annual contributor to our tables, the present Laureate has condescended to notice it in the following appropriate stanzas:
Gooseberry-Pie is best.
Full of the theme, () Muse, begin the song !
Blood glutinous and fat of verdant hue?
Give them their honours due,
Blow fair, blow fair, thou orient gale!
Ye winds enamoured, lingering lie!
Ye tempests of the sky!
The sugar for my pie.
The vulture's feet are scaled with blood,
His darling planter brood.
Thou beauteous bush, so early green!
O safer than the Alcides-conquered tree
grew the pride of that Hesperian grove,
And guard thy fruit so fine,
Thou vegetable porcupine!
O Jane! that I should dine !
And they were well bestowed.
Praise my Pindaric ode? HAZEL (corylus avellana).—The common hazel grows in woods, copses, and hedges, and flowers in March or April. All the different species of the hazel are large, hardy, and deciduous shrubs; they have several varieties, valuable for their fruit, which, in a cultivated state, is known under the name of Filberts. These shrubs prosper in almost any soil or situation; and may be propagated either by layers, or by planting their nuts in February. Squirrels and mice are excessively fond of the nuts; goats and horses eat the leaves, but they are refused by sheep and hogs. When reared in coppices, the hazel produces abundance of underwood.
The wood of the hazel is employed for poles, hoops for barrels, spars, hurdles, handles for implements of husbandry, walking-sticks, fishing-rods, &c. Charcoal, made from the hazel, is highly esteemed by painters and engravers.
Mr. Park's rustic plant, entitled the « Filberd Tree,' cannot fail of being acceptable to every lover of delicate sentiment and elegant poetry :
I had a little cornely cot,
As neat as cottage well could be;
Where fourished one embowering treem
Ah, 'twas a tree of trees to me!
A Filberd was my favourite tree;
And ev’n my ucighbours, envying me,
Waved wide an arched canopy;
A fan of green embroidery,